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Duitse Konfederasie gestig - Geskiedenis

Duitse Konfederasie gestig - Geskiedenis


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Een van die resultate van die kongres van Wene was die stigting van die Duitse Konfederasie. Die Konfederasie het uit 39 lidlande bestaan. Ondanks die belangstelling van sommige lede om Duitsland te verenig, was selfverdediging die hoofdoel van die konfederasie.

Hertogdom Limburg (1839–1867)

Die Hertogdom Limburg was 'n Europese staat wat in 1839 uit dele van die Nederlandse provinsie Limburg ontstaan ​​het as gevolg van die Verdrag van Londen. Sy gebied was die deel van Limburg wat Nederlands gebly het (die westelike helfte het Belgies geword), met die uitsondering van die stede Maastricht en Venlo. Die hertogdom was 'n provinsie van die Koninkryk van Nederland en was terselfdertyd lid van die Duitse Konfederasie.


Die Maartrevolusie van 1848 en die Grondwet van 1849

In Maart 1848 begin opstande in baie Germaanse state om fundamentele regte en 'n verenigde Duitse nasie. Dit het bekend geword as die Maartrevolusie. In 1848 het die parlement in Frankfurt die keiserlike wet aanvaar wat die basiese regte van die Duitse volk waarborg. Dit was die eerste keer in die Duitse geskiedenis waar menslike en burgerregte juridies bindend geword het. Die kernelemente van hierdie regte, soos gelykheid voor die wet, vryheid van uitdrukking en die afskaffing van die doodstraf, het Duitsland se daaropvolgende grondwette beïnvloed. 'N Jaar later in 1849 het die parlement ook die Frankfurtse grondwet aangeneem wat uiteindelik die grondwet van die Duitse Ryk geword het. Die Grondwet het 'n tweekamerparlement opgerig, bestaande uit 'n direk verkose Volkshaus (House of Commons) en 'n Staatenhause (House of States) wat bestaan ​​uit verteenwoordigers wat deur die individuele konfederale state gestuur is. Terwyl die Grondwet probeer het om 'n verenigde Duitse nasie te skep, het die meeste vorste van Duitse grond geweier om hul soewereiniteit prys te gee, en die Konfederasie is 'n jaar later herstel.


Konfederasie

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Konfederasie, in die eerste plek enige bond of vereniging van mense of liggame van mense. Die term in moderne politieke gebruik is oor die algemeen beperk tot 'n permanente unie van soewereine state vir sekere gemeenskaplike doeleindes - byvoorbeeld die Duitse Konfederasie wat deur die kongres van Wene in 1815 gestig is.

Die onderskeid tussen konfederasie en federasie- woorde wat sinoniem is in hul oorsprong - is ontwikkel in die politieke terminologie van die Verenigde State. Tot 1789 was die VSA 'n konfederasie, dan die woord federasie, oftewel die federale republiek, ingevoer as 'n nouer unie. Hierdie onderskeid is beklemtoon tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog toe die afskeidende state 'n konfederasie (Confederate States of America) gevorm het in teenstelling met die Federale Unie. Konfederasie beteken dus 'n vereniging van soewereine state waarin die klem gelê word op die outonomie van elke samestellende liggaam, terwyl federasie impliseer 'n unie van state waarin die klem gelê word op die oppergesag van die gemeenskaplike regering. Die onderskeid word egter geensins universeel waargeneem nie. Die variant konfederasie, afgelei deur die Anglo-Frans konfederasie en dit beteken in die algemeen dat 'n bond of unie, hetsy van state of individue, in Amerika toegepas is in die sin van konfederasie tot die afgesonderde suidelike state. In sy politieke sin konfederasie het oor die algemeen eerder 'n tydelike bond van onafhanklike state vir sekere doeleindes beteken.

Die redakteurs van Encyclopaedia Britannica Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Adam Augustyn, besturende redakteur, verwysingsinhoud.


Bismarck en die opkoms van Pruise

Die Verdrag van Praag het die Seweweke -oorlog met Oostenryk en ander Duitse state op 23 Augustus 1866 gesluit en die weg gebaan vir 'n skikking, sowel in Pruise as in die breër aangeleenthede van Duitsland. Die Sleeswyk-Holstein-vraag, wat die magsbalans in Noord-Europa langer as 'n dekade bedreig het, het 'n nuwe dimensie gekry met die aflegging van Sleeswyk en Holstein na Pruise. Die Pruisiese parlement is aan die begin van die oorlog ontbind en nuwe verkiesings is gehou op die dag van die Slag van Königgrätz (3 Julie 1866). Die liberale in die parlement het 'n verminderde meerderheid, en hulle was nou verdeeld in hul houding teenoor premier Otto von Bismarck, sy sukses het hul liberale beginsels geskud. Die gematigdes breek weg van die Progressives (Deutsche Fortschrittspartei) om die National Liberal Party te vorm, 'n party waarin liberalisme ondergeskik was aan nasionalisme. Bismarck, aan sy kant, het 'n versoenende gebaar gemaak deur te vra vir 'n daad van vrywaring vir die ongrondwetlike invordering van belasting sedert die begin van die parlementêre stryd met die Pruisiese koning William I in 1862. Hierdie wet is op 3 September 1866 deur 'n stem van 230 tot 75.

Dit was 'n beslissende stap in die Duitse geskiedenis. Die Pruisiese liberale, tot dusver ware teenstanders van Bismarck, het hul aandrang op parlementêre soewereiniteit laat vaar in ruil vir die vooruitsig van Duitse eenheid en vir 'n versekering dat verenigde Duitsland in 'n 'liberale' gees bestuur sou word. In plaas van 'n stryd om mag, was daar voortaan 'n kompromie. Die kapitalistiese middelklasse het opgehou om beheer oor die staat te eis, en die kroon en die Junker-regeringsklas het die staat op 'n manier aangepas wat pas by die behoeftes en vooruitsigte van die middelklas. Aangesien die middelklasse nie meer liberaal was nie, het die Pruisiese Junkers 'Duitsers' geword. Nie een van die twee partye het sy winskopie ten volle nagekom nie, en daar was hernieude alarms van grondwetlike stryd gedurende die hele tydperk van die ryk. Die besluit van 3 September 1866 is egter nie ongedaan gemaak nie, en Duitsland het nie 'n konstitusionele monargie geword nie.


Die vorming van Duitsland as 'n volkstaat

Die vorming van Duitsland as 'n nasiestaat was een van die belangrikste gebeurtenisse in die geskiedenis van die wêreld.

Napoleon Bonaparte het die saad van nasionalisme vir die eerste keer in Duitsland gesaai. Hy vernietig driehonderd klein state van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk en stig die ‘ Konfederasie van die Ryn ’.

In die kongres van Wene is die stigting van ‘German Confederation ’ van nege-en-dertig state verklaar.

Mettertyd het die kulturele eenheid tussen hierdie state, die rol van universiteite, die vinnige groei van nywerhede, ens. Die eenheid onder die Duitse Konfederasie van die State gebring.

