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Seshat, Luxor -tempel

Seshat, Luxor -tempel


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Verstaan ​​die verskil tussen kultus- en lyks tempels

Ek het 'n vraag gevra deur 'n gas wat by Flats in Luxor gebly het; ons kyk na die tempel van Hatshepsut wat u vanaf die balkon kan sien. Dit is perfek beantwoord deur 'n opstel wat ek moes doen, en hy stel voor ek deel dit.

Wat is die verskille en ooreenkomste tussen 'n kultus -tempel en 'n koninklike tempel van die Nuwe Koninkryk?

Inleiding
Dit is verbasend dat die terminologie wat Egyptoloë al jare lank gebruik het om die tempels te beskryf, eintlik moeilik is om te definieer, dit blyk 'n erkende probleem te wees. Daar is ook klein variasies op hierdie terme, soos goddelik in plaas van kultus en gedenkteken in plaas van lykhuis. Moet hulle selfs gebruik word?

Die ou Egiptenare verwys verskillend na die twee tempelsoorte, “Mansion of Millions of Years ” (Hwt-n t-HH-m-mp.wt), vir lyks tempels en “Mansion of the God ” (hwt -nTr) vir die kultus -tempel, maar sonder om te definieer wat eintlik met die terme bedoel word. Tradisionele onderskeidings soos lykshuistempels aan die westelike oewer en kultus tempels in die ooste help nie, aangesien daar voorbeelde is van beide aan die teenoorgestelde kante. Sommige konings het ook meer as een tempel van elke tipe aan 'n ander kant van die rivier gebou. Tuthmosis III het byvoorbeeld 'n Tempel van Miljoene Jare gebou in Karnak, op die Oosoewer, die sogenaamde Feestsaal wat hy ook op die Wesoewer in die noordelike Assasif gebou het. Hierdie tempel word ook 'n tempel van 'n miljoen jaar genoem. Hy het ook in Deir el Bahri gebou en die tempel aan Amun opgedra, so dit is 'n voorbeeld van 'n kultus -tempel op die Wesoewer.

Dit is ook problematies om die gebied wat aan die koninklike lykshuiskultus gewy is, te gebruik as 'n definisie of die tempel 'n lykshuis is. Kan die Gurna -tempel van Seti I ernstig 'n lykshuis genoem word as die koninklike kultus 'n klein deel van die agterkant van die gebou is, wat bereik kan word deur die tempel te verlaat en teen die suidelike muur af te gaan. Terwyl die hooftempel kapelle bevat vir Osiris, Ptah, Amun, Mut en Khonsu, sowel as 'n sonaltaar wat soveel groter en meer prominent is. Dan is daar tempels soos die Seti I -tempel in Abydos, hoewel daar wel 'n kapel aan Seti I is, maar dit ook talle ander kapelle het, wat ons verhinder om te sê dat as die tempel 'n kapel vir die koning het, ongeag wat grootte, wat dit 'n lykshuis maak. Die tempel by Abydos is 'n baie spesiale kultus -tempel vir Osiris. Om die definisie van wat 'n lykshuis of kultus -tempel is, is gevolglik moeilik.

Gelukkig, vir die doeleindes van hierdie opstel, is ander bronne meer bereid om aan die een kant van die heining te kom. Die kultus -tempel is vir ons die maklikste om te verstaan, want dit is die plek waar 'n spesifieke god of gode woon en waar kultiese aktiwiteite plaasgevind het, wat ons aanbidding kan noem. Die lykhuis was daarenteen die koninklike weergawe van die lykshuise wat aan private grafte geheg is, en die belangrikste doel daarvan was om offerandes te bied vir die gebruik van die dooie koning en om sy voordelige voortbestaan ​​in die hiernamaals te verseker. Vir ons doeleindes kan ons hierdie vereenvoudigde definisie aanvaar. Die eerste lykshuis wat deur Hatshepsut gebou is, is inderdaad gebou aan die oostekant van die monument rondom die graf wat die tempel van die ou koninkryk aan die kant van 'n piramide naboots. Dit was net die feit dat haar struktuur die redelik groot natuurlike berg was.

Agtergrond
Dit was eers in die nuwe koninkryk dat tempels van klip gebou is. Ons kennis van wat hulle voorafgegaan het of hoe die ontwerp tot stand gekom het, is noodwendig skraal, aangesien hul voorgangers nie oorleef nie. Kemp stel voor dat die geskiedenis en ontwerp van die tempel gekategoriseer kan word as Early Formal, Mature Formal en Late Formal. Die tempels van die Nuwe Koninkryk val in die kategorie Volwasse Formele. Dit is waarskynlik dat die uitleg soortgelyk was aan vroeëre tempels, daar moes altyd 'n spesiale heilige gebied gewees het waar die standbeeld van die God gewoon het. Dit was op 'n hoër vlak as die res van die gebied, en die latere ontwerp van effens stygende vloervlak kopieer dit.

Ontwerp
Dit lyk asof die algehele plan losweg gedefinieer is, en die keuse van en die aantal elemente, binnehof, saal en heiligdom, 'n kwessie van persoonlike keuse was. Die lykshuis het dieselfde elemente gebruik: oop binnehof, hypostyle -sale, heiligdom, in dieselfde volgorde, wat die kultus -tempel die inspirasie vir die tempel gemaak het. Die tempel het nie net bestaan ​​uit die tempel nie, maar al die bygeboue, tuine, berging, werkswinkels en behuising. Sien figuur 1. Daar kan aan beide sekulêre en goddelike vereistes voldoen word. Prosessiewe maniere, hoewel dit buite die tempelgrense 'n belangrike deel van die algemene ontwerp is, waar God die mense ontmoet het, selfs al was hy in die blanke heiligdom verborge. Die algemene ontwerp van die tempel was ook nie styf nie, hoewel verskillende elemente oor die algemeen opgeneem is. Alhoewel daar nougeset daarna gesoek is, is daar by die Ramasseum geen heilige meer of put gevind nie. Elke koning sou dus die elemente wat hy verkies, kies of beklemtoon.

Behalwe die patroon van 'n huis, volg die tempel ook die ontwerp van die wêreld rondom hulle. Plafonne is bedek met sterre, kolomme het die vorm van papirus en lotus en miskien dat die golwende mure gebou is om die waters van Nun na te boots en dat die pilare die hiëroglief vir die horison verteenwoordig. Oriëntasie is oor die algemeen van Oos na Wes, hoewel daar af en toe uitsonderings is soos die Luxor -tempel. Dit het beteken dat die son tussen die pilare sou opkom en ondergaan.

Die eksterne versiering van die tempel toon wat die koning wou hê dat mense van hom moes weet en die interne wat hy wou hê dat die gode van hom moes weet. Die voorkant van die pyloon toon dikwels oorlogsagtige tonele. Die koning wat sy vyande verslaan, is 'n algemene tema en dra die verborge betekenis van die koning wat eksterne chaos in sy rol van aanvoerder van Maat onderwerp. Die pyle in Karnak het baie voorbeelde hiervan. 'N Ander algemene toneel is dat die koning heldhaftig en oorlogsugtig is in 'n wa wat pyle teen vyande afvuur. Verskeie gode vergesel die tonele, dikwels die God van die kultus -tempel, 'n opname -God soos Thoth of Seshat of 'n alternatiewe oorlogsugtige God soos Neith of Sekhmet. Dikwels is daar 'n lys van gevange dorpe, en dit sou 'n propaganda -voordeel bygevoeg het.

