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Parure van juweliersware uit die Carthago -skat

Parure van juweliersware uit die Carthago -skat


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Watter skatte van die Romanov -familie kan u vind in die juweliersdose van die Britse koninklike familie?

Links: Groothertogin Maria Pavlovna. Regs: Prinses Michael van Kent.

Publieke domein Legion Media

Na die rewolusie van 1917 is baie van die House of Romanov & rsquos -skatte op die een of ander manier uit die land gesmokkel. Dit het op so 'n groot skaal gebeur dat dit amper onmoontlik is om selfs 'n ruwe skatting te maak van hoeveel juweliersware verlore gegaan het.

Soms het buitelanders en amptenare diamante uit die land gesmokkel. In 1918, byvoorbeeld, is die Amerikaanse skrywer John Reed op die grens aangehou met groot hoeveelhede juweliersware wat behoort aan die suster van Nicholas II, Olga (hy het edelgesteentes in die hakke van sy skoene versteek). Intussen is die juweliersware wat nie gesmokkel is nie en in die besit van die Bolsjewiste beland het, meedoënloos op talle Europese veilings verkoop. Destyds het die nuwe regering geld nodig gehad, en juweliersware is opgebreek en in stukke verkoop, letterlik "volgens gewig". Dit is wat met baie Romanov -tiara's en diademe gebeur het (waaroor u hier kan lees).

In die twintigerjare het veilingkatalogusse met juweliersware uit die Russiese Ryk in Europa begin rondloop, en almal met genoeg geld kon 'n edelsteen of 'n ring koop.

In 1926 het die Bolsjewiste die keiserlike kroonjuwele opgeveil. Die lotte bevat 773 items. Hiervan kan 114 stukke nou in die Kremlin's Diamond Fund gevind word. Die oorblywende stukke is verskeie kere op die veiling aangebied. Ons weet dat die Britse antiekhandelaar Norman Weiss nege kilogram juweliersware en edelgesteentes gekoop het, met 'n totaal van 50 000 pond. Weiss verkoop dit dan weer aan Christie's Auction House, waar die juweliersware in 124 erwe opgebreek is en in Maart 1927 op die veiling gebring word. Die waardevolste stuk was die bruidskroon van die laaste keiserin, Alexandra Feodorovna, wat met 1 535 diamante versier is.

Die pêreldruppel tiara het gegaan vir & pond310, terwyl die "Tarwe gerf" tiara met 'n geel diamant van 35 karaat gehaal en pond240 gehaal is. Die werklike waarde daarvan was natuurlik baie hoër.

"Koringgerf". Hierdie foto is gemaak vir die veiling.

Die Romanofs wat daarin geslaag het om uit Rusland te vlug, het persoonlike juweliersware saamgeneem en dit later aan ander koninklike gesinne verkoop. Baie het in Brittanje beland.

Prinses Michael van Kent se Russiese pêrels

Prinses Michael van Kent in die koninklike paleis in Tirana, Albanië, Oktober 2016.

Die barones Marie Christine von Reibnitz, die eggenoot van prins Michael van Kent (wat op sy beurt 'n eerste neef van Elizabeth II is, en deur sy ma, die agter-agterkleinseun van die Russiese keiser Alexander II), besit pêreldruppels wat eens behoort het aan groothertogin Maria Pavlovna.

Groothertogin Maria Pavlovna van Rusland.

Dit is dieselfde Maria Pavlovna wat tydens die revolusie daarin geslaag het om van haar wonderlikste juweliersware na die kussingslope na die buiteland te smokkel. Die Groothertogin het al haar juwele aan haar dogter, Elena Vladimirovna, prinses Nikolaas van Griekeland en Denemarke, nagelaat. Sy was egter verplig om van haar ma se juwele te verkoop weens finansiële probleme. Elizabeth II self skitter nou soms by amptelike onthale in die Vladimir Tiara van Maria Pavlovna.

1960's Prinses Marina in die rand tiara en pêrels.

Wat die pêrel-oorbelle betref, het Elena dit oorgedra aan haar dogter, prinses Marina van Griekeland en Denemarke, wat dit later aan haar seun, Michael van Kent, nagelaat het. Hy het dit op sy beurt aan sy eggenoot voorgehou, wat dit geniet om dit op uitstappies te dra.

Prinses Michael van Kent tydens 'n besoek aan Esher in Surrey.

Die pêrels kan as oorbelle en as halssnoer gedra word.

Elizabeth II se saffierbroche met pêrelhanger

Elizabeth ll en die Russiese president Boris Jeltsin in Moskou, 1994.

Koningin Elizabeth II het 'n amptelike besoek aan Rusland gebring in 1994. Vir haar ontmoeting met president Boris Jeltsin het sy gekies om 'n helderblou jas te versier met 'n borsspeld met 'n enorme cabochonsnede Ceylon-saffier omring deur tientalle diamante en 'n elegante pêrelhanger laat val.

Sapphire Broche en die weduwee -keiserin Marie Feodorovna van Rusland. Op hierdie foto dra die Russiese keiserin 'n saffierstel wat afsonderlik verkoop is na die revolusie.

Publieke domein/Getty Images

Die borsspeld het aanvanklik behoort aan die Russiese keiserin Maria Feodorovna, eggenoot van Alexander III, die moeder van Nicholas II en die suster van Alexandra van Denemarke, die Britse koninklike gemeng (wat aanvanklik begin het met die tiaras van "Russiese styl").

Die koningin in Honiara, Salomonseilande, 1982.

Tydens die revolusie kon Maria Feodorovna Rusland via die Krim aan boord van 'n Britse slagskip verlaat. Uiteindelik bereik sy Brittanje en dan Denemarke, waar sy tot haar dood in 1928 woon. Historici meen dat die weduwee -keiserin daarin geslaag het om die borsspeld en van haar ander juweliersware na die buiteland te smokkel. Die borsspeld, wat 'n huweliksgeskenk van haar suster was, het in Brittanje geëindig.

Koningin Elizabeth II arriveer in Aberdeen vir haar jaarlikse Skotse vakansie, 1992.

In 1930 verkoop die dogters van Maria Feodorovna dit aan Alexandra se skoondogter, Mary van Teck, van wie dit in 1953 aan Mary se kleindogter, Elizabeth II, oorgedra is.

Koningin Elizabeth ll in Londen, 1999.

Nog 'n saffier borsspeld

Koningin Elizabeth II woon 'n tuinpartytjie by op die Balmoral -kasteel op 07 Augustus 2012 in Aberdeenshire, Skotland.

Maria Feodorovna was veral lief vir juweliersware en saffiere. Sy het 'n indrukwekkende versameling juwele gehad wat onder die hamer gegaan het nadat sy gesterf het. Maria van Teck, ook 'n kenner van Russiese juweliersware, het 'n aantal stukke bekom wat lede van die koninklike familie tot op hede soms op uitstappies dra. Elizabeth II se versameling bevat nog 'n saffierspeld wat vroeër aan Maria Feodorovna behoort het.

Koningin Elizabeth II in Londen, 2012.

Die keiserin het 'n hele saffierparing gehad, bestaande uit 'n tiara, twee borsspelde, 'n halssnoer en 'n korsversiering. Die hele parure is moontlik ook in dele verkoop, met die borsspeld in die besit van die Britse koningin. Elizabeth II dra dit gereeld as aanvulling op 'n rok of jas.

Koningin Elizabeth II in Berlyn, Junie 2015.

Prinses Anne se pêrel en saffier choker

Prinses Anne verlaat die St. Giles -katedraal, 2001.

Dit is een van die gunsteling chokers van prinses Anne, dogter van Elizabeth II, en het 'n enorme saffier.

