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Runner II SS -476 - Geskiedenis

Runner II SS -476 - Geskiedenis


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Loper II

(SS-476: dp. 1,570 (surf), 2,414 (subm.), 1. 311'8 ", b. 27'4"
Dr. 15'3 "; 20 k. (Br.), 9 k. (Subm.), Cpl. 76, a. 1 5",
2 20 mm., 10 21 "tt., 2,30 paling mg; cl. Tench)

Die tweede Runner (SS-476), 'n diesel-aangedrewe aanval duikboot, is op 10 Julie 1944 deur die Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, N.H .; geloods 17 Oktober 1944; geborg deur mev. R. H. Bass, die vrou van die voornemende bevelvoerder, op 6 Februarie 1945 komm. Bas in bevel.

Na afskud en vooropleiding aan die Atlantiese kus het sy op 5 April 1945 uit New London vertrek en op 21 Mei 1945 by Pearl Harbor aangekom, na intensiewe opleiding in Key West en Balboa. Haar eerste oorlogspatrollie was aan die ooskus van lIonshu, Japan, waar haar primêre miSie moes soek na die teenwoordigheid van verdedigende mynvelde wat die Japannese tuiseilande bewaak. Op 10 Julie tydens patrollie in die See van Japan, het sy twee waardevolle teikens onderskep, 'n tenkwa en 'n mynveër. Die tenkwa en haar twee begeleiers het ontsnap aan die verspreiding van torpedo's wat op hulle afgevuur is, maar die myn. sweeper W-27, is deur drie van Runner se torpedo's versplinter. Voor die vertrek het Runner 16 vlieëniers van Gabilan (SS-252) en Aspro (SS-309) ontvang om na Guam te vervoer, waar sy op 24 Julie aangekom het

Haar tweede patrollie het 'n week voor die Japannese kapitulasie begin, en toe Runner op die stasie voor die ooskus van Honshu aankom, het vrede gekom. Runner, met 10 ander Amerikaanse duikbote, het 31 Augustus Tokiobaai binnegekom en die Amerikaanse duikbootdiens verteenwoordig tydens die formele oorgawe -seremonies. SS-476 en haar suster-duikbote het op 3 September Japan vertrek en op 12 September by Pearl Harbor aangekom. Sy het ooswaarts voortgegaan totdat sy op 6 Oktober New London, Conn., Bereik het. 'N Paar weke later, in geselskap met ander vaartuie van Submarine Squadron 6, het Runner op 14 Februarie 1946 suidwaarts aangekom en in Balboa, CZ, aangekom. Karibiese Eilande.

In Junie 1949 is sy weer oorgeplaas na Norfolk, haar basis vir die volgende sewe jaar. In die herfs van 1957 het Runner deelgeneem aan NTorth Atlantiese NAVO -oefeninge en hawens in Frankryk en Engeland besoek. Tuisgemaak in San Juan, P.R., van Julie 1958 tot Julie 1959, het sy in die Karibiese Eilande as 'n duikboot van die Regulus -raket gelei.

Toe hy in Julie 1959 na Norfolk terugkeer, het Runner die volgende drie jaar saam met die vloot langs die Atlantiese kus gewerk. Sy het van Januarie tot begin Mei 1962 na die Middellandse See gestuur, saam met die Verenigde State en NAVO -eenhede. Die res van 1962 is opgeneem met plaaslike ASW -oefeninge en opknapping.

Gedurende 1963 en 1964 was sy besig met verskillende antisubmarine -oorlogvoering in die westelike Atlantiese Oseaan. Die somer van 1964 is in die Great Lakes deurgebring om Naval Reservists op te lei. Nadat sy in die lente van 1965 saam met die vloot gewerk het, het sy die skeepswerf van Norfolk binnegegaan vir opknapping. In 1966 sluit die operasies dienste in vir ASW -oefeninge, tipe opleiding en deelname aan Exereise Springboard in die vroeë lente. Runner is van 8 Julie tot 28 Oktober 1966 met die 6de vloot na die Middellandse See ontplooi. Skooldienste vir toekomstige duikbote het die grootste deel van 1967 beset.

Die jaar 1968 begin met Runner wat dienste lewer vir UDT School in Little Creek, Va., En ASW -opleiding aan die ooskus. Op 4 April 1968 vertrek Runner met haar laaste mediterrane ontplooiing. Sy het op 31 Julie na Norfolk teruggekeer, hawens in Spanje en Portugal besoek en aan die NATO Exereise Dawn Patrol deelgeneem.

Op 25 Januarie 1969 word Runner by die Boston Naval Shipyard ontmantel en na die Great Lakes Naval Training Station gesleep, waar sy AGSS 476 herontwerp is en gedien het as 'n Naval Reserve Training -vaartuig totdat sy op 15 Desember 1971 uit die vlootlys geslaan is.

Runner het een gevegster ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Runner II SS -476 - Geskiedenis

Geskiedenis van die 511ste regiment in die lug

deur Leo Kocher

Die 511ste PIR is op 5 Januarie 1943 in Camp Toccoa, Georgia, geaktiveer onder bevel van LTC Orin D. Haugen. Hy is 'n paar maande later bevorder tot 'n volle kolonel. Die kader van die 511ste PIR is hoofsaaklik gekies uit die 505ste PIR wat daarna in Fort Benning, GA, gestasioneer is. Die regiment is saamgestel uit ongeveer 12 000 rekrute, waarvan ongeveer 3 000 gekies is om met basiese opleiding te begin. Uit laasgenoemde getal het ongeveer 2 000 soldate die regiment gevorm, waarvan 173 in opdrag was en drie as lasoffisiere .

Op 23 Maart 1943 sluit die 511ste PIR in Camp Mackall, NC, om by die 11de Airborne Division aan te sluit, onder bevel van generaal -majoor Joseph M. Swing. Na 17 weke basiese opleiding, het die 511ste na die Fort Benning Parachute School gegaan vir drie weke se springoefening. Daar moet op gelet word, met al die uitgebreide opleiding, geen 511ste PIR-soldaat wat aan boord van 'n C-47 geweier het om die sprong te maak nie.

In Desember 1943 keer die 511ste terug na Camp Mackall vir gevorderde opleiding. Die sukses van die Knollwood -maneuvers was baie instrumenteel in die voortgesette gebruik van troepe in die lug gedurende die res van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. In Januarie 1944 vertrek die regiment uit Camp Mackall na Camp Polk, Louisiana om verdere maneuvers te doen en voor te berei op oorsese beweging.

In April 1944 vertrek die 511ste van Camp Polk na Camp Stoneman, Kalifornië. Op 8 Mei 1944 vertrek die 511ste PIR vanaf Pittsburgh, CA op die SS Sea Pike met ongeveer 2 000 troepe wat as 'n "Straight Leg" infanterie -eenheid vermom is. Die skip is deur die Western Pipe and Steel Corp. gebou en in Februarie 1943 gelanseer. Die skip was 492 voet lank, met 'n balk van 70 voet. Sy trek 29 voet water en haar stoomenjins druk haar op 17 knope. Op 28 Mei 1944 arriveer die regiment in Orobaai, Nieu -Guinee.

Terwyl die 511ste in die strategiese reservaat in Nieu -Guinee was (Mei - Oktober 1944), het hulle opleiding in die lug, in die oerwoud en in die amfibie gedoen. Op 7 November 1944 vertrek die Regiment per skip uit Nieu -Guinee (USS Cavalier) na die Leyte -veldtog in die Filippyne. Van 18 November tot 27 Desember het die Regiment deelgeneem aan die Leyte -veldtog in die gebiede Abuyog, Dulag, Burauen, Anonang, Manaraawat, Lubi, Mohonag en Anas.

Die 511ste het in die Dulag -gebied in die reservaat gegaan van 27 Desember tot 21 Januarie 1945. Van 22 Januarie tot 2 Februarie het die Regiment voorberei op die komende sprong op Tagaytay Ridge en per see en lug na Mindoro verhuis. Op 3 Februarie spring die 511ste op Tagaytay Ridge, Luzon. Van daar af het die regiment na die Paranaque- en die Pasay -gebied verhuis en in die Ft. McKinley en Alabang -gebied tot 19 Februarie 1945. Op 11 Februarie 1945 is kolonel Orin D. Haugen (die regimentbevelvoerder) dodelik gewond en sterf aan wonde op 22 Februarie 1945. Lt. -kolonel Edward Lahti, die 3de Bataljon se bevelvoerder het die bevel oorgeneem en tot Augustus 1947 in bevel gebly.

Op 23 Februarie 1945, in 'n poging om die vele gevangenes (2,147) wat nog onder Japannese beheer was by die Los Bonas-gevangenis, B-511th, plus die ligte masjiengeweer-peloton van HQ1, te red, het 'n dagbreek op die gevangenis gespring om 0700 ure. Saam met 'n gelyktydige aanval deur 'n verkenningspeloton en Filippynse guerrillas, is die gevangenis gevange geneem. Amtracks (amfibiese voertuie van die 672ste Amfibiese trekkerbataljon) is gebruik om die gevangenes na veiligheid te vervoer. Die plan beoog die onmiddellike ontruiming van alle gevangenes en militêre personeel na die veiligheid van die Manila -gebied. Dit was amper 'n handboekoperasie, geen sterftes is op die hele missie gely nie en alle gevangenes is gered.