Binne die tempel sal die koning gewys word om offers aan die gode te bring, beide die God van die tempel en ander gode in die panteon. Terselfdertyd betoon die koning eerbied vir die gode, en die gode sal die koning beloon vir hierdie toewyding. Belangrike gebeure in die koning se lewe word gereeld opgeteken. Byvoorbeeld die kroning van die koning, voorbeelde is by Medinet Habu en Karnak.

Funksie
Die funksie van 'n kultus -tempel was om 'n verborge plek te bied vir die standbeeld van die god en 'n plek vir teater. Die tempel was 'n moontlike plek (s) vir 'n Heb Seb- of kroningsviering, maar die belangrikste was dat dit die huis van die God was, waar hy/sy gebly het, offerandes ontvang is, wierook gebrand, spesifieke klere gedra, danse uitgevoer en die God herleef. Kulturtempels kan op nasionale of plaaslike vlak wees, nasionale kan funksies soos die kroning van die koning of sy Heb Seb -fees aanbied.

Dit was ook belangrik dat die koning gesien word hoe hy tempels bou. Daar moes gesien word dat die koning vir ewig aan die gode offer.

Ons gebruik van die woord priester dra baie bagasie uit ons eie kultuur, dit impliseer byvoorbeeld pastorale sorg van die gemeente, onderrig in die teologie en oorgangsrites, soos doop. Dit was nie aspekte van die rol van 'n Egiptiese priester nie. Hy was 'n dienskneg van die God en sy rol was om die god te dien. Net soos 'n bediende in 'n gewone huis.

Vergelyking
Wat is die verskille en ooreenkomste tussen 'n tempel en 'n kultus -tempel? 'N Lykhuis het 'n kapel ten bate van die koning en die koninklike ka. Hierdie tempel is die plek vir offerandes en die tempel self is gebaseerde kultustempels. Dit hoef nie die belangrikste of enigste funksie van die tempel te wees nie, maar kan beperk word tot 'n klein gedeelte van die tempel, soos die van Seti I. Die ontwerp is egter dieselfde vir beide tempels wat een of meer van die verskillende elemente uit alle die moontlike vir beide tempelkompleks en die werklike gebou.

Daar is ook ander, minder belangrike verskille. In plaas daarvan dat God koppe aan die sfinkse verwant het, soos ramme met die sfinks by Karnak- en Luxor -tempels, is daar sfinkse met jakkalse. Merenptah en Ramses II het tientalle hiervan by hul slape gehad en daar is nog voorbeelde op die terrein. Daar is dikwels 'n tempelpaleis aan 'n lykshuis. Dit was nie die plek waar die koning gewoon het nie, maar slegs 'n somerhuis of piekniekhut wat tydens seremonies by die tempel gehou is, aangesien daar geen kombuise was nie.

Dit is dus die funksie wat in die twee tipes tipes verskil, nie die ontwerp, ligging of elemente nie, en hierdie funksie kan beperk word tot 'n klein deel van die tempel

'N Goeie voorbeeld van 'n lykshuis is die tempel van Seti I. Die poort van die eerste pylon is van kalksteen en is versier. Dit het twee oop binnehowe met 'n moontlike dakkolonade wat lei na 'n portiek met drie ingange. Aan die linker- of suidekant van die eerste binnehof is 'n klein tempelpaleis. Dit het twee ingange en in die middel is daar 'n pilaargang met trappe wat na 'n venster verskyn. Hierdie vensters het die koning toegelaat om aan geselekteerde individue te verskyn, omring deur tonele wat krag en majesteit toon, dikwels om duur belonings soos goue krae aan te bied.

Die tweede binnehof is op 'n hoër vlak as die eerste binnehof en is die Heb Seb -binnehof. Hierdie binnehof is omring deur 'n muur. Die regter (mees noordelike) ingang lei na 'n oop gebied met 'n altaar wat gebruik word vir die aanbidding van die son. Die sentrale ingang lei na 'n hypostyle -saal met 'n aantal sykamers. Sy -kapelle wys hoe die koning offerande bring of wat hy oor hom gooi.

Dit lei dan tot 5 kapelle gewy aan Amun, Mut en Khonsu, die Thebaanse drieklank, met die toevoeging van kapelle aan Osiris en Ptah. Hierdie kapelle is versier met foto's van die barke -heiligdom en die koning wat daaraan offer. Bo die ingange is foto's van die god aan wie die kapel gewy is. Die sentrale gebied is versier met 2 godinne wat die koning suig en baie tonele ter viering van die 'Pragtige Fees van die Vallei'. Die tempel van Seti sou die eerste stop op die westelike oewer van hierdie belangrike fees gewees het. Die koning word onveranderlik getoon, buigend, knielend of neig voor die gode. Die tempel is in lyn met die Karnak -tempel en vanaf die heuwel agter die tempel is die eerste pilaar duidelik sigbaar. Die heuwel wat die Koningsvallei oorheers, oorheers die tempel

Die linker- of suidelike ingang lei na 'n kapel gewy aan Ramses I, wat nooit tyd gehad het om sy eie tempel te bou nie. Aan die agterkant van hierdie subtempel is 'n paar fyn vals deure. Deur die kapel aan die sykant te verlaat en agter die valse deure van die tempelgebied Ramses I te gaan, is daar 'n verdere kapel vir die koninklike lykshuis. Dit is die deel wat dit anders maak as 'n kultus -tempel, daar was 'n spesifieke gebied waar die koning gebring kon word wat in die Vallei van die Konings begrawe is. Die ingange is met mekaar verbind. Die heiligvloer is hoër as dié wat dit voorafgaan en die dak is laer, die kleinste, donkerste plek. Die dak van die tempel het voetspore in die vloer gekap, so dit moes 'n mate van betekenis gewees het.

Die tempel van Khonsu in Karnak is 'n uitstekende voorbeeld van 'n kultus -tempel, aangesien die ontwerp samehangend uitgevoer word deur 'n beperkte aantal konings Ramses III, IV en XII. As daar baie konings by die ontwerp betrokke is, soos by Karnak, is die ontwerp moeiliker om te sien, aangesien daar soveel toevoegings en herwerkings is. Die poort moet geïgnoreer word, aangesien dit buite die tydperk is wat Ptolemaïs is.

Die tempel is verbind met die Temple of Mut- en Luxor -tempel deur 'n laan van sfinkse wat na 'n pylon lei. Die as is suid/noord, wat waarskynlik bepaal word deur die behoefte om in lyn te kom met die Luxor -tempel via die sfinkslaan. 'N Soortgelyke aksiale verandering is in die Luxor -tempel deur Ramses II aangebring,

Hierdie laan sou die optogte tussen die verskillende tempels aangebied het, en 'n geleentheid vir die bevolkings om die bakkie met die beeld van die God te sien. Binne die pylon is 'n trap wat na die bokant lei en verskeie '#8216 vensters' kan aan die bokant gesien word.

Agter die pylon is daar net een oop binnehof met 'n dakdek, die kolomme is geslote papirusknoppe. 'N Trappie lei na die hypostyle -saal, wat deur hemelvensters verlig word en voorbeelde bevat van oop papirushoofstede. Die kolomme ondersteun 'n hoër sentrale dak met geslote knophoofstede wat die sydak ondersteun. Die hemelvensters is ingebou aan die sywand tussen die hoë sentrale dak en die sydakke. Die tempel styg verder tot die gebied van die barke -heiligdom en daar rondom ambulant is. As die tempelvloer styg, daal die dakvlak. Aan die suid -oostelike hoek is 'n trap wat na die dak lei, met 'n kapel. Daar is sykamers en agter in die kleinste, donkerste plek, die heiligdom.