Dit behoort ook eens aan Maria Feodorovna. Mary of Teck verkry dit in 1931 vir £ 6,000 (gelykstaande aan ongeveer £ 400,000 vandag).

Prinses Anne by die Royal Victoria Dock in Oos -Londen, 2003.

Met sy groot saffier, diamante, vier rye pêrels en goud, lyk dit nog steeds baie kontemporêr.

Prinses Anne, die prinses Royal aan die kaai vir die benoemingseremonie vir twee nuwe P & O (skiereiland en Oosterse stoomskipmaatskappy), The Oceania en Adonia, 2003.

Broche met Slawiese letters van Camilla Parker Bowles

Die Britse koninklike familie en rsquos -juwele bevat kosbare items wat deur die Russiese keisers geskenk is. Hierdie diamantspeld met Ceylon -saffiere word byvoorbeeld gedra deur Camilla, die eggenoot van prins Charles.

Camilla, hertogin van Cornwall word deur die publiek begroet toe sy op 27 Januarie 2007 die Mural Arts Project by Heavenly Hall in Philadelphia besoek.

Dit is gemaak in die oorspronklike vorm van 'n hart met die letter & ldquoksi & rdquo binne, wat die nommer 60 in die vroeë Cyrilliese alfabet aandui. Dit is in 1897 aan koningin Victoria oorhandig ter ere van die 60ste herdenking van haar troonbestyging deur haar Hesse -kleinkinders, waaronder die laaste keiserin van Rusland, Alexandra Feodorovna, en haar suster, groothertogin Elizabeth Feodorovna.

Camilla, hertogin van Cornwall glimlag tydens 'n onthaal in 'The Rooms' op 3 November 2009 in Saint John's, Newfoundland, Kanada.

Die borsspeld is jare lank nie in die openbaar gesien nie, maar Camilla, hertogin van Cornwall, het dit in 2007 begin dra en doen dit tot vandag toe.

Elizabeth II se diamantarmband

Koningin Elizabeth II in die groot ingang in Buckingham -paleis. 1954.

Elizabeth trou met Philip Mountbatten in 1947. As trougeskenk het sy ma, prinses Alice van Battenberg (agterkleindogter van koningin Victoria en niggie van keiserin Alexandra Feodorovna), haar seun 'n diamant tiara gegee wat deur Nicholas II en Alexandra vir haar troue in 1903. Dit was tydens die moeilike na-oorlogse jare toe selfs koninklike gesinne af en toe finansiële toegewings moes maak, en die tiara is dus verbreek.

Die koningin by die parlement in Londen.

Die grootste van die diamante is gebruik om 'n verloofring te maak, terwyl die ander klippe gegooi is in 'n platinumarmband wat Philip aan Elizabeth gegee het. Sy dra dit tot vandag toe en leen dit af en toe aan Catherine, hertogin van Cambridge, die vrou van haar kleinseun, William.

Die Chinese president Xi Jinping en Catherine, hertogin van Cambridge woon op 20 Oktober 2015 in Londen 'n staatsbanket by in Buckingham -paleis.

Gee altyd 'n aktiewe hiperskakel na die oorspronklike materiaal as u enige van die inhoud van Russia Beyond gebruik, gedeeltelik of volledig.


Oorsprong van die naam Cambridge en Delhi Dunbar Parure

Die “Cambridge en Delhi Dunbar Parure ” verwys na 'n volledige reeks smaragd juweliersware, wat ook 'n smarag en diamant tiara bevat. Die suite behoort nou tot die persoonlike juweliersversameling van koningin Elizabeth II, wat sy geërf het van haar ouma Queen Mary, die koningin -konsort van koning George V. Die “Cambridge en Delhi Dunbar Parure ” is ontwerp en vervaardig deur die kroonjuweliers, in afwagting van die kroning van koning George V en koningin Mary op 22 Junie 1911 en hul daaropvolgende proklamasie as die keiser en keiserin van Indië, tydens 'n spesiale Durbar wat op 12 Desember 1911 vir hierdie doel gereël is.

Die naam Cambridge is afgelei van die hertog van Cambridge, Adolphus, die sewende seun van koning George III, wat saam met sy vrou prinses Augusta van Hesse die oorspronklike eienaars was van die pragtige smaragde wat in verskillende stukke van die “parure & opgeneem is #8221. Ten minste twee van die stukke in die “parure ”, 'n smaragdhalssnoer en 'n smaragde -borsspeld is aangebied deur die vroue van die Maharajah ’s van Indië, die Maharanis, insluitend die Maharani van Patiala. Die naam “Delhi Dunbar Parure ” blyk dus geïnspireer te wees om twee redes, een, die spesie wat spesiaal ontwerp en uitgevoer is in afwagting van die Delhi Durbar en twee, sommige van die stukke in die parure is as geskenke deur Queen ontvang Mary tydens die durbar.


Die verlore koninklike juwele van Marie Antoinette

Die koninklike kroonjuwele van Frankryk, gedra deur Marie Antoinette en koning Lodewyk XVI, wat tydens die revolusie verdwyn het, word onthul nadat dit 200 jaar lank vir die publiek verberg was.

Die Franse koninklike kroonjuwele het uit die paleis van Versailles verdwyn tydens die historiese revolusionêre opstand van die vismark -vroue en mans wat byna ses uur in 'n reënstorm opgeruk het om te protesteer teen die koninklike Bourbon -onderdrukkende heerskappy by die paleishekke. Nadat hulle die kele van die wagte gesny en deur die versperring gebreek het, het die hekke meegegee en die woedende skare het die Chateau van Versailles bestorm, die koninklike skatte gebuit en 'n pad van bloedvergieting agtergelaat.

Die Hope Diamond, gedra deur koning Lodewyk XVI tydens seremoniële geleenthede en in die 1700's bekend gestaan ​​as die Franse blou, was een van die wonderlike juwele van die Bourbon -familie wat vermis geraak het. Die unieke 67 1/8-karaat violetblou Hope-diamant beskik oor 'n intense staalblou kleur, wat die ongeëwenaarde klip die naam gegee het van die “Blue Diamond of the Crown ” en die “French Blue. ” In 1749 Koning Lodewyk XV laat die klip deur sy hofjuwelier, Andre Jacquemin, laat herstel en maak die kosbare juweel 'n seremoniële juweliersware vir die Orde van die Goue Vlies.

Die Blue Hope Diamond

Nadat hulle tydens die beleg van die paleis verdwyn het, het die juwele van die koninklike kroon van die Franse koninklike familie later weer verskyn (sien blog getiteld A Life of Luxury or a Living Nightmare) in Engeland in die besit van koning George IV. Gerugte het beweer dat die koningin in die geheim die juwele aan haar persoonlike stilis Léonard Autié gegee het om uit die paleis te smokkel in die hoop om haar robyne, smaragde en diamante weg te steek vir die persoonlike uitgawes van die koninklike familie wanneer hulle na 'n ander land ontsnap het of selfs met die doel om finansiering van 'n royalistiese leër om die revolusie teë te werk. Léonard Autié, bekend vir sy skepping van die berugte Franse poefstyl, het toegang gehad tot die koningin gedurende die dae en ure net voordat die gesin na die Tuileries verhuis is, wat gedien het as die tempelgevangenis van die koninklike familie tot die teregstelling van die koning en koningin in 1793 deur die guillotine binne tien maande na mekaar.

In werklikheid onthul die geskiedenis dat Marie Antoinette hierdie kas van juwele in 'n houtkis gebêre het toe sy voorberei het om te ontsnap uit die gevangenis in die Tuileries in Maart 1791. Die juwele reis heimlik na Wene in besit van graaf Mercy Argentau, die koningin se privaat koerier vir bewaring in die geboorteland en geboorteplek van die koningin, Oostenryk.