Die opkoms van Ottovon Bismarck en sy skerpsinnige diplomasie het 'n kans vir die eenwording van Duitsland gegee.

Beeldbron: egotailor.com/product/10182/images/10182design-1.jpg

Die rol van intellektuele en Universiteite:

Die stelsel wat tydens die Weense kongres aangeneem is, het hindernisse veroorsaak vir die eenwording van die Duitse Konfederasie van State, maar die intellektuele wat in verskillende dele van Duitsland gewoon het, het hul mening uitgespreek oor die eenwording daarvan. Die idees en geskrifte van die Duitse filosowe soos Hegel en Schopanheuer, wetenskaplikes soos Hemholtz en Virchow en die historici soos Sybel en Droysen het die mense van verskillende dele van Duitsland beïnvloed. Die Gentiese universiteite soos Jena, Leipzig, München en Berlyn het sentrums geword vir die verspreiding van liberale nasionale idees en gedagtes.

Die Liberaal Beweging:

Die liberale beweging het ook gehelp met die vorming van die Duitse nasionale verhoog. In 1817 word 'n fees in Wartburg gereël ter herinnering aan die Reformasiebeweging en die slag van Leipzig wat tydens die bewind van Napoleon gevoer is. Dit het 'n nasionale bewussyn by die Duitse volk geskep.

By die Wartburg -fees het studente 'n vreugdevuur gemaak en 'n paar van die boeke na die vlam gegooi, soos die ‘German History ’ van Kotzbue, 'n spioen van Rusland en verskeie ander boeke. Later is Kotzbue vermoor. Dit het die gevoel van patriotisme onder die mense van Cennany geskep.

Carlsbad Besluit:

Met inagneming van die moord op Kotzbue as 'n revolusionêre aktiwiteit, het Metternich, die slim diplomaat van Oostenryk 'n vergadering van die Duitse Konfederasie van State ’ in Carlsbad byeengeroep in 1819. Daar het hy 'n paar reaksionêre maatreëls getref. Dit was bekend as die ‘Carlsbad -besluit ’.

Volgens hierdie besluit is beperkings op die koerante opgelê. Die organisasie van die vakbond vir studente is verbied. Die universiteite was onder direkte leiding van die regering. Al hierdie maatreëls het die Duitse Konfederasie van State 'n ernstige terugslag gegee.

Die Zollverein of Ekonomiese Unie:

Die nasionale ekonomie van Duitsland is beheer deur die ‘Economic Union ’ of ‘Zolleverein ’. Gevolglik het Pruise en ander Duitse state by hierdie Unie aangesluit en is vrye handel onder hulle gevestig. Oostenryk het nie daarby aangesluit nie. Teen 1850 het byna al die Duitse state by die ‘Zolleverein ’ aangesluit en Pruise het die leier van Duitse state geword. Hierdie ekonomiese belangrikheid van Pruise het in die latere tydperk gehelp met sy militêre en politieke groei.

Vinnig Industrialisering:

Mettertyd het Pruise vinnig gegroei op die gebied van nywerhede. Die Pruisiese minister van finansies, Massen, het beperkings op tariewe afgeskaf. Onder die leiding van Pruise is vinnig groei op die gebied van nywerhede gemaak. Die groei van spoorweë, handel en handel onder die Duitse state het ook bygedra tot die groei van hul ekonomiese lewe. So het vinnige industrialisasie ook bygedra tot die vereniging van Duitsland.

Die parlement van Frankfort:

Die Februarie -rewolusie van 1848 het 'n groot impak op die Duitse state gehad. Die Revolusioniste van Pruise eis dat die konstitusionele bewind in Pruise ingestel moet word. Fredrick William IV, die koning van Pruise, het die eise van die revolusioniste aanvaar en 'n liberale grondwet toegestaan. Hy stig 'n ‘Nasionale parlement ’ in 1848 op grond van universele franchise. Dit was in die geskiedenis bekend as die ‘Frankfort -parlement ’. Dit het 'n voorstel goedgekeur om 'n Duitse Konfederasie van State te vestig, met die uitsondering van Oostenryk.

Na die sukses van die parlement, stel koning Fredrick William IV voor om 'n Duitse konfederasie van state onder die leiding van Pruise te stig. Maar Oostenryk het hierdie voorstel gekant. In 1850 word die Olmutz -verdrag tussen Oostenryk en Pruise onderteken. Gevolglik moes Pruise sy voorstel terugstuur. Dit was 'n belediging vir Pruise. Om die gemiddelde van hierdie belediging op te neem, het Pruise haarself voorberei.

Rol van keiser William Ek:

'N Nuwe era het in Pruise begin met die toetreding van keiser William 1. Na sy toetreding het hy probeer om die Pruisiese leër sterk te maak. Hy het Von Roon as die minister van oorlog aangestel en Von Molte as die bevelvoerder. Deur die Pruisiese weermag baie sterk te maak en die ‘Needle Gun ’ in die weermag te gebruik, het Roon die vermoë van die weermag verhoog.

Hy was 'n slim man. Hy het keiser William 1 meegedeel dat slegs die Pruisiese ambassadeur Bismarck 'n leidende rol op hierdie kritieke tydstip kon speel. Hy het Bismarck gebel om Pruise terug te keer.

Ottovon Bismarck was die hoofheld van die vorming van Duitsland as 'n volkstaat. Hy is in 1815 in 'n ortodokse gesin op Bradenburg gebore. Nadat hy opleiding in Berlyn en Guttingen ontvang het, het hy by die Pruisiese geregtelike afdeling aangesluit. Nadat hy in verskeie poste gedien het, is hy aangestel as die ambassadeur van Pruise in Parys.

Met die oproep van keiser Willem I, keer hy terug na Pruise en word aangestel as die eerste minister van Pruise in 1862. Hy volg die ‘ Bloed- en ysterbeleid ’. As gevolg van sy leierskap kan die eenwording van Duitsland moontlik wees.

Die Sleeswyk-Holstein Vraag:

Die eerste diplomatieke stap van Bismarck was die ingryping van die Sleeswyk-Holstein-vraag. Hierdie twee hertogdomme was in 1850 onder die invloed van Denemarke deur die London Protocol. Die meeste van die inwoners van Sleeswyk was Deens, terwyl die inwoners van Holstein grootliks Pruise was.

Christian IX, die koning van Denemarke wou hierdie twee hertogdomme onder sy beheer hou. In hierdie tyd val die gesamentlike leër van Oostenryk en Pruise onder leiding van Bismarck Denemarke in 1864 aan.

Denemarke is in hierdie oorlog verslaan en die Konvensie van Gastein is in 1865 gesluit. Volgens die konvensie het Pruise Sleeswyk gekry en Oostenryk Holstein. Dit was die eerste diplomatieke stap van Bismarck teen Oostenryk.