Die binnenshuise versiering is van die koning wat 'n verskeidenheid gode en barke van die gode aanbied, nie net vir Khonsu nie. Slegs die ambulante en binnekapelle is versier deur konings van die Nuwe Koninkryk, hoofsaaklik Ramses III en Ramses IV. Die Thebaanse drieklank oorheers, maar die ander maangod, Thoth, is ook teenwoordig. Khonsu word getoon as 'n god met 'n valk met 'n maanmaan en 'n jong seuntjie met 'n voorlok van jeug en maanteken

Daar is ook belangrike ikoniese beelde, soos die koning wat verliese en die eenwording van die twee lande ontvang. Die buitekant van die pylon is nie versier nie, maar as dit klaar is, sal die koning ongetwyfeld wys dat hy sy vyande slaan of 'n soortgelyke oorlog soos uitbeelding. Die tempel sou 'n aantal standbeelde gehad het en daar is nog 'n paar wat oorbly, insluitend 'n bobbejaan wat verband hou met maan- en songode.

Afsluiting
Ten slotte is daar geen of min verskil in ontwerp of versiering tussen 'n lykhuis en 'n kultus -tempel, net die funksie. Elemente soos pilare, binnehowe, heiligdomme kan in albei verskyn


Seshat, Luxor -tempel - Geskiedenis

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    • Tempel van Ptah (ligging)
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    • Hathor Cistern (ligging)
    • Paleis van Apries (ligging)
    • Gesinkte kript (ligging)
    • Gesonke tempel van Ramses (ligging)
    • Memphites Barracks
    • Apagogeas Hideout (ligging)
    • Wabet (ligging)
    • Beskadigde soldaat se kas (ligging)
    • Omorli Villa (ligging)
    • Yuny's Beset Villa (ligging)
    • Fai-Jon Lamentu Crypt (ligging)
    • Bureau of the Hidden Ones (ligging)
    • Bonus Quest: 'n geskenk van die gode
    • Rites of Anubis (Side Quest)
    • Eerste Bloed (Side Quest)
    • When Night Falls (Side Quest)
    • Mryitmw High (ligging)
    • 'N Rebel Alliance (Side Quest)
    • Graf van Djoser (ligging)
    • Graf van Sneferu (ligging)
    • Gebuigde piramide van Sneferu (ligging)
    • Hugros Hideout (ligging)
    • Per ons skuilplek (ligging)
    • Stranded Natron Caravan (ligging)
    • Psammos Hideout (ligging)
    • Ongelukkige stash (ligging)
    • Verwoeste tempel van Mafdet (ligging)
    • Ekdikesis buitepos (ligging)
    • Hyena Lair (ligging)
    • Aasvoëllaer (ligging)
    • Luiperdlaer (ligging)
    • Cobra Lair (ligging)
    • Die krokodil se weegskaal (hoof soeke)
    • Moord in die tempel (Side Quest)
    • Feeding Faiyum (Side Quest)
    • Curse of Wadjet (Side Quest)
    • Rebel Strike (Side Quest)
    • Smee Siwa (Side Quest)
    • Die siekte (byvoeging)
    • Sobek's Gold (Side Quest)
    • Vure van Dionysus (Side Quest)
    • Demone in the Desert (Side Quest)
    • Die bruid (Side Quest)
    • Tawaret Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Eremites Hideout (ligging)
    • Vissteenkring (ligging)
    • Valley Market (ligging)
    • Sarapeion van Karanis (ligging)
    • Dionysias Wharf (ligging)
    • Cleon's Wharf (ligging)
    • Wadjet's Burrow (ligging)
    • Pannouki Hideout (ligging)
    • Bakchias (ligging)
    • Beached Trireme Camp (ligging)
    • Dionysias Caravanserai (ligging)
    • Euhemeria -vuurtoringkamp (ligging)
    • Okteres -blokkade (ligging)
    • Bedekte graanwinkel (ligging)
    • Euhemeria Royal Granary (ligging)
    • Verlate vissersdorpie (ligging)
    • Verwoeste Felucca (ligging)
    • Oikos in beslag geneem (ligging)
    • Aangevraagde Dionysias -huis (ligging)
    • Philoteris (ligging)
    • Gesonke Trireme (ligging)
    • Gesonke tempel van Pnepheros (ligging)
    • Senwosret II -tempel (ligging)
    • West Moeris Trireme (ligging)
    • Sea of ​​Sobek Anchorage (ligging)
    • Shi-Wer Anchorage (ligging)
    • East Moeris Trireme (ligging)
    • Vault of Wonders (ligging)
    • Underground Stash (ligging)
    • Golden Horn Island (ligging)
    • Ketket Cove Hideout (ligging)
    • Seekoei -leêr (ligging)
    • Hyena Lair (ligging)
    • Aasvoëllaer (ligging)
    • Die krokodil se kake (Main Quest)
    • Shadya's Rest (Side Quest)
    • Veg vir Faiyum (Side Quest)
    • Sobek's Tears (Side Quest)
    • Jaws of Sobek (Side Quest)
    • Slegte Geloof (Side Quest)
    • Die kampioen (syvraag)
    • The Man Beast (Side Quest)
    • Tempel van Sobek (ligging)
    • House of Iwn (ligging)
    • Kerkesoucha Granary (ligging)
    • Hephaistias Wharf (ligging)
    • Dioryx Megale Wharf (ligging)
    • South Moeris Trireme (ligging)
    • Rubbayat Necropolis (ligging)
    • Neorion Navel Arsenal (ligging)
    • Gedokte Naukleros -skip (ligging)
    • Faiyum Nomarch Villa (ligging)
    • Philadelphia Royal Granary (ligging)
    • Schena Wab (ligging)
    • Psenhyris Trireme Wharf (ligging)
    • Sesen Grotto (ligging)
    • Beslag gelê op Stathmos (ligging)
    • Ondergedompelde rietpakton (ligging)
    • Piamouei Colossi (ligging)
    • Krokodillaer (ligging)
    • Plight of the Rebels (Side Quest)
    • Apis Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Bokvis -steensirkel (ligging)
    • Goue graf (ligging)
    • Oun-mAa Niye Ressoot (ligging)
    • Graf van die nomades (ligging)
    • Alexander se tempel (ligging)
    • Kaminada Stairwell (ligging)
    • Hmat Oasis (ligging)
    • Begrafnisonderzoek (ligging)
    • Demiourgos -altaar (ligging)
    • Ouahe (ligging)
    • Kamp Tamaris (ligging)
    • Kamp Hetoimazo (ligging)
    • Camp Dory (ligging)
    • Kamp Khoikos (ligging)
    • Kamp Xeros (ligging)
    • Pissa Oros Citadel (ligging)
    • Bathoslythos Ridge (ligging)
    • Hyena Lair (ligging)
    • Aasvoëllaer (ligging)
    • Aasvoëllaer 2 (ligging)
    • Bewail Mountain Cave (ligging)
    • Saragina -kamp (ligging)
    • Luiperdlaer (ligging)
    • Lion Lair (ligging)
    • Ongesiene oë (Side Quest)
    • The Good Roman (byvoeging)
    • Balagrae Roman Barracks (ligging)
    • Een slegte appel (Side Quest)
    • Vryheid neem (Side Quest)
    • Carpe Diem (Side Quest)
    • Halo of the Huntress (Side Quest)
    • Shadows of Apollo (Side Quest)
    • Asklepieion (ligging)
    • Oracle of Apollo (ligging)
    • Aquaeductus Kyrenaike (ligging)
    • Auritania Roman Tower (ligging)
    • Romeinse wagtoring (ligging)
    • Kyrenaika Roman Citadel (ligging)
    • Buitepos van Prasinos (ligging)
    • Roman Quarry Camp (ligging)
    • Collis Roman Hunting Camp (ligging)
    • Akabis Roman Tower (ligging)
    • Bandit Hideout (ligging)
    • Necropolis Hideout (ligging)