Hierdie pragtige Royal Crown -juwele, wat 200 jaar lank nie in die openbaar gesien is nie, is op 14 November 2018 onthul en verkoop deur die voorste veilinghuis van Sotheby's in Genève. Die juwele, gedra deur koning Lodewyk XIV, behoort aan die Bourbon -familie, wie se bloedlyn herlei word na die invloedrykste heersers van Europa, waaronder die Bourbons van Frankryk en die Habsburgers van Oostenryk.

Die historiese heerskappy van die Bourbon -gesin strek van die konings van Frankryk en Spanje tot die keisers van Oostenryk en die hertogen van Parma. Die Royal Crown -juwele is die trots van die House of Habsburg. Die Habsburgse familie, een van die invloedrykste koninklike dinastieë van Europa, het die troon van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk beset (foto hieronder) en keisers en konings voortgebring wie se bewind Duitsland, Engeland, Spanje, Holland en Italië strek.

Habsbourg-1700.png: Katepanomegas afleidingswerk: Alphathon [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)] Bron: https://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2018/royal-jewels-bourbon-parma-family-ge1809/lot.80.html

Die ongelooflik mooi stukke uit die versameling het die berugste lid van hierdie koninklike familie versier, die Franse koningin Marie Antoinette, die Habsburgse dogter van die Heilige Romeinse keiserin Maria Teresa en die vrou van koning Lodewyk XVI.

Bron: https://www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2018/royal-jewels-bourbon-parma-family-ge1809/lot.80.html

Daniela Mascetti, ondervoorsitter, Sotheby’s Jewellery Europe en Senior International Specialist beskryf die versameling as sodanig, Dit is een van die belangrikste koninklike juweliersversamelings wat ooit op die mark verskyn het, en elke juweel is absoluut deurdrenk met geskiedenis. Hierdie buitengewone groep juwele is nog nooit in die openbaar gesien nie en bied 'n boeiende insig in die lewens van die eienaars wat honderde jare teruggaan. Wat ook opvallend is, is die inherente skoonheid van die stukke self: die kosbare juwele waarmee hulle versier is en die uitsonderlike vakmanskap wat hulle toon, is in hul eie reg verstommend. ”

Bron: https://www.sothebys.com/en/videos/marie-antoinettes-breathtaking-jewels-lead-an-aristocratic-collection

Die opvallende helderheid van die Royal Crown -juwele is 'n bewys van die voortreflike vakmanskap van die tyd. Alhoewel dit in die 1700's en vroeër vervaardig is, toon elke klip briljante gesnyde fasette en ryk kleure. Die groot natuurlike pêreldoordruppels is 'n seldsame asemrowende gesig.

Bron: https://www.sothebys.com/en/videos/marie-antoinettes-breathtaking-jewels-lead-an-aristocratic-collection Bron: https://www.sothebys.com/en/videos/marie-antoinettes-breathtaking-jewels-lead-an-aristocratic-collection

Die juwele van die Oostenrykse ryk is veral een van die mooiste. Die pragtig verfynde robyn- en diamant -borsspeldhaarversiering hieronder en op die foto bo -aan hierdie blog, wat op 'n veiling na raming 375 000 frank op 'n veiling in Genève verkoop is op 14 November 2018, is deur die aartshertog van Oostenryk aan sy dogter, die aartshertogin, gegee Maria Anne van Oostenryk, die prinses Elie deBourbon-Parme (gebore 1882, oorlede 1940) in 1905 ter herdenking van die geboorte van haar seun Charles.

Bron: http://www.sothebys.com/en/articles/marie-antoinettes-jewels-come-to-auction-1

Die fleur de lys diamant koninklike kroontiara hieronder toon peervormige en roos gesnyde diamante. Elkeen van die drie fleur de lys -motiewe kan afsonderlik as 'n borsspeld losgemaak en gedra word. Die diamant fleur de lys tiara is oorspronklik geskep vir Charles X, koning van Frankryk (1757-1836) en is onlangs op 'n veiling in 2018 verkoop vir 975 000 Switserse frank of $ 967 000 (omskakeling vanaf 15 Mei 2019 teen 1 USD = 1,00833 CHF 1 CHF = 0,991740 USD).

Bron: https://www.sothebys.com/en/videos/marie-antoinettes-breathtaking-jewels-lead-an-aristocratic-collection

Interessant genoeg is 'n ander beroemde kroontiara wat gedemonteer kan word om die dubbele doel van 'n halssnoer te dien, die Engelse koningin Mary Fringe Tiara, ook bekend as die Hanoverian Fringe Tiara of die King Georg III Fringe Tiara. Die pilaar -tiara -diamante (wat op die voorkant hieronder getoon word) kan van die kroonbasis verwyder word, omgekeerd en as 'n pragtige diamantring -ketting gedra word. Die Queen Mary Fringe -tiara, wat oorspronklik in 1919 vir koningin Mary vervaardig is, is tydens hul troudae deur beide koningin Elizabeth en haar dogter prinses Anne gedra.

Bron: Skrywer

Die pragtige versameling van die kroonjuwele van Frankryk word in die Louvre vertoon en hieronder getoon. Die vertoning toon die koninklike diadeem en die kroon van keiserin Eugenie aan die linkerkant. In die middel is die juweliersware stel van koningin Marie Amélie. Die kroon van Lodewyk XV is regs aan die agterkant te sien met die diadeem van Marie Thérèse (Madame Royale), die dogter van koningin Marie Antoinette en koning Louix XVI, wat prominent op die voorgrond verskyn. Marie Thérèse (Madame Royale) het na die huwelik met Louis Antoine van Frankryk, hertog van Angoulême, die hertogin van Angoulème geword.

Bron: (Die Franse & lta href = ”/wiki/Crown_Jewels ” title = ”Crown Jewels ” & gtCrown Jewels & lt/a & gt in die & lta href = ”/wiki/Louvre ” title = ”Louvre ” & gt a & gt museum, Parys. Foto geneem deur Michael Reeve, 31 Januarie 2004. <>)

By 'n noukeurige ondersoek hieronder, lyk die juwele wat die kroon van koning Lodewyk XVI versier, nie minder opvallend nie:

Bron: Die kroon van koning Louix XV Wouter Engler [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)] Die Franse kroon van koning Lodewyk XV word hieronder getoon in 'n skildery saam met die die swaard van Karel die Grote, wat vermoedelik sedert die 12de eeu by die kroning van Franse konings gebruik is. Daar word gesê dat die swaard dié van Karel die Grote/Karel die Grote is, wat na die val van die Romeinse Ryk herenig en heers oor Wes -Europa en die magtigste heerser in Europa geword het. Sy uitgestrekte koninkryk omvat die huidige Frankryk, Duitsland, Italië, Oostenryk en die Lae Lande of die kusstreek van Noordwes -Europa, bekend as België, Nederland en Luxemburg.

Frans: Skildery wat deel uitmaak van die regalias van die Koninkryk Frankryk, die kroon van Lodewyk XV en die Joyeuse -swaard van Karel die Grote. Blaise Alexandre Desgoffe [Publieke domein] Let op hoe die koninklike juwele van die kroon van koning Lodewyk XV meer visueel onreëlmatig van vorm lyk as die diamante waaruit die koningin se parure of juweliersware bestaan, wat op 'n nabygeleë foto hieronder verskyn:

Kroonjuwele van koningin Maria-Amelia (Louvre). owensdt1 [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)] Ons is in staat om die stukke stukke op te spoor om Marie Antoinette te sien dra met die opvallende koningsblou saffier en diamant juweel borsspeld as 'n versiering in die skildery aan die linkerkant (onder). Regs sien ons die koningin met 'n pragtige pêrelhalssnoer gedrup met natuurlike pêreldruppels om haar nek gehang.