Die Regiment het geveg in die Real-, Mt Bijiang- en Santo Tomas -gebiede van 4 Maart tot 24 Maart 1945. Van 24 Maart tot 11 April 1945 het die Regiment minus die 3de Bataljon in die Bauen- en Batangas -gebiede as 6de Weermagreservaat gewerk. Gedurende hierdie tydperk was die 3de Bataljon verbonde aan die 188ste PG en het dit geveg in die gebiede Sulac, Sapac, Talisay en Malaraya Hill. Van 12 April tot 4 Mei 1945 het die 511ste geveg in die Lipa en die berg Malepunyo. In Mei 1945 is 'n basiskamp naby Lipa, Luzon, opgerig. Op 23 Junie 1945 het die 1ste Bataljon en Kompanjies G en ek, op troepetransport, van die 317ste Troop Carrier Group, op Lipa Airstrip aan boord gegaan en met 'n valskerm naby Aparri geval as deel van die Gypsy Task Force. Die 511ste PIR het in die Leyte- en Luzon -veldtogte altesaam 289 vermoorde en/of vermiste in aksie opgedoen. Klik hier vir 'n volledige lys van diegene in die 511ste wat hul lewe vir hul land gegee het.

Op 11 Augustus 1945 vertrek die regiment per vliegtuig uit Luzon en word na Okinawa gevlieg. Op 30 Augustus 1945 arriveer die 511ste per vliegtuig by die Atsugi -vliegbasis naby Yokohama om die stad te beset en die dokke te bewaak waaruit die vredesafvaardiging vertrek het om na die USS Missouri te gaan en die ondertekening van die wapenstilstand. Op 16 September 1945 verhuis die 511ste na Morioka, Japan, om die besetting van Iwate en Aomori Prefectures in Noordelike Honshu te begin. Afsonderlike maatskappye was gestasioneer vanaf South Morioka, noord van Honshu tot by die stad Aomori. In Januarie 1947 begin die verspreide eenhede intrek in Camp Haugen naby Hatchinohe. In Februarie 1947 verhuis die regimentele hoofkwartier van Morioka na Camp Haugen. Gedurende die maande Januarie tot Maart 1947 is die Regiment weer op T/O -sterkte gebring.

In Februarie 1949 het die Regiment minus die 3de Bataljon vertrek, uit Camp Haugen vertrek en via die Panamakanaal na die Verenigde State teruggekeer en in Maart 1949 in New Orleans aangekom, vanwaar dit na Camp Campbell, Kentucky, verhuis het. Die 3de Bataljon het tot 22 April 1949 in Camp Haugen, verbonde aan die 7de Afdeling, gebly toe dit na die Verenigde State vertrek het. Met die uitbreek van die oorlog in Korea, op 25 Junie 1950, is opleiding verskerp, insluitend reserviste. Op 1 Augustus 1950 is die 187ste gewaarsku vir oorsese beweging en is dit aangewys as die 187ste Airborne Regimental Combat Team. Om die 187ste ARCT tot T/O -sterkte te bring, is hul geledere vanaf die 511ste PIR gevul, met die meeste oordragte binne dieselfde eenhede. Hulle vertrek op 6-7 September 1950 per skip uit San Francisco en begin op 22 September 1950 by die Inchon Beachhead, Korea, aankom. 1953), is daar vasgestel dat ten minste 62 in die eerste golf van 511ste PIR -troepe was, wat in 1950 saamgevoeg is in die 187ste ARCT. 'N Ander hoogtepunt kom in Maart 1956, toe die 511ste (as deel van die 11de

Airborne Division) het die Atlantiese Oseaan na Europa oorgesteek om die 5de Inf. Div., In Augsburg, Duitsland tydens Operasie Gyroscope. Die vyftienjarige duur van die 511ste het in Julie 1958 op Fort Campbell ten einde geloop, toe hulle en die 11de Abn. Div. is amptelik geaktiveer. Op 1 Junie 1993 is A-511th Infanterie weer geaktiveer in Fort Rucker, Alabama. Hulle is gedeaktiveer in November 1994. Op 1 Oktober 1997 is A-511th PIR weer geaktiveer as 'n toetsmaatskappy vir die Enoganced Fiber Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM) stelsel, onder bevel van Kpt. Stephen Inouye by Fort Bragg, NC. Dit sal die eerste en enigste Airborne EFOGM Company ter wêreld wees.

Die 511ste PIR Commanders Tour of Duty

Kol. Orin D. Haugen Jan. 1943 - Feb. 1945

Lt.kol. Edward Lahti Februarie 1945 - Augustus 1947

Kol. Reynolds Condon Augustus 1947 - Sept.1949

Lt.kol. M.M. Lyons September 1949 - Desember 1949

Lt.kol. Ben Harrell Desember 1949 - Julie 1950

Kol. Aubrey S. Newman Augustus 1950 - April 1951

Lt.kol. Warren T. Hannum jr. April 1951 - Mei 1951

Kol. Broadus McAfee Mei 1951 - Mei 1952

Lt.kol. William M. Haycock Mei 1952 - Julie 1952

Kol. Curtis J. Herrick Julie 1952 - Januarie 1953

Kol. Robert L. Walton Jan. 1953 - Junie 1953

Lt.kol. Ralph D. Burns Junie 1953 - Junie 1953

Kol. John D. Cone Junie 1953 - Junie 1954

Lt.kol. Ralph D. Burns Junie 1954 - Julie 1954

Kol. Patrick F. Cassidy Julie 1954 - Junie 1955

Lt.kol. Gordon K. Smith Junie 1955 - Aug. 1955

Kol. Herman W. Dammer Aug. 1955 - Julie 1956

Lt.kol. Cameron Knox Julie 1956 - September 1956

Kol. D.E. Munson Sept.1956 - Julie 1958

Bronne:

1) 511ste Parachute Infanterie Jaarboeke

2) Artikels uit die nuusbrief 511th PIR Association & quotWinds Aloft & quot

3) Kommunikasie met mede 511ste troepe en persoonlike kennis.

"Sterkte van bo" - 'n Indrukwekkende en aansienlike historiese kroniek
van die 511ste PIR. Dr James Lorio, voormalige G Kompanjiebevelvoerder, gebruik & quotStrength From Above & quot
om persoonlike rekeninge en die prestasies van die manne van die 511th PIR te vertel. "Sterkte van bo" kan
kan ook gevind word in die PTO -afdeling en die nuwe gedeelte van die webwerf.

As u kommentaar of 'n storie het om te deel, gebruik die terugvoervorm om ons te bereik.

Keer terug na Uitstallingsbladsy.


M1941 Johnson Rifle: Die vreemde geweer van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog waarvan u nog nooit gehoor het nie

Die M1941 Johnson-masjiengeweer het weliswaar vreemd gelyk en het verskeie voordele gebied.

Die M1941 Johnson-masjiengeweer, ontwerp deur Melvin Johnson, Jr., was 'n ligte masjiengeweer wat ondanks die feit dat dit nooit standaard was nie, maar in klein getalle by die United States Marine Corps bedien het. Die geweer wat beslis vreemd lyk, het 'n paar interessante eienskappe.

Johnson se oorspronklike bedoeling was om 'n semi-outomatiese geweer te skep wat die legendariese M1 Garand nie net 'n kans kon gee nie, maar dit ook kon vervang. U kan hier lees oor sy ander fassinerende vuurwapen. Benewens 'n semi-outomatiese geweer, het Johnson ook 'n volledig outomatiese masjiengeweer ontwerp en gebou wat op 'n manier soortgelyk was aan die Browning Automatic Rifle.

Net soos die BAR, was Johnson se M1941 Johnson-masjiengeweer in die .30-06 Springfield, 'n robuuste geweerpatroon van 0,30 kaliber in volle grootte, wat Amerika se standaardgeweerpatroon was tydens die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorlog sowel as tydens die konflik in Korea. Maar, anders as die BAR, wat byna vyf-en-twintig pond geweeg het, was die M1941 Johnson redelik lig in vergelyking met ongeveer dertien pond.

Daar was twee maniere om patrone in Johnson se optrede in te voer: 'n lang, een-stapel tydskrif van twintig ronde kan in die linkerkant van die ontvanger geplaas word, net soos die Sten, 'n Britse masjiengeweer wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebruik is. Maar die geweer kan ook gelaai word deur die stripper clips in die uitwerppoort te plaas. Die M1941 Johnson het twee vuurtempo's gehad: die eerste was taamlik stadig, teen ongeveer 200 rondes per minuut, of alternatiewelik 'n baie vinniger vuurtempo van 600 rondes per minuut.

Die geweer se unieke boude is ontwerp om terugslag wat deur terugskiet en in die skieter se skouer geskiet word, te kanaliseer om die snuitklim te verminder. Alhoewel dit bereik is, het die ontwerp nogal hoë besienswaardighede vereis. Net soos die BAR, het die M1941 Johnson -masjiengeweer ook 'n metale bipod aan die loop geheg, sowel as 'n blitsverberger wat herinner aan die veel later M14 -geweer.

Met die mariniers

Maar watter soort diens het die M1941 Johnson -masjiengeweer eintlik gesien? Alhoewel dit moeilik is om definitief te verifieer, blyk dit dat 'n bietjie meer as honderd Johnson -masjiengewere deur die United States Marine Corps gebruik is.