    • Kastor High Hideout (ligging)
    • Poludeukes Hideout (ligging)
    • Desperate Gully Hideout (ligging)
    • Refugee Haven (ligging)
    • Houtdepots (ligging)
    • Poimen Relay (ligging)
    • Theras Ampelos (ligging)
    • Ruïnes van die meer van die wolke (ligging)
    • Luiperdlaer (ligging)
    • Aasvoëllaer (ligging)
    • Roman Camp of Surus (ligging)
    • Sy geheime diens (Side Quest)
    • Chernsonesos Roman Fort (ligging)
    • Livius Roman Tower (ligging)
    • Thintis Roman Tower (ligging)
    • Bemulos Roman Tower (ligging)
    • Hydrax Roman Camp (ligging)
    • Verlate uitkykpunt (ligging)
    • Kelida Hideout (ligging)
    • Theodoros Roadside Camp (ligging)
    • Endumion's Nemein (ligging)
    • Legio XXXVII Roman Docks (ligging)
    • Archile Pandocheion (ligging)
    • Hudor -fontein (ligging)
    • Erython Dye Workshops (ligging)
    • Heiligdom na Hygeia (ligging)
    • Kaapse Chersonesos -nedersetting (ligging)
    • Lion Lair (ligging)
    • Great Twins Stone Circle (ligging)
    • White Desert Sobek Ruins (ligging)
    • Whymhty Vault (ligging)
    • Wilde watervalle skuilplek (ligging)
    • Larder Station Hideout (ligging)
    • Djbt Jm Hideout (ligging)
    • Desheret Dewu (ligging)
    • Skuilplek van Herwennefer (ligging)
    • Sewe Boere (Side Quest)
    • Horus Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Scales Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Graf van die sinikus (ligging)
    • Trireme Stranding Camp (ligging)
    • Overwatch Tower (ligging)
    • Senehem Depths (ligging)
    • Arsinoites Quarry Hideout (ligging)
    • Verwoeste buitepos (ligging)
    • Seekoei -leêr (ligging)
    • Hyena Lair (ligging)
    • Seekoei -leêr (ligging)
    • Luiperdlaer (ligging)
    • Camp of Qetesh & amp Resheph (ligging)
    • Tempel van Thoth (ligging)
    • Graf van Smenkhkare (ligging)
    • Graf van Amenemhat III (ligging)
    • Eeyoo Sekedoo Aat (ligging)
    • Cleon's Dam (ligging)
    • Fort Boubastos (ligging)
    • Kalksteengroef (ligging)
    • Kleithra -dam (ligging)
    • Tempelargief (ligging)
    • Metallon Docks (ligging)
    • Etesias 'Olive Grove (ligging)
    • Iw vergete kas (ligging)
    • Lion Lair (ligging)
    • Die Matriarg (Side Quest)
    • Pakhuis van die toparches (ligging)
    • Kerke Wharf (ligging)
    • South Nile Trireme (ligging)
    • Aneb-Hetch Anchorage (ligging)
    • Onthaalde graf (plek)
    • Opos Kerkouros -wrak (ligging)
    • Luiperdlaer (ligging)
    • Weg van die Gabiniani (hoofsoek)
    • Aya: Blade of the Goddess (Main Quest)
    • Reunie (Side Quest)
    • Predator to Prey (Side Quest)
    • Rekonstrueer werk (Side Quest)
    • Los vrag (Side Quest)
    • Tempel van Khonsou (ligging)
    • Demense of Sekhem (Location)
    • Galenos se huis (ligging)
    • Mithidrates Roman Camp (ligging)
    • Kamp Nisi (ligging)
    • Nyl -delta -skip (ligging)
    • Sap-Meh Anchorage (ligging)
    • Carcer Roman Compound (ligging)
    • Neith Cradle Hideout (ligging)
    • Thenessos Hideout (ligging)
    • Lah Hideout (ligging)
    • Irsu's Huts (ligging)
    • Huntress Cave (ligging)
    • Zoiontegoi Shipwreck (ligging)
    • Desher Bluff (ligging)
    • Meketre's Cache (ligging)
    • Verwerpte boom (ligging)
    • Elephas bly (plek)
    • Wdj-ur Wreck (ligging)
    • Verlate Trireme (ligging)
    • Kheruel's Shelter (ligging)
    • Liontari Debacle (ligging)
    • Chata Pond (ligging)
    • Huis van Nehi (ligging)
    • Rand van die Herakleion (ligging)
    • Krokodillaer (ligging)
    • Seekoei -leêr (ligging)
    • Krokodillaer (ligging)
    • Krokodillaer (ligging)
    • Die Romeinse kamp van Jumbe (ligging)
    • Ra-Horakhty-bergtop (ligging)
    • Nomarch's Tomb (ligging)
    • Seshem.eff Er Aat (ligging)
    • Osiris Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Aquifer Oasis (ligging)
    • Hotep Cavern (ligging)
    • Is u nie vermaaklik nie? (Side Quest)
    • Dead in the Water (Side Quest)
    • Lure of Glory (Side Quest)
    • Stigende Vader (Side Quest)
    • Vlooi van Cyrene (Side Quest)
    • My broer vir 'n perd (Side Quest)
    • Speel met vuur (Side Quest)
    • Absolute krag (Side Quest)
    • The Mousetrap (Side Quest)
    • Kat en muis (Side Quest)
    • Smokkelaars van Cyrene (Side Quest)
    • Pax Romana (Side Quest)
    • Tempel van Zeus (ligging)
    • Apollonion of Cyrene (ligging)
    • Graf van Battos (ligging)
    • Die Akropolis (ligging)
    • Apollonia Roman Barracks (ligging)
    • Leander's Villa (ligging)
    • Cyrene Barracks (ligging)
    • West -Mediterreense Trireme (ligging)
    • Apollonia Fields (ligging)
    • Silphion Farm (ligging)
    • Gesinkte heiligdom van Aristoteles (ligging)
    • Thibron Expedition Shipwreck (ligging)
    • Ahment Anchorage (ligging)
    • Seth-Anat-graf (ligging)
    • Qeneb ook Kah'Aiye (ligging)
    • Is The Hidden Ones DLC die moeite werd?
    • Inkomende bedreiging (Intro Mission)
    • The Hidden Ones (Main Quest)
    • Land van turkoois (hoof soeke)
    • Waar die slawe sterf (Main Quest)
    • Die mure van die heerser (hoofsoek)
    • Die ondergaande son (hoofsoek)
    • Geen kettings te dik nie (hoofsoek)
    • Sic Semper Tyrannis (Main Quest)
    • Die Groter Goed (Hoof Soek)
    • Rise of Shaqilat (Side Quest)
    • Shadows of the Scarab (Side Quest)
    • The Killer Shadow (Side Quest)
    • Howls of the Dead (Side Quest)
    • Respekteer u broer (bysaak)
    • Die ballade van Si-Mut en Gertha (Side Quest)
    • Shards From a Star (Side Quest)
    • Castra Vetus Villam (Plek)
    • Operum Tuorum Gemmam Castra (ligging)
    • Paratiritirio (ligging)
    • Wall-of-the-Ruler (ligging)
    • Vilicus Castra (ligging)
    • Fort Clostra (ligging)
    • Ondergrondse buitepos (ligging)
    • Klysma Oil Cache (ligging)
    • Klysma Trireme (ligging)
    • Die Nekropolis (ligging)
    • Seshat's Sunken Temple (ligging)
    • Reaver's Canyon (ligging)
    • Tempel van Thoth (ligging)
    • Onderwatergroef (ligging)
    • Duat -eiland (ligging)
    • Grot van Ur'in (ligging)
    • Shur Quarry (ligging)
    • Vergete ruïne (ligging)
    • The Scarab's Trireme (ligging)
    • Die ingewande van die Sinai (ligging)
    • Lake Anubis (ligging)
    • Madiama (ligging)
    • Seshat's Grotto (ligging)
    • Dekonstrueerde monument (ligging)
    • Castra Pyramis (ligging)
    • Amenmesse Pyramid Camp (ligging)