Bron links foto: Musée Antoine-Lécuyer. Deur Unknown, moontlik Jean-Baptiste André Gautier-Dagoty (Musée Antoine-Lécuyer) [Publieke domein], via Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3875679
Bron regsfoto: Koningin Marie Antoinette van Frankryk, dogter van keiserin Maria Theresia van Oostenryk en Heilige Romeinse keiser Franz I. Stephan van Oostenryk, 1786, Istituto d ’ art, Detroit. Deur Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun http://www.ladyreading.net/marieantoinette/big/marie13.jpg, Public Domain

Tog eindig alles nie goed vir die mees spoggerige koning en koningin van Frankryk nie. Koningin Marie Antoinette en koning Louis XVI het 'n tragiese einde gekry, wat albei in 1793 binne tien maande na mekaar ter dood veroordeel is en deur die guillotine tereggestel is in 'n bloedige openbare vertoning. Die volgende in die ry van die koninklike troon en erfgenaam, die koningin en koning se 10-jarige seun, Louis XVII, sterf ook geïsoleerd en alleen in gevangenskap weens siekte, mishandeling en verwaarlosing terwyl hy in die tempel gevangenis was.

In 1795 is die enigste oorlewende dogter, Marie-Thérèse, ook bekend as Madame Royale, wat op die jong ouderdom van 13 was toe sy in die tronk was, uiteindelik vrygelaat na lang onderhandelinge deur die keiser van Oostenryk oor haar ma se huis land. Na drie jaar gevangenisstraf en afsondering in die tempelgevangenis, het Madame Royal gevangenskap oorleef en op 17 -jarige ouderdom vrygelaat en daarna uit Frankryk begelei na die veilige hawe van Oostenryk. By aankoms in Wene, Oostenryk, in Januarie 1796, kon Madame Royale die juwele van haar gesin teruggee wat veilig by haar neef gehou is, die Oostenrykse keiser, wat sodoende finansiële sekuriteit verkry het omdat albei ouers dood was. In Wenen het Madame Royal 'n paar uitgesoekte besoekers ontvang, maar dit was bekend dat sy uiters vrygewig was teenoor koninklike simpatiseerders wat as gevolg van die revolusie gely het, en het gereeld haar oortollige geld aan behoeftiges weggegee.

Die Royal Sapphire -tiara van die Franse Royal Crown -versameling het gereeld gedebuteer op verskillende Franse koninginne en vroue van die Bourbon -lyn, soos hieronder gesien. Die koningin Marie-Amélie se saffier- en diamantparing wat koningin Marie en prinses Isabelle gedra het, word beskou as die oorspronklike juwele van keiserin Joséphine, die vrou van keiser Napoléon I. aan die man van die koningin, koning Louis-Philippe van Frankryk, in 1821. Die stel het by die koninklike Franse gesin gebly totdat dit in 1985 aan die Louvre verkoop is. voorheen Ceylon) en kan gedemonteer word sodat verskeie stukke afsonderlik as borsspelde gedra kan word. Die tiara was op 'n stadium baie groter, maar het verminder.

Links: 'n portret van koningin Marie. Regs: 'n portret van prinses Isabelle van Orleans-Braganza wat die saffier- en diamantkroon dra.
Bron: die 10 wonderlikste koningsappeltiaras van alle tye in bekendes en saffiere, saffiere deur die eeue
8 April 2015

In die volgende aflewering sal ons die lewe van Marie Antoinette se dogter, Marie Therese Charlotte van Frankryk, die dauphine van Frankryk, kortliks ondersoek. As enigste familielid en dogter van koningin Marie Antoinette en koning Louis XVI, is haar lewenslange gevangenisstraf, ballingskap en verlies van beide ouers 'n tragiese verhaal van lyding en 'n lewenslange stryd.

Skryf in vir Lorrie Anne Lewe in die tyd van Marie Antoinette, volgende nuusbrief op lorrieanne.com.

U wil nie my volgende blog misloop nie, dus teken nou in op lorrieanne.com.

Lorrie Anne is 'n historiese skrywer wat hou van paleise, balle met pragtige Franse toga's, tee eet en krummels, en eintlik alles wat 'n koninklike prinses sou doen. Sy is gefassineer deur Marie Antoinette, koningin Victoria en die keiserin Sissi van Oostenryk. Sy hou daarvan om in Europa te reis en te skryf oor die vele plekke wat sy besoek om die fassinerende geskiedenisverhale met jou te deel.

Meer inligting oor Lorrie Anne kan gevind word op haar webwerf by LorrieAnne.com, Facebook en Twitter. Lori is altyd bly om van lesers en geskiedenisliefhebbers te hoor.

Verwysings:
Nicole de Reyniès, Mobilier domestique: Vocabulaire typologique. Parys: Centre des monuments nationaux, Éditions du patrimonie, 2003, vol. 2, 944–5.


Inhoud

Die Cullinan het na raming in die aarde se manteloorgangsgebied op 410–660 km (255–410 myl) gevorm en 1,18 miljard jaar gelede die oppervlak bereik. [3] Dit is op 26 Januarie 1905 18,5 voet onder die oppervlak by Premier Mine in Cullinan, Transvaal Colony, gevind deur Frederick Wells, oppervlakbestuurder by die myn. Dit was ongeveer 10,1 sentimeter lank, 6,35 sentimeter (2,50 in) breed, 5,9 sentimeter (2,3 in) diep en weeg 3 106 karaat (621,2 gram). [4] Koerante noem dit die "Cullinan Diamond", 'n verwysing na sir Thomas Cullinan, wat die myn in 1902 geopen het. [5] Dit was drie keer die grootte van die Excelsior Diamond, wat in 1893 by Jagersfontein -myn gevind is, met 'n gewig van 972 karaat (194,4 g). Vier van sy agt oppervlaktes was glad, wat daarop dui dat dit eens deel was van 'n veel groter klip wat deur natuurlike kragte opgebreek is. Dit het 'n blou-wit kleur en bevat 'n klein sakkie lug wat onder sekere hoeke 'n reënboog of Newton se ringe veroorsaak het. [6]

Kort na die ontdekking daarvan het Cullinan in die Standard Bank in Johannesburg in die openbaar vertoon, waar daar na raming 8 000–9 000 besoekers gesien is. In April 1905 is die ruwe juweel gedeponeer by Premier Mining Co se Londense verkoopsagent, S. Neumann & amp. en 'n pakkie is seremonieel in die kaptein se kluis toegesluit en op die hele reis bewaak. Dit was 'n afwykingstaktiek - die klip op die skip was vals, bedoel om diegene wat sou belangstel om dit te steel, te lok. Cullinan is per aangetekende pos in 'n gewone boks na die Verenigde Koninkryk gestuur. [8] By aankoms in Londen is dit na die Buckingham -paleis vervoer vir inspeksie deur koning Edward VII. Alhoewel dit groot belangstelling by potensiële kopers getrek het, het Cullinan twee jaar lank nie verkoop nie. [4]