Die gewere wat die mariniers in die hande kon kry, was eintlik bedoel om deur die Nederlandse koloniale magte gebruik te word, maar teen die tyd dat hulle hul bestemming in die Stille Oseaan bereik het, was die Nederlandse magte reeds oorval. Aangesien die M1941 Johnson-masjiengeweer in die Amerikaanse .30-06 ingebou is, was dit 'n handige toevoeging tot die Marines, wat 'n aantal wapens aangepas het tydens hul slag deur die Stille Oseaan.

Alhoewel dit moeilik is om met absolute sekerheid te verifieer, blyk dit dat die M1941 Johnson ook kortliks deur die First Special Service Force, 'n gesamentlike Kanadese-Amerikaanse spesiale magte-eenheid, gebruik is.

'N Weergawe van die M1941 Johnson -masjiengeweer was ook kortliks in diens van die Haganah, die groep wat die Israeliese weermag voorafgegaan het. Alhoewel dit visueel baie soortgelyk was aan die Johnson M1941 waarop dit gebaseer was, was die Israeliese Dror in verskeie ander patrone, naamlik die Britse en Duitse oorskot van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Alhoewel die M1941 Johnson -masjiengeweer nie die magtige BAR ontketen het nie, het dit 'n mate van sukses behaal by sekere elite -troepe en oorsee. Die patroon van Melvin Johnson Jr. het ook die AR-15-ontwerp beïnvloed, miskien een van die gewere wat die meeste geproduseer word, indien nie ter wêreld nie, as beslis in die Verenigde State. Nie te sleg vir 'n algeheel onsuksesvolle geweer uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog nie.


Slag van Hannut: 12 - 14 Mei 1940

Die Slag van Hannut is geveg tydens die Slag van België, die inval van Nazi -Duitsland in die Lae Lande. Dit was deel van die Wehrmacht se strewe na die Ardennen -streek en was bedoel om die Franse Eerste Leër te bind.

Dit was beide die grootste tenkgeveg van die veldtog, en die grootste stryd in die destydse oorlogsgeskiedenis. Meer as 600 Duitse tenks en 25 000 soldate het teen 600 Franse en Nederlandse pantservoertuie en ongeveer 20 000 soldate in vierkant gestyg.

Die stryd was tegnies onoortuigend. Sommige van die Franse Eerste Leër kon deur die Duitsers veg om met hul Britse kamerade by Duinkerken te herenig, maar hulle het meer as 100 van hul tenks en pantservoertuie verloor.

Duitse verliese was baie ligter, met slegs ongeveer 50 tenks. Terwyl die Franse SOMUA S35 -tenk destyds as een van die bestes beskou is, het Duitse taktiek en kommunikasietegnologie die Wehrmacht beter gemaak.


Runner II SS -476 - Geskiedenis

Oakleaves
1. Bäke, Franz Dr. [262. EL] 01.08.1943 Majoor d.R. Kdr II./Pz.Rgt 11
2. Hünersdorff von, Walther [259. EL] 14.07.1943 Generalmajor Kdr 6. Pz.Div
3. Reimar, Gustav [582. EL] 10.09.1944 Hauptmann Kdr Feldersatz-Btl 76
4. Stahl, Paul Dr. [879. EL] 09.05.1945 Oberstleutnant d.R. Kdr Pz.Gren.Rgt 114
[voorstel het op 12.04.1945 by HPA aangekom met ondersteunende kommentaar van II. SS-Pz.Korps drie dae later het dieselfde voorstel hierdie keer via "Fernschreiben" gekom met positiewe kommentaar ("Befürwortung") van OB HGr Süd en die bykomende opmerking: "kommentaar van 6. SS-Pz.Armee word versoek, sal later oorhandig "merk majoor Domaschk op:" Stellungnahme Pz.AOK 6 [!] abwarten! " [korrek volgens die algemene orde/Bernd R] word geen verdere hantering van Stahl in 'n ander amptelike lêer gelys nie, veral nie in die boek "Verliehene Ritterkreuze" nadat die saak in 1975 behandel is nie, het die OdR besluit: "879. E 9.5.1945 "= aanvaar as gevolg van hul interpretasie van die sogenaamde" Dönitz-Erlass "]
5. Waldenfels Freiherr von, Rudolf [476. EL] 14.05.1944 Generalmajor Kdr 6. Pz.Div

Ridderkruis

Steek:
6. Kempf, Werner 03.06.1940 Generalleutnant Kdr 6. Pz.Div

6. Schützen-Brigade :
7. Esebeck Freiherr von, Hans-Karl 04.07.1940 Oberst Kdr 6. Schtz-Brig
8. Raus, Erhard 11.10.1941 Oberst Kdr 6. Schtz-Brig


'Niemand weet dat u daar was nie, tensy u u verhaal vertel'
--- Roy Livingstone, oud-krygsgevangene
"Luister aandagtig en onthou dat ware verhale bedoel is om oor te dra --- om dit vir jouself te hou, is om dit te verraai."
--- Anoniem


Amerikaanse verdedigers van Bataan en Corregidor


Hiroshima krygsgevangenes - bevat 'n volledige Engelse vertaling van die boek geskryf deur Shigeaki Mori oor Amerikaanse krygsgevangenes wat in Hiroshima vermoor is en sy ongelooflike werk om gesinne in te lig.
TOKYO #13 (OMI) GEDENK
Gedenkplekke kan en word gebou om ons krygsgevangenes in Japan te onthou. Die Japannese onderneming wat krygsgevangenes in hierdie kamp gebruik het, het 'n gedenkteken opgerig in September 2014. Sien die Tokyo #13 -webblad vir meer besonderhede.

Spesiaal: 'N Merkwaardige huldeblyk aan 'n vlieënier wat oor Rangoon omgekom het. Neem 'n rukkie om die verlies van 'n jong man aan sy jong weduwee te verstaan. Sy trou weer en dit is die verhaal van hoe haar seun, Matt Poole, die verhaal onthul het.
Roger Mansell by Internet Movie Database

Tweede Wêreldoorlog se menseoorlog - BBC se argief met krygsgevangenes wat deur lesers bygedra is

Amerikaanse verdedigers van Bataan en Corregidor Museum - Hierdie museum is geleë in die Brooke County Public Library in Wellsburg, WV, en het die grootste versameling dokumente, foto's en kaarte wat uitsluitlik vir die ADBC ​​-lidmaatskap gewy is - sien sommige hiervan op hul Flickr -webwerf. Sien ook die hoofblad van die Filippynse verdedigers.

Verslag oor mediese aktiwiteite in die Filippyne en Japan deur kolonel Wibb Cooper - baie goeie geskiedenis van gebeure voor en tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, insluitend aktiwiteite by krygsgevangenekampe

Krygsgevangenes op die Filippynse eilande - Sept. 1944 Militêre Inligtingsafdeling se verslag oor krygsgevangenes en burgerlike geïnterneerde kampe in die Filippyne, met kaarte en foto's

Ten Escape from Tojo deur kmdt. McCoy en luitenant -kolonel Mellnik - Oorspronklike verslag oor die ontsnapping van 10 krygsgevangenes uit die strafkolonie van Davao

Kantoor van die Provost Marshal Algemene verslag oor krygsgevangenes in die Filippyne - Geproduseer in November 1945, met baie belangrike inligting oor die belangrikste kampe in die Filippyne, insluitend siektedata met tekeninge

Navorsingsartikels deur Edward Jackfert, Past National Commander, ADBC:

FEPOW 2007-navorsingskonferensie- Lees opsommingsverslag

FEPOW 2006 POW Research Conference (Engeland)- Lees opsommingsverslag.

Maleisiese vrywilligers in Singapoer- leer die geskiedenis en eenhede van die Maleise vrywilligers- vinnig groeiende webwerf

Opsomming vrywilligers van Singapoer en Maleise state- met vergunning van Ron Bridge

Great Web Site: Die verhaal van 'n jong meisie, Elizabeth van Kampen, wat deur die Japannese in Java gevange geneem is. 'N Unieke verhaal vertel met prente en passie. Die moeite werd om te lees.
Interessante verhaal van 'n Hollywood -ster wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien het
Student wen opstelwedstryd - staatskampioenskap - Ron Currens
Lees die verhaal van sy triomf!
Foto met trofee van Ron Currens en sy onderwyser, mnr. David Pinholster
Georgia Council for Social Studies - Web nou opgedateer met die 2007 -wenners.
'N Soldaat sterf vandag - 'n paar minute die moeite werd om te lees.
Waarom China in Japan wantrou
Nederlandse burgerkampe
in Nederlands-Indië- Ongelooflike navorsing en inligting (hoewel dit in Nederlands maklik is om vertaling te gebruik met behulp van "Bablefish") Uitstekende navorsing en inligting deur Henk Beekhuis.