    • Faucibis Amenmesse (ligging)
    • Tempel van Baäl (ligging)
    • Rooi See Trireme (ligging)
    • Castra Litore (ligging)
    • Die turkoois eiland (ligging)
    • Point Mafkat (ligging)
    • Sobek Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Ankh Stone Circle (ligging)
    • Klysma Nome Leopard Lair (ligging)
    • Klysma Nome Ibex Lair (ligging)
    • Klysma Nome Hyena Lair (ligging)
    • Madiama Nome Hyena Lair (ligging)
    • Madiama Nome Leopard Lair (ligging)
    • Madiama Nome Leopard Lair 2 (ligging)
    • Madiama Nome Vulture Lair (ligging)
    • Arsinoe Nome Crocodile Lair (ligging)
    • Stealthy Struik (Papyrus Riddle)
    • Goeie dinge kom. (Papyrus raaisel)
    • Verlore oorsaak (Papyrus Riddle)
    • Tool of Apis (Papyrus -raaisel)
    • Prestasies
    • Vind meer koolstofkristalle
    • Vrae oor eerste uur
    • Prestasiegids
    • Raaiselskatte
    • Curse of the Faraohs I (Main Quest)
    • Geen eer onder diewe nie (hoofsoek)
    • The Lady of Grace (Main Quest)
    • Aten Rising (Main Quest)
    • Die ketter (hoofsoek)
    • Curse of the Faraohs II (Main Quest)
    • Bloed in die water (hoofsoek)
    • Moederlose kind (Side Quest)
    • Curse of the Faraohs III (Main Quest)
    • King of Kings (Main Quest)
    • 'N Farao se hart en naam (bysaak)
    • A Pharoah's Hemset (Hoof soeke)
    • A Farao's Ka (hoof soeke)
    • The Theban Triad (Side Quest)
    • Burnt Offerings (Side Quest)
    • A Sister's Vow (Side Quest)
    • Idol Hands (Side Quest)
    • Master of the Secret Things (Side Quest)
    • Drowned Tools (Side Quest)
    • Unfair Trade (Side Quest)
    • National Treasures (Side Quest)
    • Fish out of Water (Side Quest)
    • Laid To Rest (Side Quest)
    • Crocodile Tears (Side Quest)
    • Losers Weepers (Side Quest)
    • Perchance to Dream (Side Quest)
    • Temple of Karnak (Location)
    • Luxor (Location)
    • Thebes Garrison (Location)
    • Theban Dock Guard Post (Location)
    • Tychon's Villa (Location)
    • Eastern Gate Guard Post (Location)
    • Southern Guard Post (Location)
    • Theban Archive (Location)
    • Seized Warehouse (Location)
    • Ship Graveyard (Location)
    • Thebes Nome Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Cursed Farm (Location)
    • Bandit Hut (Location)
    • Wrecked Felucca (Location)
    • Theban Guard Post (Location)
    • Broken Dock (Location)
    • Bonepicker Hideout (Location)
    • Thebes Nome Hippopotamus Lair (Location)
    • Temple of Hatshepsut (Location)
    • Temple of Hatshepsut Wharf (Location)
    • House of millions of years of Usermaatra-stepenra (Location)
    • The Worker's Necropolis (Location)
    • West Nile Guard Post (Location)
    • Nile Outpost (Location)
    • Nile Wharf (Location)
    • Valley of the Nobles (Location)
    • Pilgrim's Road (Location)
    • Necropolis of the Nobles (Location)
    • Necropolis of the Nobles Hideout (Location)
    • Theban Necropolis Vulture Lair (Location)
    • Colossi of Memnon (Location)
    • Shrine of Amun (Location)
    • Swenett Barracks (Location)
    • Flooded Farmhouse Hideout (Location)
    • Marshlands Hideout (Location)
    • Hunter's Dock (Location)
    • Fishing Village (Location)
    • Unknown Tomb (Location)
    • Tomb Robber's Hideout (Location)
    • Yebu Nome Crocodile Lair (Location)
    • Swenett Outpost (Location)
    • Swenett Guard Post (Location)
    • Pillager's Hideout (Location)
    • Cobra Oasis (Location)
    • Whispering Hollows Camp (Location)
    • Aladjata Hideout (Location)
    • Buried Temple Hideout (Location)
    • Disputed Well (Location)
    • Lost Quarry Hideout (Location)
    • Spring of Serqet (Location)
    • Old Kingdom Excavation Site (Location)
    • Yebu (Location)
    • Moon Curser Village (Location)
    • House of the Blue Lotus (Location)
    • Sunken Merchant Ships (Location)
    • Papyrus Estate (Location)
    • Vulture's Camp (Location)
    • Nut's Cavern Hideout (Location)
    • Waset Desert Leopard Lair (Location)
    • Yebu Nome Hyena Lair (Location)
    • Something Rotten (Main Quest)
    • Soured Libations (Main Quest)
    • Cleansing Rite (Main Quest)
    • Love or Duty (Side Quest)
    • The Palace of the Lady of Grace (Aaru)
    • Gate of Aaru (Aaru)
    • Desecrater's Camp (Location)
    • Nut's Gift (Aaru)
    • House of Libations (Aaru)
    • Nefertiti's Spring (Aaru)
    • The Leaning Statue (Aaru)
    • Lodge of Names (Aaru)
    • Royal Bakery (Aaru)
    • Foundation Offering (Aaru)
    • Brewer's Landing (Aaru)
    • Tower of Deathless Feathers (Aaru)
    • House of the Threshed Grain (Aaru)
    • Dock of the Eclipse (Aaru)
    • Serqet's Altar (Aaru)
    • Gods or Creed (Side Quest)
    • The Hawk (Side Quest)
    • The Cat (Side Quest)
    • The Ibis (Side Quest)
    • Guardians of Aten (Aten)
    • West Gate (Aten)
    • East Gate (Aten)
    • Bridge of Supplicants (Aten)
    • Wharf of the Aten (Aten)
    • Royal Palace (Aten)
    • King's House (Aten)
    • Royal Barracks (Aten)
    • Chambers of Reflection (Aten)
    • Great Temple of the Aten (Aten)
    • Shrine of Akhenaten (Aten)
    • Vault of the Aten (Aten)
    • House of the Warriors (Aten)
    • Forbidden Ruins (Aten)
    • House of the Sacred Crocodile (Aten)
    • Tomb of the Warrior (Aten)
    • Aten Crocodile Lair (Aten)
    • Serqet's Garden (Aten)
    • Shield or Blade (Side Quest)
    • A Necessary Evil (Side Quest)
    • The God's Spark (Side Quest)
    • Khepri's Amulet (Side Quest)
    • Sanctuary of Anubis (Duat)
    • Funeral Parlor Store (Duat)
    • Altar of Apep (Duat)
    • Hall of Knowing (Duat)
    • Central Gate (Duat)
    • Apep Khat (Duat)
    • Altar of the Guardians (Duat)
    • Lotus Cavern (Duat)
    • Funeral Parlor (Duat)
    • Guardian of Apep (Duat)
    • Caverns of Anubis (Duat)
    • Temple of Tutankhamun (Duat)
    • Natron Workshop (Duat)
    • Canyon Treasury (Duat)
    • Scorpion Lair (Duat)
    • Halls of Serqet (Duat)
    • Follower or Leader (Side Quest)
    • Pavilion of Judgement (Heb Sed)
    • Orion's Crater (Heb Sed)
    • Royal Guards Rest (Heb Sed)
    • Nomad's Rest (Heb Sed)
    • Gate of Heb Sed (Heb Sed)
    • Maryannu Camp (Heb Sed)
    • Valley of Scorpions (Heb Sed)
    • Caverns of the Valiant (Heb Sed)
    • The Siege of Dapur (Heb Sed)
    • Battlefield of Kadesh (Heb Sed)
    • Heb Sed Scorpion's Lair (Heb Sed)
    • Serqet's Chamber (Heb Sed)