Isolasie van Oostenryk:

Bismarck het die beleid aangeneem om Oostenryk op die vasteland te isoleer. In 1863 het Bismarck Rusland gehelp om die opstand van Pole te onderdruk en die vriendskap van Rusland gekry. Hy het 'n onderhoud gereël met Napoleon III, die koning van Frankryk in Biarritz en belowe om België of 'n paar dele van die Rynvallei aan hom te gee en die versekering te kry dat Frankryk neutraal sal bly in die Oostenryk-Pruisiese oorlog. Hy het ook die steun van Italië gekry. Hierdie beleid van Bismarck het Oostenryk geïsoleer in die Europese politiek.

Die Oostenryk-Pruisiese oorlog of die Slag van Sadowa:

Oostenryk wou nie Holstein onder haar beheer hou nie, want dit was ver van die land af. Oostenryk het ook geëis dat Sleeswyk na Denemarke moet terugkeer en het hierdie vraag ook in die parlement gestel. Bismarck verklaar oorlog teen Oostenryk in 1866 toe Oostenryk die Konvensie van Gastein oortree.

Hierdie oorlog wat vir sewe weke tussen Oostenryk en Pruise voortgesit is, was bekend as die Slag van Sadowa. Aanvanklik was dit moeilik vir Pruise om Oostenryk te verslaan. Maar later het dit die buurstate van Oostenryk soos Beiere, Saksies, Brunsweak, ens. Verslaan en daarna Oostenryk verslaan.

Die Verdrag van Praag en die vorming van Duitsland:

Na die Slag van Sadowa is die ‘Verdrag van Praag ’ op 23 Augustus 1866 tussen Oostenryk en Pruise gesluit. Volgens hierdie verdrag is Oostenryk uit Duitsland verdryf. Sleeswyk en Holstein is aan Pruise gegee. Oostenryk het Venesië aan Pruise afgestaan. Oostenryk moes die oorlogsvergoeding van £ 30,000,00 aan Pruise betaal.

Na die verdrag van Praag is met die stigting van Duitsland begin. Die deelstate Sleeswyk, Holstein, Hannover, Nassaa en Frankfort is aan Pruise geannekseer. Die state noord tot by Mayrivier is aan Pruise geannekseer en die Noord -Duitsland Konfederasie is gestig.

Vraag oor Spaanse opvolging en Ems Telegram:

Teen daardie tyd vlug koningin Isabella van Spanje weg as gevolg van die uitbreek van 'n weermagrevolusie. Die Spaanse kroon is aangebied aan prins Leopold van die Pruisiese Hohenzollern -huis en die neef van keiser William L, maar hy weier die aanbod. Napoleon III van Frankryk was bang vir die Spaans-Pruisiese verhouding wat vir hom baie probleme sou inhou.

Hy het ook die Hohenzollern -kandidatuur vir die Spaanse troon gekant. Daarom beveel hy sy oorlogsminister Piemonte om graaf Beneditti, die Franse ambassadeur in Pruise, te vra om 'n skriftelike waarborg van die Pruisiese koning Willem I te onttrek dat hy nie in die Spaanse kandidatuur belangstel nie.

Beneditti het koning William I op Ems ontmoet en hom hieroor ingelig. Maar William I het geweier om so 'n skriftelike waarborg te gee. Hy het die beskrywing van sy gesprek met die Franse ambassadeur per telegram na Bismarck gestuur. Dit was bekend as die ‘Ems Telegram ’ wat 'n gulde geleentheid vir Bismarck geskep het.

Hy het die telegram geredigeer en vir publikasie gestuur. Die Franse mense het gedink dat hul ambassadeur deur die Pruisiese koning beledig is, terwyl die Duitse volk gedink het dat hulle koning deur die Franse ambassadeur verneder is. Op hierdie manier is die veld voorberei vir oorlog tussen Frankryk en Pruise.

Die Frans-Pruisiese oorlog of die Slag van Sedan:

Op 14 Julie 1870 verklaar Frankryk oorlog teen Pruise. Op hierdie kritieke tydstip het die state van Suid -Duitsland by Pruise aangesluit. Pruise marsjeer vorentoe nadat hulle Frankryk verslaan het in die gevegte van Wesnburg, Warth en Gravelet. Keiser Napoleon III van Frankryk is op 2 September 1870 verslaan in die beroemde ‘Battle of Sedan ’ en oorgegee met sy 83.000 soldate voor Pruise. Toe marsjeer die Pruisiese leër na Frankryk en neem Parys in beslag.

Die Verdrag van Frankfort en Eenwording van Duitsland:

Keiser Napoleon III van Frankryk is verslaan in die slag van Sedan. Frankryk onderteken die Verdrag van Frankfort met Pruise op 10 Mei 1871. Volgens hierdie Verdrag het Frankryk Belfort aan Duitsland afgestaan. Frankryk het ook Elsas en Lorraine aan Duitsland afgestaan. Frankryk is ook gedwing om Duitsland die vergoeding van die oorlog te betaal. Totdat die herstel betaal is, het die Franse leër in Duitsland gebly.

Toe Suid -Duitsland tydens die slag van Sedan met Pruise verenig is, is die Duitse eenwording voltooi. Op 18 Januarie 1871 in die ‘Hall of Mirrors ’ in Versailles ‘ is Duitsland ’ as 'n nuwe staat van die wêreld verklaar. In hierdie saal verklaar keiser Willem I homself as die keiser (keiser) van Verenigde Duitsland. Die nasiestaat Duitsland is geskep wat 'n belangrike gebeurtenis in die geskiedenis van die wêreld was.

Die eenwording van Duitsland het 'n kardinale tydperk in die wêreldgeskiedenis geskep. In die Hall of Mirrors is 'n nuwe staat genaamd Duitsland ingehuldig. Die totstandkoming van Duitsland was 'n stigma (blunder) in internasionale aangeleenthede, 'n swaar prys wat Duitsland amper na 50 jaar betaal het terwyl hy die Verdrag van Versailles in 1919 in dieselfde Hall of Mirrors onderteken het.


Inhoud

Die Engelse woord Duitsland kom uit die Latyn Germania, wat in gebruik geneem is nadat Julius Caesar dit aangeneem het vir die mense oos van die Ryn. [11] Die Duitse term Duitsland, oorspronklik diutisciu grond ("die Duitse lande") is afgelei van deutsch (vgl. Nederlands), afkomstig van Oud -Hoogduits diutisc "van die mense" (uit diot of diota "mense"), oorspronklik gebruik om die taal van die gewone mense te onderskei van Latyn en sy Romaanse afstammelinge. Dit kom op sy beurt af van Proto-Germaans *þiudiskaz "van die mense" (sien ook die gelatiniseerde vorm Theodiscus), afgelei van *þeudō, afkomstig van Proto-Indo-Europees * tewtéh₂- "mense", waaruit die woord Teutone ontstaan ​​ook. [12]