SOEK HULP
insluitend hoe om medaljes vir krygsgevangenes te bekom

Linda Dahl Weeks se webwerf
op Fukuoka #17 (Omuta)
is verskuif na Mansell.com:
Tweede Wêreldoorlog Japannese krygsgevangenekamp
Fukuoka #17 - Omuta

ALLE Amerikaanse krygsgevangenes - Oorspronklike rooster, Februarie 1946
DOOD ROSTERS - Ongerapporteerde sterftes vir alle nasionaliteite PDF1 - PDF2 - PDF3 (sien hierdie inhouds lêer)
Diverse sterftes (RG 407 Box 186) - Nagasaki, Fukuoka, Hiroshima, Nagoya, Ofuna, Yokohama, Tokyo, Mitsushima, Hirohata, Hong Kong, Narumi, Toyama
ALLE FUKUOKA -KAMPE - Oorspronklike roosters
Tokiokampe, oorspronklike roosters - bevat roosters van baie Tokio -kampe (alle nasionaliteite, kampnommers word nie gelys nie)
Lys van verskillende nasionaliteite in die kampe in Tokio en Sendai - Baie PDF's vir Osaka -kampe is saamgestel uit oorspronklike argiewe en op die Osaka Main Camp -webblad geplaas.

Krygsgevangelyste en asst lêers van NARA - Georganiseerde lys van duisende dokumentbeelde uit die Amerikaanse en Britse nasionale argief. Laat weet u versoeke!


Komende krygsgevangenes en byeenkomste
Hierdie bladsy word onderhou deur die Descendants Group van die ADBC

Die tragedie van Bataan -- 'N Moet-sien!
TV -dokumentêre en radioreeks oor die val van die Filippyne en Bataan Death March. Baie interessante uittreksels en skakels.

Nuusargief by VS-Japan Dialoog oor krygsgevangenes

Amerikaanse blog -krygsgevangenes van Japan -Baie goeie inligting hier sien ook hierdie versameling YouTube-video's wat verband hou met krygsgevangenes

Hong Kong Oorlogsdagboek uitstalling - Foto's wat krygsgevangenes uit Hong Kong op werkplekke toon terwyl hulle in Kobe #2 was

Die kunswerke van Des Bettany - Britse krygsgevangene wat by Changi was, het 'n merkwaardige kuns van die krygsgevangene -lewe geteken. Artikel

Oorwinning van binne: Die Amerikaanse gevangene van oorlogservaring - Hou u oog op hierdie webwerf waar die Andersonville National Historic Site besig is met 'n uitstalling van 1,200 vierkante meter wat in 2011 beplan word.

Aanbevole boeke:
Boeke en boeke wat onlangs gepubliseer is, word aanbeveel en bevat geldige navorsing, voldoende feite en dialoog om die POW -ervaring ten volle te verstaan.


Japan Air Raids.org - inligting oor Tweede Wêreldoorlog se lugaanvalle op Japan (in beide Engels en Japannees)
B-29 missies oor Japan
Die meeste onthou deur krygsgevangenes

Detailfoto van skade, Kobe Bombing Photographs, Kobe, Japan, 5 Maart 1945

Die Ralph Baggett -verhaal
'N Ongewone verhaal van 'n man wat die Drake Relay Champions -horlosie gewen het, maar net deur die Japannese. Drake Universiteit het die verhaal gehoor en die verhaal het nog 'n draai gekry. Kopiereg 2000-2010, Roger Mansell
Vuurwaens - Onthou jy die fliek? Dit was die verhaal van die Olimpiese hardloper, Eric Liddell. Hy is deur die Japannese geïnterneer, maar sterf aan 'n breingewas op 21 Februarie 1945. Nou, die res van die verhaal. UPDATE: Standbeeld is opgerig in Tianjin, China, ter nagedagtenis aan Liddell. Komende film oor sy lewe getiteld The Last Race. USS Houston- CA-30
Twee foto's van oorlewendes van USS Houston by repatriasie.
Houston POW Site
The Lost Battalion - 131ste artillerie wat op Java vasgelê is - geskiedenis en roosters

Een van die belangrikste figure in FEPOW -geskiedenisnavorsing in Brittanje, Roderick (Rod) Suddaby, die voormalige bewaarder van die Dept of Documents in die Imperial War Museum (IWM) in Londen, is verlede Woensdag (26 Junie) oorlede nadat hy verskeie kere siek was jaar.

Roger het Rod geken en gerespekteer. Dit is teruggekeer, ek is seker. Ek glo dat hulle tydens die eerste FEPOW -geskiedenisnavorsingskonferensie, georganiseer deur die Researching FEPOW History (RFH) -groep, vir die eerste keer vergader het. Dit is in April 2006 gehou by die National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire, die tuiste van die FEPOW Memorial -gebou. Ek het Roger die eerste keer drie jaar tevore in Kansas City op die Zentsuji Reunion ontmoet. Hy was, net soos Rod, 'n konstante ondersteuning en hulp vir my in my soeke na meer inligting oor pa se FEPOW -ervarings (ook 'n Zentsujian soos u weet) en dit was 'n opwinding om met hom te gesels. Toe die idee vir die navorsingskonferensie 'n paar jaar later gestalte kry, was Roger een van die eerste sprekers wat ek genooi het om sy werk voor te hou. Gelukkig vir ons almal het hy dadelik ingestem.

Rod (en deur hom die IWM) was 'n vaste voorstander van die werk van die RFH -groep. Hy het 'n ensiklopediese kennis van die Britse militêre geskiedenis en veral in sy latere werkslewe in die geskiedenis van FEPOW. Hy het, net soos Roger, daarin geglo om te deel wat hy weet. Hy was 'n akademiese historikus, 'n streng navorser met 'n fenomenale geheue vir detail. Hy het ook 'n wonderlike bekwaamheid gehad om baie ongeskoolde familiegeskiedkundiges op hul gemak te stel toe hy vir die eerste keer die ou stil, hoë koepel-leeskamer by die IWM in Lambeth Road, Suid-Londen, konfronteer. Niks was ooit te veel moeite nie, net soos hy bedoel het. Waar moontlik, was hy verheug oor die feit dat hy familielede van FEPOW kon kontak wat gemeenskaplike ondervinding in navorsing het. Ek was een van die vele begunstigdes van sy sorg en bedagsaamheid.

* Drie ongeïdentifiseerde krygsgevangenekampe hier
* George Lord - 'n kort snorkel -rekening van 10 yen
* onbekende skeepsfoto
* Foto van Charles Mackenzie en. (Sarawak, Borneo)

Ons krygsgevangenes vind - Die herstel en ontruiming van krygsgevangenes uit Japan, 1945

YouTube -video -onderhoude van Allied POW's

Die Klanke van oorlog bevat die klanke van beroemde nuusuitsendings uit die oorlog, waaronder Tokyo Rose, Churchill, CBS News en Tojo wat die begin van die oorlog aankondig.

Japannese bevel om alle krygsgevangenes te vermoor
Bevat die Japannese bevel om alle gevangenes te vermoor, plus die amptelike magtiging vir wagte om te vlug en identiteit te verander, uitgereik op dag van oorgawe-15 Aug 1945
Teks Opstandingsrede van keiser Hirohito- let op die uiteenlopende en misleidende aard van sy toespraak. Hy het NOOIT die woord oorgegee aan sy mense gesê nie.
Guam verwant:
GUAM- Die verhaal van die aanval en oorgawe- die verslag van goewerneur McMillan oor optrede tydens inval deur Japannese, 8-10 Desember 1941.
McMillan-onderhoud- Formele vlootonderhoud, 23 November 1945.
Aga a Plaza - Virtuele ontspanning van Aga a Plaza, Desember 1941. 5 virtuele aansigte.
Lys van alle Guam -personeel.
Guam -tydlyn - Gereelde opdaterings vir sterftes van krygsgevangenes, verkeerde regstellings en byvoegings. Tydlyn vir krygsgevangenes uit Guam, gevang op 10 Desember 1941.
Lugfoto's van Guam - 1945, plus die USS Ozark wat die eerste keer teruggestuurde krygsgevangenes aflaai
The Guam "Rooster Club" - 'n tradisie wat op 7 Desember 1941 geëindig het.
Verwante Zentsuji:
Zentsuji - Lugfoto, foto's, sketse en liggingskaarte
Wake Island -krygsgevangenes by Zentsuji:
Lys van die mans wat van Wake Island aangekom het om by die Guam POWS aan te sluit.
Bron: Met vergunning van professor Gregory Urwin, Temple University.

Rokuroshi -kamp
Beskrywing, rooster en 27 bevrydingsfoto's.
Hirohata - Lugfoto's geneem van voedsel B -29 wat kos laat val - 9 Augustus 1945. Vlaghysingseremonie by Hirohata.
Osaka - Ichioka Stadium en Yokohama Stadium Hospitale.
Cabanatuan Begrafnislys (eksterne skakel) - Deurlopende navorsing deur John Eakin
Osaka Kamp Lys
Japannese voorlegging aan MacArthur van presiese name en ligging van elke kamp onder die beheer van die Osaka POW Camp Command. Baie foute.
Death Railway Camps:
Name en kilometers - Eerste akkurate en volledige lys van hierdie gruwelike kampe

Herdruk uit Nippon Newspaper:
Voormalige geallieerde krygsgevangenes help slagoffers van treinwrak
Vir uitgebreide argiefdata oor etniese Japannese en Japannese Amerikaners in die VSA, besoek Wes Injerd se EO9066 -webwerf, Die behoud van 'n volk, handel oor die ontruiming en verhuising van mense van Japannese afkoms tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (vergaderings- en verhuisingsentrums, interneringskampe, ens.).