    Seshat's Sunken Temple

    A shoreline ruin in Madiama Nome.

    Three treasures here, all of them underwater. The farthest out is just on the seafloor- a small red chest by the remains of wall.

    For the middle one, you'll need to dive down through the big square hole near the marker, then swim southeast.

    For the last, enter the underwater passage that leads right under the temple itself, and bear left at the crocodile statue.

    Snag this last treasure from a large red chest to complete the location, and don't forget you can fast travel while underwater.


    Festivals

    The most important Festival at Luxor was the Beautiful Feast of Opet. It was from this festival that the version of Amun worshiped at Luxor got his name, Amenemope. This name meant “Amun of the Opet” and the Egyptians called the temple the Southern Opet. The festival took place yearly during Akhet.

    Akhet was the season when the Nile flooded. The Egyptians associated the Opet Festival with fertility. It lasted for anywhere from eleven days to one month, depending on the period of Egypt’s history. During the festival, the statues of Amun, Mut and Khonsu at Karnak traveled to Luxor in small boats.

    © kairoinfo4u - Relief at Luxor, depicting the Beautiful Feast of Opet

    The exact meaning of some of the festival’s parts which are depicted at Luxor are difficult to determine. Scholars believe there was a sacred marriage ceremony involving the king and queen that was a part of the festival. They also think the Egyptians believed the festival restored the Pharaoh’s power. There was a ritual coronation ceremony where the king received crowns from different deities.


    Egyptian Gods: Seshat

    Seshat is the ancient Egyptian deity for wisdom, knowledge and writing whose following date back as early as the Second Dynasty. She hailed from Lower Egypt yet her following embraces the whole nation. She is the seen as a wife, daughter and sometimes a female aspect of the god of writing and moon, Thoth and mother of Hornub. Her name may also be spelled as Sesat, Seshet, Safkhet, Sesha, Sesheta or Seshata whose meaning is “she who scrivens” or “she who scribes”. She is credited to be the inventor of writing.

    She is the goddess and patron of architecture, astrology, astronomy, building, measurement mathematics, historical records and surveying. She is also patron of all types of writing like accounting, the taking of census and auditing. According to a certain myth, Seshat invented writing, but it was her spouse, Thoth who brought and taught writing to the people.

    Her Many Titles an Roles

    She is represented in art as a woman wearing a long sheath dress made of leopard, cheetah or wildcat skin that resembled that of funerary priests. However, the pattern of the spots on the hide is believed to be representative of the stars – a symbol of eternity. She often wears a headdress made of a stylized papyrus plant – symbolizing the role of papyrus plant as paper for ancient Egyptian writing. The papyrus plant may be seen with six spurs resembling that of a seven-pointed star. In some cases, her head may be seen with a seven-pointed star over two inverted horns that looked like crescent or a crescent (in homage to her moon god husband, Thoth) with two falcon feathers. This aptly connects with her epithet Sefket-Abwy meaning “She of seven points” or “Seshat opens the door of heaven for you”. Another variety is when the crescent moon degenerates into two horns. This time, Seshat is known as Safekh-Aubi that means “She who wears the Two Horns”

    She is seen as holding the palm stem that bears notches or the scribe’s pen and palate in her hands. This signified her role as record keeper of the passage of time. In fact, she is a royal scribe who keeps track of the rule of the pharaoh including his achievements, and triumphs. She also records all the speeches the pharaoh has made especially during the crowning ceremony and approves the record of foreign captives and supplies acquired in military campaigns. She is often seen offering palm tress to the pharaoh to signify a long reign. Her most important function in this aspect is recording the pharaoh’s regnal years and jubilees. She would help pharaohs celebrate 30 years of reign in the Sed Festival of the New Kingdom.

    She is also known as “Mistress of the House of Architects” and “Seshat, Foremost of Builders”. In this aspect, she is seen holding other tools including wound cords used by stretching for surveying land and structures. She assisted the pharaoh in the ritual of stretching the cord that will serve as basis for laying the foundations of a temple and other significant structures. The cord is the mason’s line used to measure the dimensions of the building.

    She is known as the “Mistress of the House of Books”, “She who is Foremost in the Library”, and “Mistress of Books” because she guarded the library of the gods. She is often seen arranging Thoth’s scrolls and spells. Because of this, she became the patron of all earthly libraries and librarians.

    As a funerary goddess, she is believed to keep the memories of the dead alive by keeping a tab of the happenings of the life of each person by writing down accounts of their lives. She has the power to grant the pharaoh immortality by writing his name in the Tree of Life.

    Her priests were known guardians of scrolls where the most important knowledge and spells are preserved and handed down to generations. This made her the goddess of history as well.

    There is no evidence of a temple ever built to her honor. However, there is proof to her following because in the fourth dynasty, on his Slab Stela, Wep-em-nefret was known as the Overseer of the Royal Scribes and Priest of Seshat whose principal sanctuary was found in Heliopolis.


    Seshat, Luxor Temple - History

    The notion that Seshat is the patron goddess of cannabis is not so far-fetched. Her symbol is among the oldest hieroglyphs, and although cannabis is not native to North Africa, it would have grown well there—and been available through trade routes. Indications for use of cannabis and instructions for preparation are in some of the oldest medical texts in existence. [i]

    Temple walls depict festive royal spirituals featuring beer, wine, psychoactive concoctions [ii] , ceremonial sacrifices, and exotic dancers including the Seshat priestess herself—turning heads in a dazzling leopard-skin number favored by funerary priests. Lotus buds soaked in wine produced a spiritual effect of such importance that much of their art and architecture was devoted to the flower.

    No temples to Seshat have ever been found, and the psychoactive use of cannabis in ancient Egypt is thought to be less well documented—or maybe the truth is all over the walls and we just can’t see it through the haze of drug war propaganda.

    Prohibition did not start with the banning of cannabis in the 1930s. It began many centuries earlier with religious edicts that forbid—on pain of death—the use of psychoactive plants as spiritual sacraments. The industrial revolution went even further by creating a propaganda campaign that turned the world against natural medicines, and by outlawing plants that could deliver euphoric and/or spiritual sensations.

    That’s where Seshat comes in. We know the ancient Egyptians were intelligent, spiritual, and as a culture, very successful (For the United States to be half as long-lived, our Constitution would have had to date back to the mid-700s AD). If cannabis was revered in those ancient times the way it is today (mostly in the shadows by people you’d never think…) that’s one more body slam against the crumbling walls of prohibition.