Antieke mense was minstens 600 000 jaar gelede in Duitsland teenwoordig. [13] Die eerste nie-moderne menslike fossiel (die Neanderthaler) is in die Neandervallei ontdek. [14] Soortgelyk gedateerde bewyse van moderne mense is gevind in die Swabiese Jura, waaronder 42 000 jaar oue fluite, die oudste musiekinstrumente wat ooit gevind is, [15] die 40 000 jaar oue Lion Man, [16] en die 35.000-jarige Venus van Hohle Fels. [17] Die Nebra sky disk, wat tydens die Europese Bronstydperk geskep is, word toegeskryf aan 'n Duitse webwerf. [18]

Germaanse stamme en Frankiese Ryk

Daar word vermoed dat die Germaanse stamme uit die Nordiese Bronstydperk of die Pre-Romeinse Ystertydperk kom. [19] Uit die suide van Skandinawië en Noord -Duitsland brei hulle suid, oos en wes uit en kom in aanraking met die Keltiese, Iraanse, Baltiese en Slawiese stamme. [20]

Onder Augustus het Rome Germania begin inval. In 9 nC is drie Romeinse legioene deur Arminius verslaan. [21] Teen 100 nC, toe Tacitus geskryf het Germania, Het Germaanse stamme langs die Ryn en die Donau (die Limes Germanicus) gevestig, wat die grootste deel van die moderne Duitsland beset het. Baden Württemberg, suidelike Beiere, suidelike Hessen en die westelike Rynland is egter opgeneem in Romeinse provinsies. [22] [23] [24] Rondom 260 het Germaanse mense by Romeinse beheerde lande ingebreek. [25] Na die inval van die Hunnen in 375, en met die agteruitgang van Rome van 395, het Germaanse stamme verder suidwes beweeg: die Franken het die Frankiese koninkryk gestig en oos gedruk om Sakse en Beiere te onderwerp, en gebiede van wat vandag Oos -Duitsland is is bewoon deur Wes -Slawiese stamme. [22]

Oos -Francië en die Heilige Romeinse Ryk

Karel die Grote het die Karolingiese Ryk in 800 gestig; dit is verdeel in 843 [26] en die Heilige Romeinse Ryk het uit die oostelike deel ontstaan. Die gebied wat aanvanklik bekend gestaan ​​het as Oos -Frankryk, strek van die Ryn in die weste tot by die Elbe -rivier in die ooste en van die Noordsee tot by die Alpe. [26] Die Ottoniese heersers (919–1024) het verskeie groot hertogdomme gekonsolideer. [27] In 996 word Gregorius V die eerste Duitse pous, aangestel deur sy neef Otto III, wat hy kort daarna as die Heilige Romeinse keiser gekroon het. Die Heilige Romeinse Ryk het Noord -Italië en Bourgondië opgeneem onder die Saliese keisers (1024–1125), hoewel die keisers die mag verloor het deur die Investiture -kontroversie. [28]

Onder die Hohenstaufen -keisers (1138–1254) moedig Duitse vorste die Duitse vestiging in die suide en ooste aan (Ostsiedlung). Lede van die Hanze, meestal Noord -Duitse dorpe, het floreer in die uitbreiding van die handel. [29] Die bevolking het afgeneem vanaf die Groot Hongersnood in 1315, gevolg deur die Swart Dood van 1348–50. [30] Die Goue Bul wat in 1356 uitgereik is, verskaf die grondwetlike struktuur van die Ryk en kodifiseer die verkiesing van die keiser deur sewe prinsverkiesers. [31]

Johannes Gutenberg het roerende druk in Europa bekendgestel en die basis gelê vir die demokratisering van kennis. [32] In 1517 het Martin Luther die Protestantse Hervorming aangehits, die Vrede van Augsburg in 1555 het die 'Evangeliese' geloof (Lutheranisme) geduld, maar ook bepaal dat die geloof van die prins die geloof van sy onderdane sou wees (cuius regio, eius religio). [33] Vanaf die Keulen -oorlog tot en met die dertigjarige oorloë (1618–1648) het godsdienstige konflik Duitse lande verwoes en die bevolking aansienlik verminder. [34] [35]

Die Vrede van Westfalen het godsdienstige oorlogvoering tussen die keiserlike landgoedere beëindig [34] hul meestal Duitssprekende heersers kon die Rooms-Katolisisme, Lutheranisme of die Gereformeerde geloof as hul amptelike godsdiens kies. [36] Die regstelsel wat deur 'n reeks keiserlike hervormings (ongeveer 1495–1555) begin is, sorg vir aansienlike plaaslike outonomie en 'n sterker keiserlike dieet. [37] Die Huis van Habsburg het die keiserlike kroon van 1438 tot die dood van Karel VI in 1740. Na die Oostenrykse opvolgingsoorlog en die Verdrag van Aix-la-Chapelle het die dogter van Charles VI, Maria Theresa, as keiserin-konsort regeer toe haar man , Francis I, het keiser geword. [38] [39]

Vanaf 1740 het dualisme tussen die Oostenrykse Habsburgse monargie en die Koninkryk Pruise die Duitse geskiedenis oorheers. In 1772, 1793 en 1795 het Pruise en Oostenryk, saam met die Russiese Ryk, ingestem tot die partisies van Pole. [40] [41] Gedurende die tydperk van die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë, die Napoleontiese era en die daaropvolgende laaste byeenkoms van die keiserlike dieet, is die meeste van die Vrye Keiserlike Stede geannekseer deur dinastiese gebiede, die kerklike gebiede is gesekulariseer en geannekseer. In 1806 het die Imperium is ontbind Frankryk, Rusland, Pruise en die Habsburgers (Oostenryk) het tydens die Napoleontiese oorloë meegeding om hegemonie in die Duitse state. [42]

Duitse Konfederasie en Ryk

Na die val van Napoleon het die Kongres van Wene die Duitse Konfederasie gestig, 'n los bond van 39 soewereine state. Die aanstelling van die keiser van Oostenryk as die permanente president weerspieël die kongres se verwerping van Pruise se stygende invloed. Onenigheid in die herstelpolitiek het deels gelei tot die opkoms van liberale bewegings, gevolg deur nuwe maatreëls vir onderdrukking deur die Oostenrykse staatsman Klemens von Metternich. [43] [44] Die Zollverein, 'n tarief -unie, het ekonomiese eenheid bevorder. [45] In die lig van revolusionêre bewegings in Europa, het intellektuele en gewone mense die revolusies van 1848 in die Duitse state begin, wat die Duitse vraag laat ontstaan ​​het. Koning Frederik Willem IV van Pruise is die titel van keiser aangebied, maar met 'n verlies aan mag verwerp hy die kroon en die voorgestelde grondwet, 'n tydelike terugslag vir die beweging. [46]

Koning William I het Otto von Bismarck in 1862 aangestel as die minister-president van Pruise. Bismarck het die oorlog met Denemarke in 1864 suksesvol afgesluit, die daaropvolgende beslissende Pruisiese oorwinning in die Oostenryk-Pruisiese oorlog van 1866 het hom in staat gestel om die Noord-Duitse Konfederasie te stig wat Oostenryk uitgesluit het. Na die nederlaag van Frankryk in die Frans-Pruisiese Oorlog, kondig die Duitse vorste die stigting van die Duitse Ryk aan in 1871. Pruise was die dominante deelstaat van die nuwe ryk wat die koning van Pruise as sy keiser regeer het, en Berlyn het die hoofstad geword. [47] [48]