Voorlegging aan Edward VII Edit

Eerste minister van Transvaal, Louis Botha, het voorgestel om die diamant vir Edward VII te koop as 'n teken van die lojaliteit en gehegtheid van die mense van Transvaal aan die troon en persoon van Sy Majesteit ". [9] In Augustus 1907 is 'n stemming gehou in die Wetgewende Raad [10] oor die lot van Cullinan, en 'n mosie wat die koop magtig, is met 42 stemme ten gunste van 19 teen. Aanvanklik het Henry Campbell-Bannerman, destydse Britse premier, die koning aangeraai om die aanbod te weier, maar later besluit hy om Edward VII te laat besluit of hy die geskenk wil aanvaar of nie. [11] Uiteindelik is hy oorreed deur Winston Churchill, destydse koloniale onder-sekretaris. Vir sy moeite is Churchill 'n replika gestuur wat hy graag op 'n silwer bord vir gaste kon wys. [12] Die Transvaalkolonie-regering het die diamant op 17 Oktober 1907 vir £ 150 000 gekoop, [13], wat aangepas is vir inflasie in pond, is gelykstaande aan £ 15 miljoen in 2016. [14] As gevolg van 'n belasting van 60% op mynwins, die tesourie het van sy geld van die Premier Diamond Mining Company teruggekry. [15]

Die diamant is op 9 November 1907-sy ses en sestigste verjaardag-aan die koning in Sandringham House voorgehou deur die agent-generaal van die kolonie, sir Richard Solomon, in die teenwoordigheid van 'n groot groep gaste, waaronder die koningin van Swede, die Koningin van Spanje, die hertog van Westminster en Lord Revelstoke. [16] Die koning het sy koloniale sekretaris, Lord Elgin, gevra om aan te kondig dat hy die geskenk "vir myself en my opvolgers" aanvaar het en dat hy sou sorg dat "hierdie groot en unieke diamant bewaar en bewaar word tussen die historiese juwele wat die erfstukke vorm van die Kroon ". [12]

Snyproses Wysig

Die koning het Joseph Asscher & amp. Van Amsterdam gekies om die ruwe klip te splits en te poets tot briljante juwele van verskillende snitte en groottes. Abraham Asscher het dit op 23 Januarie 1908 by die koloniale kantoor in Londen afgehaal. [17] Hy het per trein en veerboot na Nederland teruggekeer met die diamant in sy jaszak. [13] Intussen het 'n skip van die Royal Navy, vir groot gedruis, 'n leë boks oor die Noordsee gedra en weer moontlike diewe afgegooi. Selfs die kaptein het geen idee gehad dat sy 'kosbare' vrag 'n lokval was nie. [18]

Op 10 Februarie 1908 is die ruwe klip deur Joseph Asscher in sy diamantfabriek in Amsterdam in twee gesny. [19] Destyds het tegnologie nog nie ontwikkel om die kwaliteit van moderne standaarde te waarborg nie, en dit was moeilik en riskant om die diamant te sny. Na weke se beplanning is 'n insnyding van 1,3 cm diep gemaak om Asscher in staat te stel om die diamant in een slag te kap. Om die insnyding alleen te maak, het vier dae geneem, en 'n staalmes het gebreek tydens die eerste poging, [4] maar 'n tweede mes is in die groef geplaas en dit in twee gesny langs een van vier moontlike splitsingsvliegtuie. [20] In totaal het die skeuring en sny van die diamant agt maande geneem, en drie mense het 14 uur per dag gewerk om die taak te voltooi. [4]

'Die verhaal word vertel van Joseph Asscher, die grootste knywer van die dag', het Matthew Hart in sy boek geskryf Diamond: 'n reis na die hart van 'n obsessie (2002), "dat toe hy hom voorberei het om die grootste diamant wat ooit geken is, te splits ... 'n dokter en verpleegster by hom staan ​​en toe hy uiteindelik die diamant slaan ... hy flou word". [21] Lord Ian Balfour, in sy boek Bekende diamante (2009), verdryf die flou verhaal, wat daarop dui dat dit meer waarskynlik was dat Joseph dit sou vier en 'n bottel sjampanje oopmaak. [17] Toe Joseph se neef Louis die verhaal hoor, het hy uitgeroep: "No Asscher would ever flaw over any operation on any diamond". [22]

Cullinan het 9 groot klippe van 1 555,89 karaat (211,178 g) in totaal geproduseer, [23] plus 96 klein glansmiddels en 'n paar ongepoleerde fragmente van 19,5 karaat (3,90 g). [24] Alle behalwe die twee grootste stene - Cullinans I en II - het op afspraak in Amsterdam gebly as die vergoeding vir Asscher se dienste, [25] totdat die Suid -Afrikaanse regering dit gekoop het (behalwe Cullinan VI, wat Edward VII gekoop en aan gegee het sy vrou, koningin Alexandra in 1907), en die hoë kommissaris vir Suider -Afrika het dit op 28 Junie 1910 aan koningin Mary voorgehou. [12] Mary het ook Cullinan VI van Alexandra geërf, en sy het al haar Cullinan -diamante in 1953 aan haar kleindogter Elizabeth II oorgelaat. [26] Cullinans I en II is deel van die kroonjuwele, [2] wat aan die koningin regs van die kroon behoort. [27]

Asscher verkoop die klein stene aan die Suid -Afrikaanse regering, wat dit aan koningin Mary Louis Botha, destydse premier van Suid -Afrika, die diamanthandelaars Arthur en Alexander Levy versprei het, wat toesig gehou het oor die sny van Cullinan [28] en Jacob Romijn (later Romyn) , wat die eerste vakbond in die diamantbedryf gestig het. [29] Some were set by Mary into a long platinum chain, which Elizabeth has never worn in public, saying that "it gets in the soup". [30] In the 1960s, two minor Cullinan diamonds owned by Louis Botha's heirs were analysed at the De Beers laboratory in Johannesburg and found to be completely free of nitrogen or any other impurities. [31] Cullinans I and II were examined in the 1980s by gemologists at the Tower of London and both graded as colourless type IIa. [32]

Cullinan I Edit

Cullinan I, or the Great Star of Africa, is a pendeloque-cut brilliant weighing 530.2 carats (106.04 g) and has 74 facets. [33] It is set at the top of the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross which had to be redesigned in 1910 to accommodate it. Cullinan I was surpassed as the world's largest cut diamond of any colour by the 545.67-carat (109.134 g) brown Golden Jubilee Diamond in 1992, [34] but is still the largest clear cut diamond in the world. [35] In terms of clarity, it has a few tiny cleavages and a small patch of graining. The 5.89 cm × 4.54 cm × 2.77 cm (2.32 in × 1.79 in × 1.09 in) diamond is fitted with loops and can be taken out of its setting to be worn as a pendant suspended from Cullinan II to make a brooch. [36] Queen Mary, wife of George V, often wore it like this. [37] In 1908, the stone was valued at US$2.5 million (equivalent to US$52 million in 2019) [38] – two and a half times the rough Cullinan's estimated value. [39]

Cullinan II Edit

Cullinan II, or the Second Star of Africa, is a cushion-cut brilliant with 66 facets weighing 317.4 carats (63.48 g) set in the front of the Imperial State Crown, [33] below the Black Prince's Ruby (a large spinel). [40] It measures 4.54 cm × 4.08 cm × 2.42 cm (1.79 in × 1.61 in × 0.95 in). The diamond has a number of tiny flaws, scratches on the table facet, and a small chip at the girdle. Like Cullinan I, it is held in place by a yellow gold enclosure, which is screwed onto the crown. [36]

Cullinan III Edit

Cullinan III, or the Lesser Star of Africa, is pear-cut and weighs 94.4 carats (18.88 g). [33] In 1911, Queen Mary, wife and queen consort of George V, had it set in the top cross pattée of a crown that she personally bought for her coronation. [41] In 1912, the Delhi Durbar Tiara, worn the previous year by Mary instead of a crown at the Delhi Durbar, where her husband wore the Imperial Crown of India, was also adapted to take Cullinans III and IV. [42] In 1914, Cullinan III was permanently replaced on the crown by a crystal model. Today, it is most frequently worn in combination with Cullinan IV by Elizabeth II as a brooch. In total, the brooch is 6.5 cm (2.6 in) long and 2.4 cm (0.94 in) wide. [43] Cullinan III has also been used as a pendant on the Coronation Necklace, where it occasionally replaced the 22.4-carat (4.48 g) Lahore Diamond. [44] [45]