    Establishing the Proof

    Here are six Seshat emblems from their golden age The New Kingdom (c.1550-c.1069) [1]

    Artistic interpretations and dynastic variations are an excellent measure for eliminating popular guesses. For example, if the top piece looks like a bow at Luxor and like horns at Karnak, it probably isn't representating either one the explanation must work across all variations. (Condition 1)

    Since the two parts of the emblem never appear separately, the explanation must describe how the images work together to symbolize one concept. (Condition 2)

    Seshat was the deification of wisdom the goddess of writing, astronomy, architecture, and mathematics. She was an exotic dancer with spirit-realm connections. In the Coffin Texts, a collection of funerary spells written beginning in the First Intermediate Period (c.2181-c.2055), spell 10 states: Seshat opens the door of heaven for you. [iii] The explanation for the symbol must reflect the whole of Seshat’s complex character. (Condition 3)

    The human embodiment of the goddess was a royal priestess—a smart, creative and powerful top advisor to the king the keeper of records and chief architect responsible for laying down measurements for royal projects. The explanation must plausibly reflect the life and duties of an actual Seshat priestess. (Condition 4)

    First Inquiry: What is that star-shaped thing?

    It’s not a star because the base of the emblem is often not star-shaped at all. Same for palm leaves. As for papyrus, that is the least likely candidate since the hieroglyph for that sacred plant is everywhere and it looks nothing like the Seshat symbol.

    Cannabis hemp leaves have been called a match, but that food and fiber cultivar cannot begin to capture the full color spectrum of this goddess and her earth-bound representative.

    Cannabis leaves vary greatly between strains, but point counts of 5, 7 and 9 are common. Here are three representatives collected at legal grows in New England. [3]

    Although the emblem renderings above differ widely in shape and artistic style, cannabis is a perfect match for every image in the set. This satisfies the first condition of the proof.

    Second inquiry: How does the cannabis leaf work with the image above?

    Unlike the leaf, the upper shape is portrayed in a variety of ways. In the hieroglyph and in the emblem from the Red Chapel of Queen Hatshepsut (B) the top piece appears to be flowing down and around the leaf. When the top is closed, either with a point (A & F) or a cap (C), the image still seems to be coming down from above, like a falling veil.

    Given that the message must be evident in all cases, this wide range of interpretations suggests that the image on top is symbolic rather than physical. It also suggests that the answer lies in what the designs have in common.

    In every carving the upper shape flows down from above and around an image that always looks like a cannabis leaf. That leaf always rises straight from the crown of Seshat’s head, and always stands at attention under the veil.

    The leaf is cannabis, and the veil is the wisdom it bestows. Taken together the two images represent the source of Seshat’s creative ideas, cosmic intuition and spiritual connection. This satisfies the second condition.

    Third inquiry: Does this explanation reflect the whole of the Seshat mythology?

    This might be a hard pill to swallow for nations of people raised to just say no, but nothing about this smart, colorful and spirited multi-tasker is inconsistent with cannabis use.

    This ancient truth is reflected in the lives of creative thinkers and people of action like Steve Jobs, John Lennon, and in the words of the late astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and novelist Carl Sagan. Writing anonymously as Mr. X in the groundbreaking 1969 book Marijuana Reconsidered, Sagan described cannabis as a spiritual conduit for ideas and creative expression:

    "I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to some highs. The heightened sensitivity in all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate…Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me…a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights.” [iv]

    People who use cannabis to spark insights and creativity (artists, professionals, clergy, teachers…mostly all in hiding) would agree that the whole of Seshat—the writer, the spiritualist, the dirty dancer, as well as the no-nonsense nail-the-numbers professional getting baked on the job—are all well within the lifestyles and possibilities of people who use cannabis. This satisfies the third condition.

    Final inquiry: Does this explanation relate to real life in ancient Egypt?

    Ja. Cannabis was known as medicine and would have been available to people with resources and trade connections. The famously fertile delta would have supported local cultivation, and the variety of point configurations in the drawings supports the notion of favored strains. The notion of a private palace home grow is also consistent with the mythology Seshat was known as a secretive goddess who preferred the company of royals. [v] This satisfies the final condition.

    This is more than an academic exercise. Cannabis prohibition is a war of words and images, and until quite recently our government was in total control. History will record the irony the very communication system that was being used to broadcast lies about this so-called recreational drug was suddenly the means by which the people could learn and share the truth about what cannabis really is.

    As we head into this new century, few things represent the future better than cannabis, an ancient plant that can deliver food, fiber, fuel, medicine, inspiration, and an occasional laugh. Seshat reminds us that sometimes the best way forward is to look back and learn from the wise ones who came before.

    Carl Hedberg is a writer, speaker and medicinal use explorer working with filmmakers to bring the truth about cannabis to the big screen. (see http://www.dailycamera.com/guest-opinions/ci_25298250/lights-camera-cannabis )

    From the lecture Cannabis Rising: Truth and healing on the front lines of the battle to restore our right to choose. Twitter @cannabisrising


    Seshat, Luxor Temple - History

    The notion that Seshat is the patron goddess of cannabis is not so far-fetched. Her symbol is among the oldest hieroglyphs, and although cannabis is not native to North Africa, it would have grown well there—and been available through trade routes. Indications for use of cannabis and instructions for preparation are in some of the oldest medical texts in existence. [i]

    Temple walls depict festive royal spirituals featuring beer, wine, psychoactive concoctions [ii] , ceremonial sacrifices, and exotic dancers including the Seshat priestess herself—turning heads in a dazzling leopard-skin number favored by funerary priests. Lotus buds soaked in wine produced a spiritual effect of such importance that much of their art and architecture was devoted to the flower.

    No temples to Seshat have ever been found, and the psychoactive use of cannabis in ancient Egypt is thought to be less well documented—or maybe the truth is all over the walls and we just can’t see it through the haze of drug war propaganda.

    Prohibition did not start with the banning of cannabis in the 1930s. It began many centuries earlier with religious edicts that forbid—on pain of death—the use of psychoactive plants as spiritual sacraments. The industrial revolution went even further by creating a propaganda campaign that turned the world against natural medicines, and by outlawing plants that could deliver euphoric and/or spiritual sensations.

    That’s where Seshat comes in. We know the ancient Egyptians were intelligent, spiritual, and as a culture, very successful (For the United States to be half as long-lived, our Constitution would have had to date back to the mid-700s AD). If cannabis was revered in those ancient times the way it is today (mostly in the shadows by people you’d never think…) that’s one more body slam against the crumbling walls of prohibition.

    Establishing the Proof

    Here are six Seshat emblems from their golden age The New Kingdom (c.1550-c.1069) [1]

    Artistic interpretations and dynastic variations are an excellent measure for eliminating popular guesses. For example, if the top piece looks like a bow at Luxor and like horns at Karnak, it probably isn't representating either one the explanation must work across all variations. (Condition 1)

    Since the two parts of the emblem never appear separately, the explanation must describe how the images work together to symbolize one concept. (Condition 2)

    Seshat was the deification of wisdom the goddess of writing, astronomy, architecture, and mathematics. She was an exotic dancer with spirit-realm connections. In the Coffin Texts, a collection of funerary spells written beginning in the First Intermediate Period (c.2181-c.2055), spell 10 states: Seshat opens the door of heaven for you. [iii] The explanation for the symbol must reflect the whole of Seshat’s complex character. (Condition 3)

    The human embodiment of the goddess was a royal priestess—a smart, creative and powerful top advisor to the king the keeper of records and chief architect responsible for laying down measurements for royal projects. The explanation must plausibly reflect the life and duties of an actual Seshat priestess. (Condition 4)

    First Inquiry: What is that star-shaped thing?

    It’s not a star because the base of the emblem is often not star-shaped at all. Same for palm leaves. As for papyrus, that is the least likely candidate since the hieroglyph for that sacred plant is everywhere and it looks nothing like the Seshat symbol.

    Cannabis hemp leaves have been called a match, but that food and fiber cultivar cannot begin to capture the full color spectrum of this goddess and her earth-bound representative.