In die Gründerzeit Tydens die eenwording van Duitsland het Bismarck se buitelandse beleid as kanselier van Duitsland die posisie van Duitsland as 'n groot nasie verseker deur alliansies te smee en oorlog te vermy. [48] ​​Onder Wilhelm II het Duitsland egter 'n imperialistiese koers gevolg, wat tot wrywing met buurlande gelei het. [49] 'n Dubbele alliansie is tot stand gebring met die multinasionale koninkryk Oostenryk-Hongarye, en die Triple Alliance van 1882 het Italië ingesluit. Brittanje, Frankryk en Rusland het ook alliansies gesluit om te beskerm teen inmenging van Habsburg met Russiese belange op die Balkan of Duitse inmenging teen Frankryk. [50] Tydens die Berlynse konferensie in 1884 het Duitsland verskeie kolonies geëis, waaronder Duits -Oos -Afrika, Duits -Suidwes -Afrika, Togoland en Kamerun. [51] Later het Duitsland sy koloniale ryk verder uitgebrei tot besit in die Stille Oseaan en China. [52] Die koloniale regering in Suidwes-Afrika (die huidige Namibië), van 1904 tot 1907, het die vernietiging van die plaaslike Herero- en Namaqua-volke uitgevoer as straf vir 'n opstand [53] [54] dit was die eerste 20ste eeu volksmoord. [54]

Die sluipmoord op die kroonprins van Oostenryk op 28 Junie 1914 het Oostenryk-Hongarye die voorwendsel gegee om Serwië aan te val en die Eerste Wêreldoorlog aan die gang te sit. baklei. In die Duitse Revolusie (November 1918) het keiser Wilhelm II en die regerende vorste hul posisies afgedank, en Duitsland is tot 'n federale republiek verklaar. Die nuwe leierskap van Duitsland het die Verdrag van Versailles in 1919 onderteken en die nederlaag deur die Geallieerdes aanvaar. Duitsers beskou die verdrag as vernederend, wat deur historici as invloedryk beskou word in die opkoms van Adolf Hitler. [56] Duitsland het ongeveer 13% van sy Europese grondgebied verloor en al sy koloniale besittings in Afrika en die Suidsee afgestaan. [57]

Weimarrepubliek en Nazi -Duitsland

Op 11 Augustus 1919 onderteken president Friedrich Ebert die demokratiese Weimar -grondwet. [58] In die daaropvolgende stryd om mag het kommuniste die mag in Beiere aangeneem, maar konserwatiewe elemente elders het probeer om die Republiek in die Kapp Putsch omver te werp. Straatgevegte in die groot industriële sentrums, die besetting van die Ruhr deur Belgiese en Franse troepe, en 'n tydperk van hiperinflasie het gevolg. 'N Plan vir herstrukturering van skuld en die skepping van 'n nuwe geldeenheid in 1924 het die Goue Twintigerjare ingelui, 'n era van artistieke innovasie en liberale kulturele lewe. [59] [60] [61]

Die wêreldwye Groot Depressie het Duitsland in 1929 getref. Kanselier Heinrich Brüning se regering het 'n beleid van fiskale besuiniging en deflasie gevolg wat werkloosheid van byna 30% teen 1932 veroorsaak het. [62] Die Nazi -party onder leiding van Adolf Hitler het 'n spesiale verkiesing in 1932 gewen en Hindenburg is aangestel Hitler as kanselier van Duitsland op 30 Januarie 1933. [63] Na die brand van die Reichstag het 'n dekreet die basiese burgerregte opgehef en die eerste Nazi -konsentrasiekamp is geopen. [64] [65] Die bemagtigingswet het aan Hitler onbeperkte wetgewende gesag gegee, wat die grondwet oorheers [66] sy regering het 'n gesentraliseerde totalitêre staat gestig, onttrek aan die Volkebond en die land se herbewapening dramaties verhoog. [67] 'n Program wat deur die regering geborg word vir ekonomiese vernuwing, gefokus op openbare werke, waarvan die bekendste die snelweg was. [68]

In 1935 het die regime aan die Verdrag van Versailles onttrek en die Neurenbergwette ingestel wat Jode en ander minderhede teiken. [69] Duitsland verkry ook weer beheer oor die Saarland in 1935, [70] remineer die Rynland in 1936, annekseer Oostenryk in 1938, annekseer die Sudetenland in 1938 met die München -ooreenkoms, en in stryd met die ooreenkoms beset Tsjeggo -Slowakye in Maart 1939. [ 71] Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) het die sinagoges gebrand, die vernietiging van Joodse ondernemings en massa -arrestasies van Joodse mense. [72]

In Augustus 1939 het Hitler se regering onderhandel oor die Molotov -Ribbentrop -verdrag wat Oos -Europa in Duitse en Sowjet -invloedsfere verdeel het. [73] Op 1 September 1939 val Duitsland Pole binne en begin die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Europa [74] Brittanje en Frankryk verklaar op 3 September oorlog teen Duitsland. [75] In die lente van 1940 verower Duitsland Denemarke en Noorweë, Nederland, België, Luxemburg en Frankryk, wat die Franse regering dwing om 'n wapenstilstand te onderteken. Die Britte het dieselfde lugaanvalle in die Slag van Brittanje in dieselfde jaar afgeweer. In 1941 val Duitse troepe Joegoslavië, Griekeland en die Sowjetunie binne. Teen 1942 het Duitsland en haar bondgenote die grootste deel van die vasteland van Europa en Noord -Afrika beheer, maar na die Sowjet -oorwinning in die Slag van Stalingrad, die herowering van die bondgenote van Noord -Afrika en die inval in Italië in 1943, het Duitse magte herhaaldelike militêre nederlae gely. In 1944 het die Sowjette Oos -Europa binnegedring, die Westerse bondgenote het in Frankryk geland en Duitsland binnegekom, ondanks 'n laaste Duitse teenoffensief. Na Hitler se selfmoord tydens die Slag van Berlyn het Duitsland op 8 Mei 1945 oorgegee en die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Europa beëindig. [74] [76] Na afloop van die oorlog is oorlewende Nazi -amptenare tydens die Neurenberg -verhore verhoor weens oorlogsmisdade. [77] [78]

In wat later bekend gestaan ​​het as die Holocaust, het die Duitse regering minderhede vervolg, insluitend om hulle in konsentrasie- en doodskampe regoor Europa in te neem. In totaal is 17 miljoen mense stelselmatig vermoor, waaronder 6 miljoen Jode, minstens 130 000 Romani, 275 000 gestremdes, duisende Getuies van Jehovah, duisende homoseksuele en honderde duisende politieke en godsdienstige teenstanders. [79] Nazi-beleid in Duits-besette lande het gelei tot die dood van 'n geskatte 2,7 miljoen Pole, [80] 1,3 miljoen Oekraïners, 1 miljoen Wit-Russe en 3,5 miljoen Sowjet-krygsgevangenes. [81] [77] Duitse militêre ongevalle word op 5,3 miljoen geraam, [82] en ongeveer 900,000 Duitse burgerlikes is dood. [83] Ongeveer 12 miljoen etniese Duitsers is uit Oos-Europa verdryf, en Duitsland het ongeveer 'n kwart van sy vooroorlogse gebied verloor. [84]