Cullinan IV Edit

Cullinan IV, also referred to as a Lesser Star of Africa, is square-cut and weighs 63.6 carats (12.72 g). [33] It was also set in the base of Queen Mary's Crown but was removed in 1914. On 25 March 1958, while she and Prince Philip were on a state visit to the Netherlands, Queen Elizabeth II revealed that Cullinan III and IV are known in her family as "Granny's Chips". They visited the Asscher Diamond Company, where Cullinan had been cut 50 years earlier. It was the first time the Queen had worn the brooch publicly. During her visit, she unpinned the brooch and offered it for examination to Louis Asscher, nephew of Joseph Asscher, who split the rough diamond. Aged 84, he was deeply moved that the Queen had brought the diamonds with her, knowing how much it would mean to him seeing them again after so many years. [46]

Cullinan V Edit

Cullinan V is an 18.8-carat (3.76 g) heart-shaped diamond set in the centre of a platinum brooch that formed a part of the stomacher made for Queen Mary to wear at the Delhi Durbar in 1911. The brooch was designed to show off Cullinan V and is pavé-set with a border of smaller diamonds. It can be suspended from the VIII brooch and can be used to suspend the VII pendant. It was often worn like this by Mary. [44]

Cullinan VI Edit

Cullinan VI is marquise-cut and weighs 11.5 carats (2.30 g). [33] It hangs from the brooch containing Cullinan VIII and forming part of the stomacher of the Delhi Durbar parure. Cullinan VI along with VIII can also be fitted together to make yet another brooch, surrounded by some 96 smaller diamonds. The design was created around the same time that the Cullinan V heart-shaped brooch was designed, both having a similar shape. [47]

Cullinan VII Edit

Cullinan VII is also marquise-cut and weighs 8.8 carats (1.76 g). [33] It was originally given by Edward VII to his wife and consort Queen Alexandra. After his death she gave the jewel to Queen Mary, who had it set as a pendant hanging from the diamond-and-emerald Delhi Durbar necklace, part of the parure. [48]

Cullinan VIII Edit

Cullinan VIII is an oblong-cut diamond weighing 6.8 carats (1.36 g). [33] It is set in the centre of a brooch forming part of the stomacher of the Delhi Durbar parure. Together with Cullinan VI it forms a brooch. [47]

Cullinan IX Edit

Cullinan IX is smallest of the principal diamonds to be obtained from the rough Cullinan. It is a pendeloque or stepped pear-cut stone, weighs 4.39 carats (0.878 g), and is set in a platinum ring known as the Cullinan IX Ring. [49]


Parure of Jewellery from the Carthage Treasure - History

More a work of art than jewellery, the Queen of Sheba Parure, named after the Biblical monarch who was the richest woman in the world, is also the most expensive parure ever offered for sale in the history of humanity. It consists of large honey-coloured diamonds, white brilliant-cut diamonds, smaller honey-coloured diamonds, rose-cut and old-cut diamonds set in yellow and white gold (some of which has been oxidized). It was designed specially for Lady Colin Campbell, who has worn it in its entirety to royal events. She has also worn it without the tiara to such glamorous occasions as the Frederick and Jean Sharf dinner in Boston to celebrate the opening of the Scaasi Exhibition at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and says, "This is not only a parure of the greatest magnificence, which is guaranteed to have onlookers commenting upon at its splendour and delicacy, but it is also amazingly versatile.

One can wear just wear the earrings, ring and bracelet when going out informally, say with trousers and a cashmere sweater, to dinner in a restaurant such as Lucio's in London or Le Grenouille in New York. The combination, of yellow and white gold as well as oxidized white gold, with the honey-colouring of the main stones and the subtle sparkle of the white and smaller honey-coloured diamonds, means that it is perfect when worn with a variety of colours, especially grey, brown, beige, yellow, and black. When worn with the tiara, this parure is truly one of the most stupendous sights anyone will ever see. Not only is it worth more than many a publicly-listed company or blocks of the world's most valuable real estate, but it looks it too. Yet it is so delicately designed and wrought that it never looks ostentatious, simply the unique treasure that it is. What everyone comments upon is how magnificent yet feminine looking it is, and what superb workmanship has gone into its execution."

The parure consists of a tiara, necklace, long-drop earrings, ring and bracelet. In honey-coloured diamonds, white diamonds, old-cut and rose-cut diamonds set in yellow and white (some oxidized) 18 carat gold, it is £130,000,000.

Citrines could be used as substitutes for the honey-coloured diamonds, in which case the base price is £420,000. Travel replicas would be available for either the honey-coloured diamond or citrine parures at no extra cost.


Devonshire Parure

The Dukes of Devonshire are one of the wealthiest and most illustrious aristocrats in England, with a magnificent collection based at Chatsworth House, and being featured in ‘Treasures from Chatsworth, Presented by Huntsman,’ an original video series produced by Sotheby’s. Episode 11 of the series focuses on the Devonshire Parure, and gives information which differs from the information we knew previously about the parure. We previously covered the Tiaras in the collection of the Devonshire’s HERE.

The parure was described by the famous Deborah, Duchess of Devonshire, mother of the current Duke, in her book, Home to Roost, as: “consisting of seven monumental pieces of jewelry which, until you look closely at them, might have been pulled out of the dressing-up box. They are a bizarre combination of antique (Greek and Roman) and Renaissance cameos and intaglios carved from emeralds, rubies, sapphires, and semi-precious stones – cornelian, onyx, amethysts and garnets – set in gold and enamel of exquisite workmanship by C.F. Hancock of London. They were commissioned by the dear, old extravagant 6th Duke of Devonshire, ‘the Bachelor Duke’, for his niece, Countess Granville, to wear at the coronation of Tsar Alexander II in Moscow in 1856. This tiara and its companion necklace, stomacher, and bracelet are very prickly to wear. I know because I put them all on for a Women’s Institute performance when I was cast as ‘The Oldest Miss World in the World.’” The parure was also described similarly on the Chatsworth House collection website and on the Hannocks website.

However, in the episode from the ‘Treasures from Chatsworth’ series, which includes interviews by the Duke & Duchess of Devonshire, their daughter-in-law, Lady Burlington, and Hannah Obee, exhibitions curator at Chatsworth, the Duke describes the parure as having been commissioned for “the 6th Duke for his niece who was his female company when he went as ambassador to Tsar Nicholas II’s Coronation in Moscow” which took place in 1896.

The new description given by the Duke in the video differs from the description given by Deborah, Duchess of Devonshire and the official information given on two websites. I believe that the parure was made in 1856 because the 6th Duke (who commissioned the pieces) died in 1858, his nephew the Earl of Granville was the head of the British mission to the coronation in Moscow, and the style is very much of the renaissance revival jewelry made during the 1850s. I do wonder how they managed to mix up the dates and information for this Parure, when the rest of the video provides an excellent insight into the extraordinary jewel collection of the Devonshire’s. OPGEDATEER– I have received confirmation by the Duke of Devonshire, which said “I was wrong, and as you suggest the earlier accounts are correct.


Wedding-pictures of Marina Princess of Greece and Denmark and Georg Duke of Kent

3. the 36 Diamond Collet Necklace
(from George V) see on right, she wore it as bride.