Bataan Blogspot - Robert Hudson se blog met 'n menigte foto's en verhale (lees gerus sy eie verhaal)

Verdediging van Bataan - baie geskiedenis hier oor die verskillende eenhede op Bataan

The Battle of Bataan - Facebook -groep (baie goeie data hier)


Runner II SS -476 - Geskiedenis

Saamgestel deur Paul W. Wittmer en Charles R. Hinman, oorspronklik uit:

Amerikaanse duikbootverliese tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, NAVPERS 15,784, 1949 -UITGAWE

Op 28 Mei 1943 het RUNNER (LCDR Joseph H. Bourland) Midway verlaat om na breedtegraad 48 & deg 30'N, lengte 154 & degE te gaan en haar derde patrollie te begin. Sy sou van hierdie plek af suid en wes patrolleer totdat sy in die gebied suid van Hokkaido en oos van die noordelike punt van Honshu kom, waar sy van ongeveer 8 Junie tot 4 Julie 1943 sou patrolleer. haar vertrek uit Midway.

Sy sou ongeveer 11 Julie, en nie later nie as 15 Julie, in Midway verwag word, en moes ongeveer 'n kilometer van hierdie basis af gestuur gewees het. Sy is op 11 Julie beveel om onmiddellik te stuur, maar daar was geen antwoord nie. 'N Noukeurige uitkyk is gehandhaaf in die hoop dat RUNNER veilig is, maar sonder oordraggeriewe, maar die resultate was negatief. Op 20 Julie is RUNNER aangemeld as vermoedelik verlore.

'N Opsomming van Japannese anti-duikbootaanvalle wat sedert die einde van vyandelikhede ontvang is, bevat geen melding van 'n aanval wat die verlies van RUNNER kan verklaar nie. Haar verlies moet dus toegeskryf word aan 'n vyandelike mynveld, waarvan daar minstens vier was in die gebied waarheen sy toegewys is, aan 'n operasionele ongeval of aan 'n onaangemelde vyandelike aanval. Vernietiging deur 'n myn word as die waarskynlikste van hierdie moontlikhede beskou.

Google Earth -beeld van die moontlike gebied van die verlies van USS Runner

Hierdie skip het drie skepe, altesaam 19 800 ton, gesink en nog drie beskadig vir 19 000 ton tydens haar eerste twee patrollies. RUNNER het in Februarie 1943 in die Palau -gebied gepatrolleer, en al haar sinkings is hier gemaak. Sy het drie medium vragmotors gesink en nog twee beskadig. Tydens haar tweede patrollie by Hong Kong in die Suid -Chinese See het RUNNER 'n vragskip beskadig.

Sien ook Ed Howard's Finale patrollie bladsy op USS Runner (eksterne skakel).


Hier is hoe 10 van die grootste en belangrikste tenkgevegte in die geskiedenis gespeel het

Die tenk is een van die belangrikste wapenstelsels op die slagveld. Few weapons strike enemy soldiers with the fear that a fully loaded tank rolling towards them does.

After their trial by fire on the fields of Europe in World War I, tanks have become a necessity for any army that wants to be considered a serious foe.

In the one hundred years since its invention, tanks have been the winning factor in a number of battles. Entire wars have depended on their successful use.

Take a look at how 10 of the biggest tank battles in history went down.

Battle of Cambrai: November 20 – December 8, 1917

A Mark IV (Male) tank of &aposH&apos Battalion, &aposHyacinth&apos, ditched in a German trench while supporting 1st Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment near Ribecourt during the Battle of Cambrai, 20 November 1917.Wikimedia Commons

The Battle of Cambrai was the first time tanks were used on a large scale for a military offensive. The objective was to take the commune of Cambrai, an important supply point for the Germans at the heart of the Hindenburg Line, in order to reduce the pressure on the French.

Nineteen British divisions were assembled for the battle, including 476 tanks and five horsed cavalry divisions.

The initial attack on November 20th was met with huge success. The British had torn through four miles of German defenses and captured up to 7,500 prisoners with low casualties.

But by the end of the day, more than half of the tanks were out of action due to mechanical failure. The German Army launched a massive counterattack, and brutal trench warfare ensued.

By the end of the battle, almost all the British gains were lost, over 100 tanks were lost or destroyed, and both sides suffered around 40,000 casualties each.

Battle of Hannut: May 12 – 14, 1940

Two destroyed French SOMUA S35s and an artillery piece being inspected by German soldiers, May, 1940.Wikimedia Commons

The Battle of Hannut was fought during the Battle of Belgium, Nazi Germany&aposs invasion of the Low Countries. It was part of the Wehrmacht&aposs thrust into the Ardennes region and was meant to tie down the French First Army.

It was both the largest tank battle of the campaign and the largest battle in armored warfare history at the time. Over 600 German tanks and 25,000 soldiers squared off against 600 French and Dutch armored vehicles and around 20,000 soldiers.

The battle was technically inconclusive. Some of the French First Army was able to fight their way through the Germans to reunite with their British comrades at Dunkirk, but they had lost well over 100 of their tanks and armored vehicles.

German losses were much lighter, with only around 50 tanks lost. While the French SOMUA S35 tank was considered as one of the best at the time, German tactics and communication technology made the Wehrmacht better.

Battle of Raseiniai: June 23 – 27, 1941

An abandoned Soviet A KV-2 tank, June, 1941.Wikimedia Commons

The Battle of Raseiniai was a large tank battle fought at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa, Hitler&aposs invasion of the Soviet Union. The battle was fought in Lithuania, then part of the Soviet Union&aposs Northwestern Front.

Some 240 German tanks from the 4th Panzer Group were tasked with destroying almost 750 Soviet tanks of the 3rd and 12th Mechanized Corps.

Despite their numerical advantage over the Wehrmacht, the result of the battle was an utter catastrophe for the Soviets. Some 700 Soviet tanks and their crews — almost the entirety of the Soviet Union&aposs deployed mechanized units on the Northwestern Front — were destroyed, damaged, or captured.

A large part of the German victory was due to their use of airpower. The Luftwaffe was unchallenged during the battle, and the close tank formations of the Soviets were easy targets for Ju 88 aircraft.

Battle of Brody: June 23 – 30, 1941

A German infantryman near a burning Soviet BT-5 tank, June, 1941.Wikimedia COmmons

The Battle of Brody is the largest tank battle in history, according to some historians.

Also fought during the beginning stages of Operation Barbarossa, the battle saw some 1,000 German panzers of the 1st Panzer Group&aposs III Army Corps smash into 3,000 Soviet tanks from the six mechanized corps of the Soviet 5th and 6th Armies.

Again outnumbered, the Wehrmacht proved that superior training, tactics, communication technology, and air support make all the difference.

The exact number of casualties is not known, but estimates put Soviet tank losses at somewhere between 800 to over 1,000. The Wehrmacht also suffered heavy casualties, with anywhere between 200 to 350 tanks destroyed.

“This, in fact, is the biggest tank battle in World War II, and sparsely a word has been written on it,” according to David Glantz, a historian of the Eastern Front and Soviet military.

Second Battle of El Alamein: October 23 – November 11, 1942

A mine explodes close to a British artillery tractor as it advances through enemy minefields and wire to the new front line, October 1942.Wikimedia Commons

The Second Battle of El Alamein saw two legendary generals, Britain&aposs Bernard Montgomery, and Germany&aposs Erwin Rommel — who was nicknamed the “Desert Fox” — fight for the fate of North Africa.

North Africa had been a battleground since Fascist Italy&aposs invasion of Egypt in 1940. Germany&aposs Afrikakorps had to step in to prevent their defeat in 1941 and were able to push the British all the way into Egypt.

They were stopped at the First Battle of El Alamein, which, though technically a stalemate, did prevent the Afrikakorps from rolling through the rest of Egypt, and by extension the Middle East.

Montgomery assembled a force for a counterattack, including around 190,000 men and over 1,000 tanks. Rommel commanded a force of 116,000 German and Italian soldiers, and 540 tanks.

After days of hard fighting in the Egyptian desert, Montgomery was victorious. Five hundred German and Italian tanks, almost all of Rommel&aposs force, were destroyed or captured.

With the Americans launching Operation Torch in November 1942, the tide against the Germans began to turn in North Africa.

Battle of Prokhorovka: July 12, 1943

Panzer IIIs and IVs on the southern side of the Kursk salient at the start of Operation Citadel, July 1943.Wikimedia Commons

The Battle of Prokhorovka took place during the larger Battle of Kursk. It was long thought to be the largest tank battle in history, but according to the book Demolishing the Myth: The Tank Battle at Prokhorovka, Kursk, July 1943 by Valeriy Zamulin, a Russian military historian, that is not the case.

But that is not to say it was small or insignificant. The battle saw over 600 Soviet tanks from the 5th Guards Tank Army smash head-on into around 300 German tanks from the II SS-Panzer Corps.

The fighting was some of the most intense in the history of armored warfare. The Soviets lost around 400 tanks, more than half of their force. German tank losses were smaller by comparison, up to 80 tanks and assault guns destroyed.

The Germans were unable to take Prokhorovka, and although it was not destroyed (the original goal of the Soviets), the II SS-Panzer Corps was exhausted, and prevented from continuing their offensive.