Oos- en Wes -Duitsland

Nadat Nazi -Duitsland oorgegee het, verdeel die Geallieerdes Berlyn en Duitsland se oorblywende gebied in vier besettingsgebiede. Die westelike sektore, beheer deur Frankryk, die Verenigde Koninkryk en die Verenigde State, is op 23 Mei 1949 saamgevoeg om die Bondsrepubliek Duitsland te vorm (Duits: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) op 7 Oktober 1949 word die Sowjet -gebied die Duitse Demokratiese Republiek (Duits: Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR). Hulle was informeel bekend as Wes -Duitsland en Oos -Duitsland. [86] Oos-Duitsland het Oos-Berlyn as hoofstad gekies, terwyl Wes-Duitsland Bonn as 'n voorlopige hoofstad gekies het, om sy standpunt dat die tweestaat-oplossing tydelik was, te beklemtoon. [87]

Wes -Duitsland is gestig as 'n federale parlementêre republiek met 'n 'sosiale markekonomie'. Vanaf 1948 word Wes -Duitsland 'n belangrike ontvanger van heropbouhulp onder die Marshall -plan. [88] Konrad Adenauer is in 1949 verkies tot die eerste federale kanselier van Duitsland. Die land het langdurige ekonomiese groei beleef (Wirtschaftswunder) begin in die vroeë vyftigerjare. [89] Wes -Duitsland het in 1955 by die NAVO aangesluit en was 'n stigterslid van die Europese Ekonomiese Gemeenskap. [90]

Oos -Duitsland was 'n Oosblokstaat onder politieke en militêre beheer deur die USSR via besettingsmagte en die Warskou -verdrag. Alhoewel Oos -Duitsland beweer dat dit 'n demokrasie is, is politieke mag slegs deur vooraanstaande lede uitgeoefen (Politbüro) van die kommunisties-beheerde Sosialistiese Eenheidsparty van Duitsland, ondersteun deur die Stasi, 'n enorme geheime diens. [91] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity. [92] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, becoming a symbol of the Cold War. [93]

Tensions between East and West Germany were reduced in the late 1960s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. [94] In 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open its border with Austria, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary and Austria. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. In an effort to help retain East Germany as a state, the East German authorities eased border restrictions, but this actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process culminating in the Two Plus Four Treaty under which Germany regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR. [95] The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification and Die Wende. [96]

Reunified Germany and the European Union

United Germany was considered the enlarged continuation of West Germany so it retained its memberships in international organisations. [97] Based on the Berlin/Bonn Act (1994), Berlin again became the capital of Germany, while Bonn obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries. [98] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999, and modernisation of the east German economy was scheduled to last until 2019. [99] [100]

Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union, signing the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Lisbon Treaty in 2007, [101] and co-founding the Eurozone. [102] Germany sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent German troops to Afghanistan as part of a NATO effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban. [103] [104]

In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor. In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion stimulus plan. [105] Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0. [106] Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in 2015: the country took in over a million migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its states. [107]

Germany is the seventh-largest country in Europe [4] bordering Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, and Switzerland to the south-southwest. France, Luxembourg and Belgium are situated to the west, with the Netherlands to the northwest. Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. German territory covers 357,022 km 2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 348,672 km 2 (134,623 sq mi) of land and 8,350 km 2 (3,224 sq mi) of water.

Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,963 metres or 9,721 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany (lowest point: in the municipality Neuendorf-Sachsenbande, Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level [108] ) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, and nickel. [4]

Klimaat

Most of Germany has a temperate climate, ranging from oceanic in the north to continental in the east and southeast. Winters range from the cold in the Southern Alps to mild and are generally overcast with limited precipitation, while summers can vary from hot and dry to cool and rainy. The northern regions have prevailing westerly winds that bring in moist air from the North Sea, moderating the temperature and increasing precipitation. Conversely, the southeast regions have more extreme temperatures. [109]

From February 2019 – 2020, average monthly temperatures in Germany ranged from a low of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F) in January 2020 to a high of 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) in June 2019. [110] Average monthly precipitation ranged from 30 litres per square metre in February and April 2019 to 125 litres per square metre in February 2020. [111] Average monthly hours of sunshine ranged from 45 in November 2019 to 300 in June 2019. [112] The highest temperature ever recorded in Germany was 42.6 °C on 25 July 2019 in Lingen and the lowest was −37.8 °C on 12 February 1929 in Wolnzach. [113] [114]

Biodiversiteit

The territory of Germany can be divided into five terrestrial ecoregions: Atlantic mixed forests, Baltic mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, Western European broadleaf forests, and Alps conifer and mixed forests. [115] As of 2016 [update] 51% of Germany's land area is devoted to agriculture, while 30% is forested and 14% is covered by settlements or infrastructure. [116]

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. According to the National Forest Inventory, beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute just over 40% of the forests roughly 60% are conifers, particularly spruce and pine. [117] There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver. [118] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol. [119]

Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag (Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. Die Bundestag is elected through direct elections using the mixed-member proportional representation system. The members of the Bundesrat represent and are appointed by the governments of the sixteen federated states. [4] The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both the Bundestag en die Bundesrat the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law, are valid in perpetuity. [125]

The president, currently Frank-Walter Steinmeier, is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates. [4] The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident (president of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. [126] The third-highest official and the head of government is the chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the party or coalition with the most seats in the Bundestag. [4] The chancellor, currently Angela Merkel, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet. [4]

Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens have also been junior partners in coalition governments. Since 2007, the left-wing populist party The Left has been a staple in the German Bundestag, though they have never been part of the federal government. In the 2017 German federal election, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. [127] [128]

Constituent states

Germany is a federal state and comprises sixteen constituent states which are collectively referred to as Lande. [129] Each state has its own constitution, [130] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. [129] As of 2017 [update] Germany is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts. [131]

Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law. [135] The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. [136] Germany's supreme court system is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court. [137]

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch en die Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch onderskeidelik. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. [138] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges. [139] [140]

Germany has a low murder rate with 1.18 murders per 100,000 as of 2016 [update] . [141] In 2018, the overall crime rate fell to its lowest since 1992. [142]

Buitelandse betrekkinge

Germany has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad [144] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries. [145] Germany is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus. [146] [147] [148] The governments of Germany and the United States are close political allies. [149] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism. [150]

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. [151] It was the world's second-biggest aid donor in 2019 after the United States. [152]

Militêre

Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into the Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr (Joint Medical Service) and Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 8th highest in the world. [153] In 2018, military spending was at $49.5 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%. [154] [155]