4. the rectangular Diamond Brooch with the diagonal ruby and diamond motif in from of a bow across the centre of the brooch.
(from Queen Mary)

5. the Diamond Sautoir with detachable Pearl and Diamond drop (divisible into 4 bracelets)
(from King George V and Queen Mary)

6. Pearls (3 strands at the front and 2 at the back with 2 diamond motifs made from 372 historic family pearls since converted into a five strand choker with the diamond motifs)
(from the Duke of Kent)

7. a pearl bracelet to complement item 6
(from the Duke of Kent)

10. an oblong diamond brooch with square cluster centre and link ends
(from Queen Mary) (worn by Pss Marina on her wedding dress - small pic above)

13. a Pair of Diamond Drop Earrings Girandoles Audrey Whiting in The Kents: A Royal Family, 1985 writes that the Duke of Kent gave this gift, total 8 pieces of jewellery are given by the Duke of Kent to his bride.

14.Diamond Fringe Tiara mounted in gold and set in silver.This jewel is unusual in that it flares at the sides to charming effect, and unlike many other tiaras in kokoshnik style, it does not dismantle to make a necklace.
(given by the City of London)

15. a pair of platinum and diamond earrings (from the city of Birmingham)

Marina's gifts to George were a set of 4 ruby buttons and a leather-covered gold cigarette box with monogram G and a crown.

An official booklet listing the 1,048 names of people who had given wedding gifts was published.
-Princess Victoria has sent a black onyx cigarette box with marcassite fastening, -Prince Henry XXXIII of Reuss a jewelled box,
- the grand duke Dimitri a small jewelled
-King and Queen of Norway a blue enamel box.
- jade and diamond cigarette box from Boucheron with jewelled clasp and hinges.
-massive jewellery - witness Herz clip of chalcedony and sapphires mounted in platinum.
- vanity case of "styptor" from La Minauderie, set with sapphires and brilliants
-black suede Cartier bag, tortoiseshell clasps and the bride´s distinguished monogramm in gold.pictures and more >>

Engagement Ring /Verlobungsring
The Duke selecting pieces for his wife with a connoisseur`s eye.
His choice of engagement ring- a seven carat emerald-cut sapphire from Kashmir, shouldered by single baguette diamonds an mounted in platinum - like many other pieces reflected his exquisite taste more


Relics of Carthage Show Brutality Amid the Good Life

A TROVE of relics now arriving in New York contains evidence that the ritual slaying of children in ancient Carthage was so common that it helped control the growth of the population and helped families keep fortunes intact over generations, archeologists say.

And through these indirect economic effects, some scholars assert, the practice of infanticide helped produce Carthage's great wealth and its flowering of artistic achievement.

Among the treasures being uncrated at the American Museum of Natural History in New York are magnificent bronze figures, opulent jewelry and ornaments, and some of the most beautiful mosaics of antiquity. Such masterpieces, scholars believe, were made possible by the patronage of the merchant rulers of Carthage, whose wealth was without equal in the ancient world.

But the collection also includes cremation urns and religious paraphernalia of the kind used to sacrifice some 20,000 children from about 800 B.C. until Carthage's destruction by Roman invaders in 146 B.C. At the site where Carthage stood, now a wealthy suburb of Tunis on the north African coast, is a place scholars regard as the largest cemetery of sacrificed humans ever discovered.

The 175 pieces in the Carthaginian collection, whose five-month display at the museum begins in December, were lent by six Tunisian museums, which are the repositories of all Carthaginian relics. Some artifacts were found in current excavations.

Dr. David Soren of the University of Arizona, who spent seven years organizing the collection on behalf of the museum here and other sponsoring institutions, believes that it casts new light on a longstanding paradox. Carthage, the most important commercial center of its day, produced one of the greatest civilizations of antiquity, and yet it practiced ritual barbarities that horrified even its brutal contemporaries.

''There was a peculiar dualism in Carthage,'' Dr. Soren said, ''in which the thrust for commerce, prosperity and the good life were blended with a religion so intense that the richest Carthaginian could cheerfully consign a son or daughter to the flames of the sacrificial pit to redeem a pledge to the gods.''

Not all scholars believe that the sacrifice of children in Carthage was widespread or systematic. The Carthaginian artifacts now in New York typify the kind of evidence that is fueling scientific debate on the issue.

''This debate has something in common with disagreements among anthropologists as to whether or not any society ever practiced ritual cannibalism,'' said Dr. Lawrence E. Stager, professor of Middle Eastern archeology at Harvard University, In both debates, he said in an interview, scholars have sometimes been influenced by their feelings about the societies involved. ''Some scholars,'' he said, ''regard Carthaginian civilization as so advanced and sophisticated that widespread human sacrifice would have been unthinkable.''

He suggested that this view may have influenced the opinions of the French archeologists Claude Schaeffer and Helene Benicho-Safar and Moshe Weinfeld of Israel, who are among the scholars who doubt Carthaginian human sacrifice was extensive. Some See ɺ Bad Rap'

''Their contention,'' he said, ''is this: Carthage was vanquished and its records were destroyed. Carthaginian history was therefore handed down by the enemies of Carthage, namely Greece and Rome, and Carthage has therefore had a bad rap.''

For example, the 3d-century B.C. Greek author Kleitarchos is credited with the following report from Carthage, in which the author refers to the the Greek equivalent of the Carthaginian god Baɺl Hammon:

''Out of reverence for Kronos the Phoenicians, and especially the Carthaginians, whenever they seek to obtain some great favor, vow one of their children, burning it as a sacrifice to the deity, if they are especially eager to gain success. There stands in their midst a bronze statue of Kronos, its hands extended over a bronze brazier, the flames of which engulf the child. When the flames fall upon the body, the limbs contract and the open mouth seems almost to be laughing, until the body slips quietly into the brazier.''

But anti-Carthaginian propaganda or not, the evidence of classical writers is now supported by some of the pathetic objects at the American Museum of Natural History gathered from the Precinct of Tanit, the huge and sinister children's cemetery of ancient Carthage.

''Some have argued that those children died natural deaths and that the Precinct of Tanit is an ordinary cemetery,'' Dr. Stager said. 'ɻut in an ordinary Carthaginian necropolis, one finds normal proportions of both adults and children, some cremated and some not.

'ɺt the Precinct of Tanit, however, there are only cremated children ranging in age from still-born fetuses to children four years old. There are also bodies of young cremated animals. The charred bones of both children and animals were buried individually in special clay urns with stone markers dedicating them by a special symbol to Tanit, the preeminent Carthaginian goddess, and to Baɺl Hammon, of whom Tanit was the consort. The graves in normal cemeteries do not have these dedicatory markers.'' Grave Markers' Stick Figures

The art and artifacts assembled in New York include urns and markers gathered in recent expeditions from the Precinct of Tanit. The grave markers are decorated with a peculiarly primitive stick figure representing the bloodthirsty goddess.

From its earliest days in the 8th century B.C., Carthage sacrificed animals (lambs and kids) to Baɺl and Tanit, dedicating the offerings as ''substitutes for children.'' Traditionally, Dr. Stager said, archeologists have tended to the view that as Carthage advanced over the following 600 years, the practice of human sacrifice subsided as the sacrifice of animal substitutes increased. This is in keeping with the supposition by historians that human sacrifice, at first transformed into animal sacrifice, eventually evolved into the bloodless wine-and-wafer Eucharist of Christianity.

But excavations led by Dr. Stager and others have shown, he said, that in Carthage, the trend was reversed. The oldest burial layers at the Precinct of Tanit hold urns containing burned skeletal remains in the ratio of three children for one animal, but in a later era, the 3d century B.C., the ratio increased to ten children for one animal.

''It has yet to be proved,'' he said, 'ɻut the evidence is accumulating that Carthage found religion to be a convenient basis for controlling the size of the population.

''In the first place, Carthage became extremely crowded as it prospered. According to the Greek geographer Strabo, the capital city had 800,000 people at its peak, and even allowing for exaggeration, Carthage probably had a minimum of 100,000. Farmers and nomads, including ancient Berbers closely related to today's Berbers, moved in large numbers to the city. This would have been a huge population for the time, and might have stretched food and other resources.''