Thus, the momentum swung to the side of the Soviets, who eventually won the Battle of Kursk

Operation Goodwood: July 18 – 20, 1944

Sherman tanks carrying infantry wait for the order to advance at the start of Operation &aposGoodwood&apos, 18 July 1944.Wikimedia Commons

Operation Goodwood was a British offensive that was part of the Battle for Caen, one of the main inland targets that was part of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. The goal was to break through to Caen so that it could be liberated.

The British had mustered as many as 1,100 tanks for the battle. The Wehrmacht had only around 370 tanks at their disposal, but they included the fearsome Tiger and Tiger II tanks.

The battle did not go the way the British intended. Their casualties were 5,000 men and 250 to 300 tanks destroyed. German losses were 75 tanks destroyed, mostly by airstrikes.

Operation Goodwood did cause some controversy. Montgomery claimed that all the objectives were achieved and that the mission was a success. But the British had only managed to penetrate roughly seven miles or so East of Caen.

But Goodwood did draw valuable German tanks away from the Western part of Caen, where the Americans were making their push to the city.

Battle of Chawinda: September 17 – 22, 1965

Indian soldiers in front of a destroyed Pakistani Sherman tank during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.Wikimedia Commons

The Battle of Chawinda was one of the largest tank battles fought since World War II. It was part of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, fought over control of Jammu and Kashmir.

After the Pakistani Army&aposs attempt to foment an insurgency (Operation Gibraltar) was discovered and subsequently foiled, India retaliated with an outright attack along the Pakistani border.

The Indian military had planned to take the city of Sialkot, an important railway hub and central part of the Grand Trunk Road, so that they could use it as a beachhead for further operations into Pakistan.

But the Indian force of 80,000 to 150,000 soldiers and 230 tanks was met outside of their objective at Chawinda by a Pakistani force of 30,000 to 50,000 men and 132 tanks.

After more than a day of intense fighting, a UNSC resolution was signed and an unconditional ceasefire was implemented. India lost anywhere between 29 to 129 tanks, whereas Pakistan lost up to 44 tanks.

Battle of the Valley of Tears: October 6 – 9, 1973

Israeli troops fight off Syrian soldiers in the Golan Heights, the area was later named the Valley of TearsJared Keller

The Battle of the Valley of Tears was fought between Israel and Syria during the Yom Kippur War of 1973. The war had started on the holiest day in Judaism, when Syrian soldiers supported by 1,400 tanks crossed the border and invaded the Jewish state.

Just one Israeli armored brigade, roughly 100 or so tanks and armored vehicles stood in the way of the Syrian 7th Division, a force of 1,400 tanks, including 400 T-62s, at the time the most modern Soviet tank in the field.

The Israelis were manning British and American-made Centurion tanks, known for their good gunner sights. Unable to call in effective air support, the Israeli defenders dug in and fought off wave after wave of Syrian tank attacks.

Some Syrian tanks broke through, causing the Israeli tanks to turn their turrets backwards to destroy them. But one by one, the Israeli Centurions were knocked out.

But on the fourth day of the fighting, Israeli reinforcements arrived, and the Syrians were forced to withdraw. Almost all of Israel&aposs tanks were destroyed, but they gave far more than they got — Syrian armored vehicle losses were around 500, around 250 of which were tanks.

Battle of 73 Easting: February 26 – 27, 1991

An Iraqi Type 69 main battle tank burns after an attack by the 1st United Kingdom Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm, February 28, 1991.Wikimedia Commons

The Battle of 73 Easting saw American and British tanks go up against Saddam Hussein&aposs Iraqi Republican Guard Tawakalna Division. Saddam had been warning his people that the “mother of all battles” was on the horizon, and the battle of 73 Easting was certainly part of it.

The main part of the battle was fought between the U.S. 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment and Iraq&aposs 18th Mechanized Brigade and 37th Armored Brigade.

The ensuing battle saw the Iraqi forces be completely decimated. Over 160 tanks and armored personnel carriers were destroyed, damaged, or captured by U.S. forces. Up to 1,000 Iraqi soldiers were killed or wounded, and over 1,000 more were taken prisoner.

U.S. losses were just six killed, 19 wounded, and one Bradley infantry fighting vehicle destroyed. Historian and author Rick Atkinson described the battle:

“Here could be seen, with almost flawless precision, the lethality of modern American weapons the hegemony offered by AirLand Battle doctrine, with its brutal ballet of armor, artillery, and air power and, not least, the élan of the American soldier, who fought with a competence worthy of his forefathers on more celebrated battlefields in more celebrated wars.”


Runner II SS-476 - History

Deel van die Axis Order of Battle Series deur John Mulholland.

The Artic Front (under OKW command)

TWENTIETH MOUNTAIN ARMY [GebirgsAOK 20]:
And Wehr.Befh.”Norway”
AOK -reserwes:
- 7 Geb.Div.
XXXIII (33) Armeekorps:
- 14 Luft.Fld.Div.
- 702 Inf.Div.
- 295 Inf.Div.
LXX (70) Armeekorps:
- 280 Inf.Div.
- 274 Inf.Div.
- Stab 613 z.b.V.Div.
XXXVI (36) Gebirgskorps:
- M.G.Ski Bde. “Finnland”
- Pz.Bde. “Norway”
ARMEE ABT.”NARVIK” (Stab XIX (19) Gebirgskorps):
Arm.Abt.Reserves:
- Radf.Aufkl.Bde. “Norway”
- 6 Geb.Div. + 388 Gren.Bde.
- 270 Inf.Div.
- 193 Gren.Bde.
LXXI (71) Armeekorps:
- 503 Gren.Bde.
- Div.Grp.”K” (140 z.b.V.Div.)
- 139 Geb.Jag.Bde.
- 210 Inf.Div. +- Fest.Bde.”Lofoten”
- 230 Inf.Div.

The Eastern Front (under OKH command)

HEERESGRUPPE “COURLAND”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- Fld.Trg.Div.”Courland”
- Stab 201 Sich.Div.
- 15 SS-Div. “Latvian#1” (in transit)

EIGHTEENTH ARMY [AOK 18]:
AOK -reserwes:
- Kdt.Fest.”Libau” (Stab 52 Sich.Div.)
- 14 Pz.Div.
X (10) Armeekorps:
- Group “von Gise”
- 121 Inf.Div.
- 30 inf. -div.
I (01) Armeekorps:
- 132 Inf.Div.
- 225 inf. -div.
II (02) Armeekorps:
- 87 inf. -div.
- 263 Inf.Div.
- 126 Inf.Div.
- 563 VG.Div.
L (50) Armeekorps:
- 290 Inf.Div.
- 11 Inf.Div.

SIXTEENTH ARMY [AOK 16]:
AOK -reserwes:
- Pz.Bde.”Courland”
XXXVIII (38) Panzerkorps:
- 329 Inf.Div.
- 122 Inf.Div.
VI (6) SS-Korps:
- 19 SS-Div. “Latvian#2”
- 24 inf. -div.
- 12 Pz.Div.
XVI (16) Armeekorps:
- 218 Inf.Div. + Grp.”Barth” (Stab 21 Luft.Fld.Div.)
- 205 Inf.Div.
- 81 inf. -div.
- Stab 300 z.b.V.Div.
Kdt.”North Courland” (Koruck 583):
- Kdt.”Kuste” (F.K.186)
- Abschn.”Ost” (Stab 207 Sich.Div.z.b.V.)
- Abschn.”Nord”
- Abschn.”Nordwest”
- Abschn.”Sudwest”
- Kdt.Fest.”Windau”

HEERESGRUPPE “VISTULA”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- Pz.Bde.”Baltic”
- 156 Inf.Div. (forming)
- Stab 227 Inf.Div. (in transit)
- Stab 20 Luft.Fld.Div. (in transit)
- 541 VG.Div. (in transit)

NINTH ARMY [AOK 9]:
AOK -reserwes:
- Stab LVI (56) Panzerkorps
- 600 (Russ.) Inf.Div.
- 25 PzGR.Div.
- PzGR.Div.”Muchenberg”
- 286 Fld.Trg.Div.
V (5) Gebirgskorps-SS.:
- Stab 391 Inf.Div.z.b.V.
- 32 SS-PzGR.Div. “30 Jan.”
- Div.”Raegener”:
- Fest.”Frankfurt”
XI (11) SS-Korps:
- 712 Inf.Div.
- 169 Inf.Div.
- 303 Inf.Div. “Doberitz”
- 20 PzGR.Div.
- 9 Fschjag.Div.
- PzGR.Bde.”Kurmark”
CI (101) Armeekorps:
- Inf.Div.”GrossBerlin”
- Stab 606 z.b.V.Div.
- 5 Jag.Div.