As of January 2020 [update] , the Bundeswehr has a strength of 184,001 active soldiers and 80,947 civilians. [156] Reservists are available to the armed forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad. [157] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, but this has been officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. [158] [159] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction. [160] According to SIPRI, Germany was the fourth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2014 to 2018. [161]

In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. [162] The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. As of 2017 [update] , the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo. [163] [164]

Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. [4] [166] [167] It is the world's third largest exporter and third largest importer of goods, [4] and has the largest economy in Europe, which is also the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, [168] and the fifth-largest by PPP. [169] Its GDP per capita measured in purchasing power standards amounts to 121% of the EU27 average (100%). [170] The service sector contributes approximately 69% of the total GDP, industry 31%, and agriculture 1% as of 2017 [update] . [4] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat amounts to 3.2% as of January 2020 [update] , which is the fourth-lowest in the EU. [171]

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than 450 million consumers. [172] In 2017, the country accounted for 28% of the Eurozone economy according to the International Monetary Fund. [173] Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro, in 2002. [174] Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt. [175] [165]

Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [176] and is the fourth largest by production. [177] The top 10 exports of Germany are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics. [178] Germany is one of the largest exporters globally. [179]

Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2019, the Fortune Global 500, 29 are headquartered in Germany. [180] 30 major Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index which is operated by Frankfurt Stock Exchange. [181] Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Bosch and Deutsche Telekom. [182] Berlin is a hub for startup companies and has become the leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union. [183] Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand model. [184] These companies represent 48% global market leaders in their segments, labelled Hidden Champions. [185]

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the German economy. [186] In 2018 Germany ranked fourth globally in terms of number of science and engineering research papers published. [187] Research institutions in Germany include the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, and the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Association. [188] Germany is the largest contributor to the European Space Agency. [189]

Infrastruktuur

With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent. [190] Its road network is among the densest in Europe. [191] The motorway (Autobahn) is widely known for having no federally mandated speed limit for some classes of vehicles. [192] The InterCityExpress or ICE train network serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph). [193] The largest German airports are Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport. [194] The Port of Hamburg is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world. [195]

In 2015 [update] , Germany was the world's seventh-largest consumer of energy. [196] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021. [197] It meets the country's power demands using 40% renewable sources. [198] Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, and water management. [199] [200] [201] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%. [202] The country's greenhouse gas emissions per capita were the ninth highest in the EU in 2018 [update] . [203] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy. [204]

Toerisme

Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world as of 2017 [update] , with 37.4 million visits. [205] Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe. [206] Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over €105.3 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry supports 4.2 million jobs. [207]

Germany's most visited and popular landmarks include Cologne Cathedral, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag, the Dresden Frauenkirche, Neuschwanstein Castle, Heidelberg Castle, the Wartburg, and Sanssouci Palace. [208] The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort. [209]

With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census, [210] rising to 83.1 million as of 2019 [update] , [6] Germany is the most populous country in the European Union, the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the nineteenth-most populous country in the world. Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females). [4] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates) is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and is one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. [4] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate. However, Germany is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s, particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants. Germany has the third oldest population in the world, with an average age of 47.4 years. [4]

Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries: [211] There is a Danish minority in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein [211] the Sorbs, a Slavic population, are in the Lusatia region of Saxony and Brandenburg the Roma and Sinti live throughout the country and the Frisians are concentrated in Schleswig-Holstein's western coast and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony. [211]

After the United States, Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world. The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas. Of the country's residents, 18.6 million people (22.5%) were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates). [212] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants. [213] As of 2018 [update] , Germany ranks fifth amongst EU countries in terms of the percentage of migrants in the country's population, at 12.9%. [214]

Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions. The country's largest city is Berlin, while its largest urban area is the Ruhr. [215]

Religion

The 2011 German Census showed Christianity as the largest religion in Germany, with 66.8% identified themselves as Christian, with 3.8% of those not being church members. [216] 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen) 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. According to data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively, of the population. [217] [218] Islam is the second largest religion in the country. [219] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question. [220] Most of the Muslims are Sunnis and Alevites from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations. Other religions comprise less than one percent of Germany's population. [219]

A study in 2018 estimated that 38% of the population are not members of any religious organization or denomination, [221] though up to a third may still consider themselves religious. Irreligion in Germany is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant before the enforcement of state atheism, and in major metropolitan areas. [222] [223]

Tale

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany. [224] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union, and one of the three procedural languages of the European Commission. [225] German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers. [226]

Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two. [224]

Onderwys

Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. [227] Secondary schooling is divided into tracks based on whether students pursue academic or vocational education. [228] A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. [227] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world. [229]

Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. [230] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. According to an OECD report in 2014, Germany is the world's third leading destination for international study. [231] The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University (established in 1386) being the oldest. [232] The Humboldt University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many Western universities. [233] [234] In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence.

Gesondheid

Germany's system of hospitals, called Krankenhäuser, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s. [236] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. The population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013 [update] . [237] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care. [238]

Germany ranked 20th in the world in 2013 in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2019 [update] , the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 37%. [239] Obesity in Germany has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2014 study showed that 52 percent of the adult German population was overweight or obese. [240]

Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"), [241] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought. [242] A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014. [243] [244]

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen cakes, and other practices. [245] [246] As of 2016 [update] UNESCO inscribed 41 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. [247] There are a number of public holidays in Germany determined by each state 3 October has been a national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day). [248]

Musiek

German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude, Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel were influential composers of the Baroque period. Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms were significant Romantic composers. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Wolfgang Rihm are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. [249]

As of 2013, Germany was the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world. [250] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie, Volksmusik (folk music), schlager pop and German hip hop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. [251] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany have become well known (e.g. Paul van Dyk, Felix Jaehn, Paul Kalkbrenner, Robin Schulz and Scooter). [252]

Art and design

German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Johann Baptist Zimmermann of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg of Romanticism, Max Liebermann of Impressionism and Max Ernst of Surrealism. Several German art groups formed in the 20th century Die Brücke (The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) influenced the development of expressionism in Munich and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose in response to expressionism during the Weimar Republic. After World War II, broad trends in German art include neo-expressionism and the New Leipzig School. [253]

Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance). [253] Vernacular architecture in Germany is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles. [254] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style. Expressionist architecture developed in the 1910s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius (New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus movement founded by Walter Gropius. [253] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century he conceived of the glass façade skyscraper. [255] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Pritzker Prize winners Gottfried Böhm and Frei Otto. [256]

German designers became early leaders of modern product design. [257] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year. [258]

Literature and philosophy

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. [259] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854. [260]

Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll and Günter Grass. [261] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China. [262] The Frankfurt Book Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years. [263] The Leipzig Book Fair also retains a major position in Europe. [264]

German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy Martin Heidegger's works on Being Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy the development of the Frankfurt School has been particularly influential. [265]

Media

The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany are the Bertelsmann enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households. [266] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels. [267] There are more than 300 public and private radio stations in Germany Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio and the public Deutsche Welle is the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages. [267] Germany's print market of newspapers and magazines is the largest in Europe. [267] The papers with the highest circulation are Bild, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung en Die Welt. [267] The largest magazines include ADAC Motorwelt en Der Spiegel. [267] Germany has a large video gaming market, with over 34 million players nationwide. [268]

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film. After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). East German film was dominated by state-owned film studio DEFA, while the dominant genre in West Germany was the Heimatfilm ("homeland film"). [269] During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim.