    Cannabis leaves vary greatly between strains, but point counts of 5, 7 and 9 are common. Here are three representatives collected at legal grows in New England. [3]

    Although the emblem renderings above differ widely in shape and artistic style, cannabis is a perfect match for every image in the set. This satisfies the first condition of the proof.

    Second inquiry: How does the cannabis leaf work with the image above?

    Unlike the leaf, the upper shape is portrayed in a variety of ways. In the hieroglyph and in the emblem from the Red Chapel of Queen Hatshepsut (B) the top piece appears to be flowing down and around the leaf. When the top is closed, either with a point (A & F) or a cap (C), the image still seems to be coming down from above, like a falling veil.

    Given that the message must be evident in all cases, this wide range of interpretations suggests that the image on top is symbolic rather than physical. It also suggests that the answer lies in what the designs have in common.

    In every carving the upper shape flows down from above and around an image that always looks like a cannabis leaf. That leaf always rises straight from the crown of Seshat’s head, and always stands at attention under the veil.

    The leaf is cannabis, and the veil is the wisdom it bestows. Taken together the two images represent the source of Seshat’s creative ideas, cosmic intuition and spiritual connection. This satisfies the second condition.

    Third inquiry: Does this explanation reflect the whole of the Seshat mythology?

    This might be a hard pill to swallow for nations of people raised to just say no, but nothing about this smart, colorful and spirited multi-tasker is inconsistent with cannabis use.

    This ancient truth is reflected in the lives of creative thinkers and people of action like Steve Jobs, John Lennon, and in the words of the late astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and novelist Carl Sagan. Writing anonymously as Mr. X in the groundbreaking 1969 book Marijuana Reconsidered, Sagan described cannabis as a spiritual conduit for ideas and creative expression:

    "I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is a religious aspect to some highs. The heightened sensitivity in all areas gives me a feeling of communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate…Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to me…a kind of mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights.” [iv]

    People who use cannabis to spark insights and creativity (artists, professionals, clergy, teachers…mostly all in hiding) would agree that the whole of Seshat—the writer, the spiritualist, the dirty dancer, as well as the no-nonsense nail-the-numbers professional getting baked on the job—are all well within the lifestyles and possibilities of people who use cannabis. This satisfies the third condition.

    Final inquiry: Does this explanation relate to real life in ancient Egypt?

    Ja. Cannabis was known as medicine and would have been available to people with resources and trade connections. The famously fertile delta would have supported local cultivation, and the variety of point configurations in the drawings supports the notion of favored strains. The notion of a private palace home grow is also consistent with the mythology Seshat was known as a secretive goddess who preferred the company of royals. [v] This satisfies the final condition.

    This is more than an academic exercise. Cannabis prohibition is a war of words and images, and until quite recently our government was in total control. History will record the irony the very communication system that was being used to broadcast lies about this so-called recreational drug was suddenly the means by which the people could learn and share the truth about what cannabis really is.

    As we head into this new century, few things represent the future better than cannabis, an ancient plant that can deliver food, fiber, fuel, medicine, inspiration, and an occasional laugh. Seshat reminds us that sometimes the best way forward is to look back and learn from the wise ones who came before.

    Carl Hedberg is a writer, speaker and medicinal use explorer working with filmmakers to bring the truth about cannabis to the big screen. (see http://www.dailycamera.com/guest-opinions/ci_25298250/lights-camera-cannabis )

    From the lecture Cannabis Rising: Truth and healing on the front lines of the battle to restore our right to choose. Twitter @cannabisrising


    Seshat and the Tree Spirits

    Seshat is named as one of the Seven Hathors. The Ancient Egyptians saw her as the Goddess of writing, historical records, accounting and mathematics, measurement and architecture. She was depicted with a headdress that is also her hieroglyph which may represent either a stylized flower or seven pointed star on a standard that is beneath a set of down-turned horns. The horns seem to originally have been a crescent, linking Seshat to the moon and to her partner Thoth, the God of the Moon, Writing and knowledge.

    Seshat at Luxor

    Seshat was believed to appear to assist the pharaoh at various times, and she kept a record of his life. She kept track of each pharaoh and the period for which he ruled and the speeches made during the crowning rituals. It was as ‘Mistress of the House of Architects’ that she helped the pharaoh set the foundations of temples with indication that she set the axis by the aid of the stars.

    There are no temples to Seshat (that have been found) however she did have a priesthood in early times. Along with her Priestesses, there were Priests in the order – the Slab Stela of 4th Dynasty Prince Wepemnefret (son of Khufu) gives him the title of Overseer of the Royal Scribes, Priest of Seshat.

    The Egyptians believed that Seshat invented writing, while Thoth taught writing to mankind. She was known as ‘Mistress of the Great Library’ which indicates that she also took care of Thoth’s library of spells (Heku!) and scrolls.

    Pharaoh Hatshepsut (one of the few female Pharaohs) depicted both Seshat and Thoth as those who made the inventory of her treasures. Thoth made a note of the quantity and Seshat verified the figures.

    Seshat was the only female scribe that has been found (so far) actually writing. Other women have been found holding a scribe’s writing brush and palette – showing that they could read and write – but these women were never shown in the act of writing itself. She was the First and Foremost female scribe – accountant, historian and architect to both the pharaoh and the gods. She was the female goddess of positions belonging mostly to men.

    Seshat’s themes are honor, learning, history, time and Karma. She reminds us that to change both our collective and our individual futures, we must first learn from the past. She was profoundly and powerfully associated with the integration of heaven and earth, material and spiritual. Seshat is almost like the ‘Egyptian Fairy Godmother’ and her magic wand with its seven pointed star was the symbol which represented the source of all creative ideas. Her powers of cause and effect were legendary in the earliest times of pre-Dynastic Egypt.

    Seshat is the essence of cosmic intuition, creating the geometry of the heavens alongside her partner Thoth.

    With all this said, Seshat came to Ankh-sen-Aset in a dream and reminded her that the spirits and magic of the very old Manzanita trees recently felled next to our Northern California Sanctuary are crying out to be heard and seen. The Tree Spirits wish to be integrated and honored, and in doing so, we will be honored with their wisdom and power. Never let anything, especially magic, go to waste!

    The manzanita pathway before devastation

    Ancient records proclaim the timeless message of Seshat and invite us to rediscover the wisdom that is imparted to humanity – if we will listen.

    Each Tree Spirit seems to resemble an Animal Spirit


    Transformation of the role of Seshat as a scribe

    If we notice the depictions of Seshat throughout the whole period of ancient Egypt, we cannot overlook the transformations of her role or we can say additions to her role as a scribe. During the Old Kingdom, she can be seen engaging with the recording of different types of animal herds.

    It was the Middle Kingdom from when she is seen recording the names of foreign prisoners. There are scenes from the New Kingdom where the royal affiliation of Seshat is depicted through her engagement with the recording of pharaoh’s regnal years & jubilees on the leaves of the sacred Persea tree.


    Seshat

    Lady of the Library.

    Cult Center: Throughout Egypt

    Attributes: Goddess of reading, writing, architecture and arithmetic. She plays an important role in a ceremony called stretching the cord in which she assists the pharaoh in locating and laying out the corners of a temple. She was also responsible for recording the names and tribute of captives taken in battle. We often find her recording the pharaohs name on the tree of life or recording the royal jubilees on a notched palm branch.

    Representation: A woman wearing a panther skin, the ornament on her head consists of a star under a bow or cow horns. She is often holding a palm branch with the symbol of a jubilee pavilion hanging from it.

    The next god is Seth List of Mythological Deities


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