Dr. Stager believes that a major reason for the depletion of resources may have been the large-scale abandonment of farms as farmers sought the opportunities afforded by life in the big city.

Dr. Stager sees an important clue in the fact that a very high proportion of sacrificed children seem to have come from the wealthy class that ruled plutocratic Carthage. Rich Carthaginians were anxious to avoid having to divide their estates among many offspring, he believes, and solved potential inheritance problems by handing unwanted heirs over to the priests of the cult of Tanit. During the Tokugawa period in Japan, he said, child sacrifice for similar reasons became common. In feudal Europe, the rule of primogeniture helped to ensure that an estate would descend intact to a single heir. Lower Classes, Too

Child sacrifice in Carthage was gradually '⟞mocratized,'' he said. The children sacrificed during the 5th century B.C. were nearly all ''offered'' by parents of the elite class by the 3d century B.C., many of the offeratory markers were from parents in the professional classes and even mere artisans.

Excavations have been hampered by modern housing developments since the children's bones were first discovered in 1921. Carthage, a fashionable seaside suburb, is the site of the Tunisian presidential palace, and real estate values there have soared.

In 1974 the United Nations, assisted by institutions from 12 countries, began a drive to ''save Carthage'' by preserving or studying as many ancient Carthaginian sites as possible in the face of rapid urban sprawl.

''We were already too late,'' Dr. Stager said, 'ɺnd it is now harder than ever to get permission to dig in the garden of somebody's villa. We have not even been able to determine the exact boundaries of the Precinct of Tanit.''

Archeologists point out, too, that in the sack of Carthage in 146 B.C. the Romans razed the city, even exporting the multicolored marble rubble for use in Roman construction projects abroad. Any Carthaginian documents or literature that may have been written on parchment or papyrus has long perished. Even the last-ditch expeditions of the past several years to save what was left have failed to turn up ostraca - texts written in ink on fragments of pottery. Such records made by the Phoenicians, the ancestors of the Carthaginians, are often found elsewhere.

Another threat to the vanishing traces of Carthage is water, Dr. Stager said. A rise in the water table linked to changes in land use has immersed the pre-Roman layers of Carthage, and pumps are needed for excavation.

In the 3d century B.C., Carthage was the equal of Rome in power, wealth and pomp, but in 146 B.C., at the conclusion of the three bitter Punic wars, Rome wiped the Carthaginian capital off the map. However, in its place arose a new Roman Carthage, and Dr. Soren points out that Carthage did not entirely die with the Roman conquest. Rome forced the Carthaginians to learn Latin and to give up human sacrifices, but Carthaginian sculptors and artists were soon enriching the Roman empire with their unique gifts. They also continued to worship Baɺl in his new incarnation as the Roman god Saturn. Hannibal's Elephant

Some of Carthage's most magnificent polychrome mosaics of hunting scenes, feasts and gladiatorial contests date from its period as a colony of Rome. One mosaic on loan for this exhibit depicts a fanciful elephant in the coils of an immense python.

The great Carthaginian general Hannibal used elephants in crossing the Alps to Italy in 218 B.C. and in the course of his campaigns, Hannibal almost wiped out Rome's defenses. But 38 years after Hannibal's death, Rome won its revenge: the destruction of its rival.

The anonymous artist who created the great elephant mosaic may have been thinking of Hannibal's elephants and the lost greatness of Carthage as he worked. ''In any case,'' a museum official said, ''the artist certainly left us something beautiful to take our minds off those poor Carthaginian children.''


Ancient Style, Modern Appeal: Our New Neoclassical Jewelry

The inspiration for our Roman Cameo Jewelry, Roman Acorn Jewelry, and Roman Finial Jewelry is a beautiful neoclassical parure, or matched jewelry set, in The Met collection. Created in Italy in the mid-19th century, it comprises a splendid gold tiara, necklace, and brooch, pictured below. This extravagant parure is currently on view in the dazzling exhibition “Jewelry: The Body Transformed” at The Met Fifth Avenue.

Parure: tiara, necklace, and brooch. Cameos carved by Luigi Saulini (Italian, 1819–1883). Diadem designed by John Gibson (British, 1790–1866). Italian, Rome. Onyx and gold, tortoiseshell, mid-19th century. The Milton Weil Collection, 1940 40.20.55a–c

Cameo-laden parures with tiaras were popularized by Napoleon’s sisters and the ladies of his court, a taste that survived for at least a half century. Neoclassical parures linked the aristocratic women with ancient Greece and Rome and emphasized their imperial status. An opulent parure such as this ornate example at The Met could add an aura of timeless royalty to its wearer.

All three pieces are decorated with cameos by Luigi Saulini, who learned hardstone and shell carving from his adopted father, and continued in the family trade from a successful shop in the Via del Babuino in Rome. Saulini’s large central cameo in the tiara (shown at top) shows Nausicaa from Homer’s Odyssee in this detailed scene, the princess’s companions lavish attention on her—fixing her hair, bringing her jewelry, and reflecting her beauty in a mirror. All but one of the other cameos in the parure depict ancient marble statues found in Rome: the Belvedere Apollo, the Discobolus, Cupid and Psyche, and Eros stringing his bow.

The Met is fortunate to own other extraordinary cameos by Saulini, such as these two, below.

Left: Cupid with a Dog. Luigi Saulini (Italian, 1819–1883). Italian, Rome. Shell, gold, 1860–70. Bequest of Maria Morgan, 1892 93.6.2 Right: Bust of a bearded man in a cap. Luigi Saulini (Italian, 1819–1883). Italian, Rome. Onyx, gold mount, mid-19th century. Gift of Assunta Sommella Peluso, Ada Peluso, and Romano I. Peluso, in memory of Ignazio Peluso, 2004 2004.519

A document that came with the parure to the Museum in 1929 claimed the gold mounts were designed by John Gibson (1790–1866), a British sculptor residing in Rome, and executed by Castellani, the famous Roman goldsmithing firm. Throughout the 19th century, three generations of the Castellani family―Fortunato Pio, his sons Alessandro and Augusto, and his grandson Alfredo―manufactured fine gold jewelry for an important and wealthy clientele. The firm’s most renowned designs were inspired by exquisite Greek, Roman, and Etruscan antiquities excavated in Italy, which they called “archaeological” jewelry.

Necklace with cameo of Veronica’s Veil. Firm of Castellani. Italian, Rome. Gold, sapphires, ca. 1870. Gift of Judith H. Siegel, 2014 2014.713.1

Castellani’s focus on historical styles included actual involvement in the antiquities trade: the company sponsored excavations, dealt in exhumed objects, restored artifacts, and proudly displayed ancient treasures in their grand jewelry store on Via del Corso. Though it isn’t certain that the parure’s gold mounts were made by Castellani, Saulini’s carving studio was indeed near Gibson’s, and many artists turned to Castellani for mounts in the best “archaeological” style.

Right: Roman Acorn and Leaf Bracelet in sterling silver Center: Roman Cameo Drop Earrings in sterling silver with resin and cultured freshwater pearls Left: Roman Finial Pendant Necklace in sterling silver

Our new collection in sterling silver was made with the finest materials in the New York City atelier of goldsmith Donna Distefano, whose luxurious designs are inspired by her love of medieval art and literature, Renaissance paintings, and ancient techniques. Each eternally stylish item showcases decorative details suggested by this fascinating neoclassical parure. Shop our new earrings, necklaces, and more here.


Kyk die video: Accessories, jewelry, and gold for the bride, events and engagement 2021 elegant and elegant (Januarie 2023).

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