The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans won an Oscar for their performances in other films. The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals. The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards. [270]

Kos

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria and Swabia share some traditions with Switzerland and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen). [271] German cheeses account for about 22% of all cheese produced in Europe. [272] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. [273] The national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world. [274] German beer purity regulations date back to the 16th century. [275] Wine is becoming more popular in many parts of the country, especially close to German wine regions. [276] In 2019, Germany was the ninth largest wine producer in the world. [277]

The 2018 Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars, giving the country a cumulative total of 300 stars. [278]

Sport

Football is the most popular sport in Germany. With more than 7 million official members, the German Football Association (Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest single-sport organisation worldwide, [279] and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world. [280] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014, [281] the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996, [282] and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017. [283]

Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times (as of 2017 [update] ). [284] The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships. [285] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time. [286]

Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936: the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. [287] Munich hosted the Summer Games of 1972. [288]


Declaration of Accession to the Stipulations and Provisions of the Treaty with Hanover of June 10, 1846, 1847 .

On December 9, 1847, the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin signed the Declaration of Accession to the Stipulations and Provisions of the Treaty with Hanover of June 10, 1846. The agreement was signed in Schwerin by the Mecklenburg-Schwerin Minister, L. de Liitzow , and U.S. Special Agent A. Dudley Mann .

Declaration of Accession to the Convention for the Extradition of Criminals, Fugitive from Justice, of June 16, 1852, between the United States and Prussia and Other States of the Germanic Confederation, 1853 .

On November 26, 1853, the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin signed the Declaration of Accession to the Convention for the Extradition of Criminals, Fugitive from Justice, of June 16, 1852 Between the United States and Prussia and Other States of the Germanic Confederation to provide for the “reciprocal extradition of fugitive criminals, in special cases.”


Uprisings: Austria and Prussia

In 1848, Austria was the predominant German state. It was considered the successor to the Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved by Napoleon in 1806, and was not resurrected by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. German Austrian chancellor Metternich had dominated Austrian politics from 1815 until 1848.

On March 13, 1848, university students mounted a large street demonstration in Vienna, and it was covered by the press across the German-speaking states. Following the important but relatively minor demonstrations against Lola Montez in Bavaria on February 9, 1848, the first major revolt of 1848 in German lands occurred in Vienna on March 13, 1848. The student demonstrators demanded a constitution and a constituent assembly elected by universal male suffrage.

Emperor Ferdinand and his chief adviser Metternich directed troops to crush the demonstration. When demonstrators moved to the streets near the palace, the troops fired on the students, killing several. The new working class of Vienna joined the student demonstrations, developing an armed insurrection. The Diet of Lower Austria demanded Metternich’s resignation. With no forces rallying to Metternich’s defense, Ferdinand reluctantly complied and dismissed him. The former chancellor went into exile in London.

In Prussia, in March 1848, crowds of people gathered in Berlin to present their demands in an “address to the king.” King Frederick William IV, taken by surprise, yielded verbally to all the demonstrators’ demands, including parliamentary elections, a constitution, and freedom of the press. He promised that “Prussia was to be merged forthwith into Germany.”

On March 13, the army charged people returning from a meeting in the Tiergarten they left one person dead and many injured. On March 18, a large demonstration occurred when two shots were fired, the people feared that some of the 20,000 soldiers would be used against them. They erected barricades, fighting started, and a battle took place until troops were ordered 13 hours later to retreat, leaving hundreds dead. Afterwards, Frederick William attempted to reassure the public that he would proceed with reorganizing his government. The king also approved arming the citizens.

Starting on May 18, 1848, the Frankfurt Assembly worked to find ways to unite the various German states and write a constitution. The Assembly was unable to pass resolutions and dissolved into endless debate. After long and controversial discussions, the assembly produced the so-called Frankfurt Constitution, which proclaimed a German Empire based on the principles of parliamentary democracy. This constitution fulfilled the main demands of the liberal and nationalist movements of the Vormärz and provided a foundation of basic rights, both of which stood in opposition to Metternich’s system of Restoration. The parliament also proposed a constitutional monarchy headed by a hereditary emperor (Kaiser).

King Frederick William IV of Prussia unilaterally imposed a monarchist constitution to undercut the democratic forces. This constitution took effect on December 5, 1848. On December 5, 1848, the revolutionary Assembly was dissolved and replaced with the bicameral legislature allowed under the monarchist Constitution. Otto von Bismarck was elected to the first congress elected under the new monarchical constitution.

Other uprising occurred in Baden, the Palatinate, Saxony, the Rhineland, and Bavaria.

Revolutions of 1848 Origin of the Flag of Germany: Cheering revolutionaries in Berlin, on March 19, 1848.


German Confederation Established - History

German Confederation, 1815-66

The Congress of Vienna (1814-15), convened after Napoleon's defeat, sought to restore order in Europe disrupted by revolutionary and imperial France. Its members' objective was a constellation of states and a balance of power that would ensure peace and stability after a quarter-century of revolution and war. In addition to the delegates of many small states, the congress included representatives of five large European states: Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain, and France. After months of deliberations, the congress established an international political order that was to endure for nearly 100 years and that brought Europe a measure of peace.

The congress made no effort to restore the Holy Roman Empire and its 300-odd states. Instead, it accepted the disappearance of many small states that had occurred since 1789 and created the German Confederation. The confederation consisted of thirty-eight sovereign states and four free cities and included the five large kingdoms of Austria, Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, and Wuerttemberg. Die konfederasie het tydens 'n dieet in Frankfurt vergader, terwyl 'n Oostenrykse altyd as president gedien het.

Prins Clemens von Metternich, wat van 1809 tot 1848 die Oostenrykse buitelandse beleid gelei het, was die dominante politieke figuur in die konfederasie. Hy het 'n dekades lange veldtog gevoer om die verspreiding van rewolusie in Europa te voorkom deur 'n groot deel van die politieke en sosiale orde wat voor die Franse Revolusie bestaan ​​het, te herstel. Met Carlsbad -dekrete van Metternich van 1819 is 'n deurdringende stelsel van perssensuur en regulering van die universiteite ingestel wat die Duitse intellektuele lewe gedemp het en die publikasie van geskrifte wat die beginsels van liberalisme bepleit, belemmer het. In die 1820's het hy die vorming van die Heilige Alliansie van die vorste van Oostenryk, Pruise en Rusland ontwerp om politieke, sosiale en ekonomiese ontwikkelings in Sentraal- en Oos -Europa te bedreig wat die politieke stabiliteit bedreig.


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