THIRD PANZER ARMY [PzAOK 3]:
AOK -reserwes:
- Stab III (03) Panzerkorps-SS
- 11 SS-PzGR.Div. “Nordland” (forming)
- 23 SS-PzGR.Div. “Nederland” (forming)
- 28 SS-Div. “Wallonien”
- 27 SS-Div. “Langemarck”
XXXXVI (46) Panzerkorps:
- 1 Marine Inf.Div.
- 547 VG.Div.
Gen.Kdo.“Oder” CC:
- Grp.”Klosseck”
- Stab 610 z.b.V.Div.
XXXII (32) Armeekorps:
- 281 Inf.Div.
- Fest.”Stettin”
- 549 VG.Div.
- Grp.”Voigt”
Vert.Ber.“Swinemunde” CC:
- 3 Marine Inf.Div.
- Div.Nr.402

ARMEE of OST PRUSSIA:
Formerly Second Army (AOK 2):
AOK -reserwes:
- Stab 102 Inf.Div.
- Stab 607 z.b.V.Div.
- Stab 10 Radf.Jag.Bde.
- Stab 349 VG.Div. (formation unknown)
- 61 inf. -div. (KGrp) (formation unknown)
- 69 inf. -div. (formation unknown)
- 367 Inf.Div. (formation unknown)
- 548 VG.Div. (formation unknown)
Gen.Kdo.“Hela”:
- 31 VG.Div.
- 4 SS-PzGR.Div. “Polizei”
- 7 stukke div.
- Stab 203 Inf.Div.
- 83 inf. -div.
XXIII (23) Armeekorps:
- 4 stukke div.
- 252 Inf.Div.
- 12 Luft.Fld.Div.
- 35 inf. -div.
- 23 inf. -div.
- 32 inf. -div.
XVIII (18) Gebirgskorps:
- 7 inf. -div.
XXVI (26) Armeekorps:
- 5 stukke div. +- 561 VG.Div. (remnants)
- 21 inf. -div.
- 1 Inf.Div.
- 58 inf. -div.
- 28 Jag.Div.
IX (9) Armeekorps:
- 93 inf. -div.
- 95 inf. -div.
- 561 VG.Div. (remnants)
- “GD” PzGR.Div.
- 14 inf. -div.
Fest.“Pillau” (Stab LV (55) Armeekorps):
- 50 inf. -div.
- 558 VG.Div.
- Stab 286 Inf.Div.
VI (06) Armeekorps:
- 129 Inf.Div.
- 170 inf. -div.

HEERESGRUPPE “MITTE”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- Fest.”Olmutz”
- Stab 601 z.b.V.Div.
- Stab 602 z.b.V.Div.
- Fuhrer Begl.Div.

FIRST PANZER ARMY [PzAOK 1]:
AOK -reserwes:
- 154 Inf.Div.
- 8 stukke div.
- 75 inf. -div. (forming)
- 17 Pz.Div.
XXIV (24) Panzerkorps:
- 10 PzGR.Div.
- 344 Inf.Div.
- 254 Inf.Div.
- 78 Volks Sturm Div.
XXIX (29) Armeekorps:
- 153 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
- 15 inf. -div. (KGrp)
- 8 Jag.Div. (KGrp)
- 76 inf. -div. (KGrp)
XXXXIX (49) Gebirgskorps:
- 320 VG.Div.
- Grp.”Bader”
- 304 Inf.Div. + 16 (Hung) Inf.Div.
- 3 Geb.Div.
- 253 Inf.Div.
LIX (59) Armeekorps:
- 4 Geb.Div.
- 715 Inf.Div.
- 19 Pz.Div.
- 16 Pz.Div.
- 544 VG.Div.
XI (11) Armeekorps:
- 158 Inf.Div.
- 1 Ski-Jag.Div.
- 68 inf. -div.
- 371 Inf.Div.
- 97 Jag.Div.

SEVENTEENTH ARMY [AOK 17]:
AOK -reserwes:
- 18 SS-PzGR.Div. “H.Wessel” (remnants)
- “H.G.1” Pz.Div.
- 20 SS-Div. “Estonian#1” (remnants)
- Stab 603 z.b.V.Div.
XXXX (40) Panzerkorps:
- 168 Inf.Div.
- 20 Pz.Div.
- 45 inf. -div.
XVII (17) Armeekorps:
- 31 SS-Div. “Bohmen-M.” (KGrp)
- 269 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
- 359 Inf.Div.
Fest.“Breslau” (WKr.VIII):
- Stab 609 z.b.V.Div.
- Kdt.Fest.”Breslau”
VIII (08) Armeekorps:
- 208 Inf.Div.
- 100 Jag.Div.
- 17 inf. -div.

FOURTH PANZER ARMY [PzAOK 4]:
LVII (57) Panzerkorps:
- 6 VG.Div.
- 72 inf. -div.
K.Group “Moser”:
- Div.Nr.193.
- Div.Nr.404
- Div.Nr.463
“GD” Panzerkorps:
- “Brandenburg” PzGR.Div.
- Stab 615 z.b.V.Div.
- 545 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
- Pz.Vbd.”Boehmen”
V (05) Armeekorps:
- 342 Inf.Div.
- 36 SS-Div. “Dirlewanger” (KGrp)
- 214 Inf.Div.
- 275 Inf.Div.
- 35 SS-Pol.GR.Div. (KGrp)

HEERESGRUPPE “SUD”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- WKr.XVII
- Kdt.Fest.Ber.”Sudost”
- Befh.Dtsch.Tps.”Slovakia”
- Fest.”Brunn”
- 3 (Hung0 Inf.Div.
- 10 Fschjag.Div. (forming)
- 4 Fschjag.Div. (forming)

SECOND PANZER ARMY [PzAOK 2]:
LXVIII (68) Armeekorps:
- 71 inf. -div.
- 13 SS-Geb.Div. “Handschar”
- 297 Inf.Div.
XXII (22) Gebirgskorps:
- 118 Jag.Div.
- 9 SS-Pz.Div. “Hohen.”
I (01) Kav.Korps:
- 23 Pz.Div.
- 4 Kav.Div.
- 44 inf. -div. (KGrp)
- 3 Kav.Div.
- 14 SS-Div. “Ukranian#1”
- 16 SS-PzGR.Div. “RFSS”

SIXTH ARMY [AOK 6]:
AOK -reserwes:
- 117 Jag.Div.
IV (04) Panzerkorps-SS:
- 3 Pz.Div. (KGrp)
- 5 SS-Pz.Div. “Wiking”- (KGrp)
- 1 stuk div. (KGrp)
III (03) Panzerkorps:
- 1 Volks Geb.Div.
- Sperr-Vbd.”Motschmann”
- Group “Raithel”
Stellv.XVIII (18) Armeekorps:
- Group “Wolf”

SIXTH SS-PANZER ARMY [SS-PzAOK 6]:
I (01) Panzerkorps-SS:
- 1 SS-Pz.Div. “LAH”
- 356 Inf.Div. (KGrp>
- 12 SS-Pz.Div. “Hitlerjugend”
- Group “Keitel”
Gen.Kdo.”Schulz”:
- 710 Inf.Div.
- Group “Staudinger”
II (02) Panzerkorps-SS:
- Group “Folkmann”
- Group “von Bunau”
- 2 SS-Pz.Div. “Reich”
- 3 SS-Pz.Div. “Tot.”
- Fuhrer Gren.Div.
- 6 stukke div.

EIGHTH ARMY [AOK 8]:
AOK -reserwes:
- SS-KGrp.”Trabandt”
XXXXIII (43) Armeekorps:
- 37 SS-Kav.Div.
- 96 inf. -div.
- 101 Jag.Div. (KGrp)
- 25 Pz.Div.
Panzerkorps “F” (Stab IV (04) Panzerkorps):
- “FH.1” Pz.Div.
- “FH.2” Pz.Div.
- 211 VG.Div. (KGrp)
- 357 Inf.Div.
- 92 PzGR.Bde.
LXXII (72) Armeekorps:
- 271 VG.Div. (KGrp)
- 46 VG.Div.
- 711 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
- 182 Inf.Div.

The Balkans front (under OKW command)

HEERESGRUPPE- “E”:
And OB – “Southeast”:
LXXXXVII (97) z.b.V.Korps:
- 188 Geb.Div.
- 237 Inf.Div.
XV (15) Gebirgskorps:
- 392 (Kroat) Inf.Div. (remnants)
- 373 (Kroat) Inf.Div. (remnants)
- 104 Jag.Div.
XXI (21) Gebirgskorps:
- 7 SS-Geb.Div. “Prinz Eugen” (most)
- 181 Inf.Div. + 369 (Kroat) Inf.Div. (remnants)
- 969 Fest.Bde.
- 966 Fest.Bde.
- 964 Fest.Bde.
- 1017 Fest.Bde.
LXXXXI (91) z.b.V. Korps:
- 7 SS-Geb.Div. “Prinz Eugen” (part)
- 22 VG.Div.
- 41 Inf.Div.
- 963 Fest.Bde.
XV (15) (Kos) Kav.Korps:
- 2 (Kos) Kav.Div.
- 1 (Kos) Kav.Div.
LXIX (69) z.b.V. Korps:
- z.b.V.Div.”Fischer”:
- - 18 SS-Pol.Geb.Regt.
- - 5 SS-Pol.Regt.
- 20 Res.Jag.Regt.
Kdt.”Eastern Aegean”:
- 939 PzGR.Bde. (“Rhodes”)
- 968 Fest.Bde.
Kdt.”Crete”:
- Fest.Div.”Crete”

The Italian front (under OKW command)

HEERESGRUPPE- “C”:
And OB – “Southwest”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- 90 PzGR.Div.
- 29 PzGR.Div.
- 155 Inf.Div. (forming)

TENTH ARMY [AOK 10]:
I (01) Fschjag.Korps:
- 26 Pz.Div.
- 1 Fschjag.Div.
- 4 Fschjag.Div.
- 305 Inf.Div.
- 278 VG.Div.
LXXVI (76) Panzerkorps:
- 42 Jag.Div.
- 98 VG.Div.
- 162 (Turk) Inf.Div.
- 362 Inf.Div.
LXXIII (73) z.b.V.Korps:
- Local Alarm Units

FOURTEENTH ARMY [AOK 14]:
XIV (14) Panzerkorps:
- 8 Geb.Div.
- 65 Inf.Div.
- 94 inf. -div.
LI (51) Gebirgskorps:
- 114 Jag.Div.
- 148 Inf.Div.
- 232 Inf.Div.
- 334 VG.Div.
- 1 (Ital) Inf.Div. “Italia”

ARMEE “Ligurien” (Stab LXXXVII (87) Armeekorps):
Arm.Reserves:
- 4 (Ital) Mtn.Div. “Monte Rosa” (o.1 Regt.)
LXXV (75) Armeekorps:
- 5 Geb.Div.
- 34 inf. -div.
- 2 (Ital) Inf.Div. “Littorio”
“Lombardia” Korps:
- 3 (Ital) Inf.Div. “San Marco”
- 134 Fest.Bde.
- 4 (Ital) Mtn.Div. “Monte Rosa” (part)

The Western Front (under OKW command)

Wehr.Befh.”Denmark”:
- Stab z.b.V.Div.”North Jutland” (forming)
- 160 Inf.Div.
- 233 Pz.Div.
OB – “Northwest”:
- Fuhrungsstab “North Coast”
OB – “Netherlands” (Stab AOK 25):
OB Reserves:
- Stab 331 Inf.Div.
XXX (30) Armeekorps:
- 249 Inf.Div.
- Stab 20 z.b.V.Bde.
- 34 SS-Div. “Ldst.Niederland”
LXXXVIII (88) Armeekorps:
- 346 Inf.Div. (most)
- 361 Inf.Div.
- 6 Fschjag.Div.
- 149 Inf.Div.

FIRST PARACHUTE ARMY [Fschjag.AOK 1]:
II (02) Fschjag.Korps:
- 8 Fschjag.Div.
- 7 Fschjag.Div. + 346 Inf.Div. (deel)
- 245 Inf.Div. (remnants)
LXXXVI (86) Armeekorps:
- “GD” Pz.Vbd.
- Div.Nr.471 + Div.Nr.490 (part)
- 325 Schatten-Div.
- 15 PzGR.Div.

ARMEEGRUPPE “Blumentritt”:
Korps Stab Ems.:
- Div.Nr.480
- 172 z.b.V.Div.
- 2 Marine Inf.Div.
Stellv. XI (11) Armeekorps:
- 3 PzGR.Div. (KGrp)

HEERESGRUPPE “B”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- 326 VG.Div. (most) (formation unknown)
- 340 VG.Div. (formation unknown)
- 5 Fschjag.Div. (formation unknown)
- 166 Inf.Div. (formation unknown)
ARMEE ABT. “von Luttwitz” (Stab XXXXVII (47) Panzerkorps):
LIII (53) Armeekorps:
- 116 Pz.Div. (most)
- 22 Flak-Div.
- 190 Inf.Div.
- 180 Inf.Div.
- Group “von Deichmann”
LXIII (63) Armeekorps:
- 2 Fschjag.Div.
- Stab Inf.Div. “Hamburg”

FIFTH PANZER ARMY [PzAOK 5]:
XII (12) SS-Korps:
- 363 Inf.Div.
- Stab Group “Witte”
- 3 Fschjag.Div. (KGrp)
- 59 Inf.Div.
LVIII (58) Panzerkorps:
- 183 VG.Div.
- 9 stukke div. (most)
- 12 VG.Div.
- 353 Inf.Div.
- 62 VG.Div.

FIFTEENTH ARMY [AOK 15]:
LXXIV (74) Armeekorps:
- 272 VG.Div.
- 3 PzGR.Div. (most)
- Group “Meissner”
- Pz.Div. “Lehr”
- 338 Inf.Div.
- 176 Inf.Div.

OB – “WEST”:
OB Reserves:
- 150 Inf.Div. (forming)
- 151 Inf.Div. (forming)
- 18 VG.Div. (re-organizing)
- 89 Inf.Div. (re-organizing)
- 167 Inf.Div. (re-organizing)
- 63 Inf.Div. (re-orgainizing)
- Div.Nr.476 (formation unknown)
- Stab AOK 11
- Stab AOK 24 (WKrs.V)
- Group “Weissenberger” (WKrs.XIII)
- Stab Div.Nr.407
- WKrs.VII
- WKrs.VI
- Div.Nr.406 (forming)
- Div.Nr.476 (forming)

ELEVENTH ARMY [AOK 11]:
LXVI (66) Armeekorps:
- 116 Pz.Div. (KGrp)
- 9 stukke div. (KGrp)
- SS-Pz.Bde. “Westfalen”
- 277 VG.Div. (remnants)
Stellv. IX (09) Armeekorps:
- 326 VG.Div. (KGrp)
- 26 VG.Div. (KGrp)
LXVII (67) Armeekorps:
- Group “Gosskreuz”
- Group “Heidenreich”
- Group “Ettner”
- Group “Feller”

HEERESGRUPPE- “G”:
HGrp. Reserwes:
- Stab LXXXIX (89) Armeekorps (formation unknown)
- 352 VG.Div. (formation unknown)
- 905 z.b.V.Div. (formation unknown)
- 347 VG.Div. (formation unknown)
- 159 Inf.Div. (formation unknown)
- 276 VG.Div. (forming) (formation unknown)

SEVENTH ARMY [AOK 7]:
AOK -reserwes:
- 6 SS-Geb.Div. “Nord”
LXXXX (90) Armeekorps:
- Local Alarm Units
LXXXV (85) Armeekorps:
- 11 Pz.Div. (remnants)
- Group “Schroeter”
XII (12) Armeekorps (Wkrs.XII):
- Group “von Berg”
- 2 stukke div.
LXXXII (82) Armeekorps:
- 36 VG.Div. + 256 VG.Div. (remnants)
- 21 Flak-Div
- Div.Nr.416

FIRST ARMY [AOK 1]:
XIII (13) SS-Korps:
- Pz.Bde. “von Hube”
Div. “Bayern”
- 79 VG.Div.
- 212 VG.Div.
- Stab 9 VG.Div.
- Inf.Div. “Alpen”
- Stab 616 z.b.V.Div.
XIII (13) Armeekorps:
- 553 VG.Div.
- 17 SS-PzGR.Div. “G.von B.”
- 246 VG.Div.
- 19 VG.Div.
- 2 Geb.Div.

NINTEENTH ARMY [AOK 19]:
AOK -reserwes:
- 189 Inf.Div. (forming)
XVIII (18) SS-Korps:
- Div.Nr.405
- Div.Nr.805
- 1005 Inf.Bde.
- Inf.Bde. “Bauer”
LXXX (80) Armeekorps:
- 559 VG.Div.
- 198 inf. -div.
- 47 VG.Div.
- 16 VG.Div.
LXIV (64) Armeekorps:
- 716 Inf.Div.
- 257 VG.Div.
- 106 Inf.Div.

Marine Obkdo. “West”:
Ob.Reserves:
- 319 Inf.Div.
- 226 Inf.Div. (KGrp)
XXV (25) Armeekorps (Fes.”Lorient”):
- 265 Inf.Div. (remnants)

OKH – RESERVES:
Behind Heeresgruppe “Mitte”:
- Stab XXXXVIII (48) Panzerkorps
- 21 Pz.Div.
- 10 SS-Pz.Div. “Frund.”
Behind Heeresgruppe “Vistula”:
- Stab Heeresgruppe “H”
- Stab AOK 4
- 18 PzGR.Div. (forming)
Behind AOK “Ost Prussia”:
- Stab XXVII (27) Armeekorps
- Stab VII (07) Panzerkorps
- 542 VG.Div.
- 389 Inf.Div.
- 337 VG.Div.
- 73 inf. -div.
- Stab “H.G.” Panzerkorps (remnants) (forming)
- “H.G.2” PzGR.Div. (remnants) (forming)
- Stab XXVIII (28) Armeekorps
- 24 Pz.Div.
- 292 Inf.Div.
- 131 Inf.Div.
- 56 inf. -div.
- 562 VG.Div.

OKW – RESERVES:
Behind Heeresgruppe “B”:
- Stab XXXXI (41) Panzerkorps (forming)
- Stab XXXIX (39) Panzerkorps (forming)
- Stab XX (20) Armeekorps
OKW Reserves Forming:
- Inf.Div. “Potsdam” (85 Inf.Div.)
- Inf.Div. “Ullrich von Hutten”
- 1 R.A.D.Div. “Schlageter”
- 2 R.A.D.Div. “Fr.Ludwig Jahn”
- 3 R.A.D.Div. “Theodor Korner”
- Pz.Div. “Clausewitz”
O.B.d.E.:
- 599 (Russ) Inf.Bde.
- 599 Inf.Div.
- 48 Inf.Div.
- 264 Inf.Div.
- 199 Inf.Div.
SS-F.H.A.:
- 33 SS-Div. “Charlemagne”
- 25 SS-Div. “Hungarian #1”
- 26 SS-Div. “Hungarian#2”
- 30 SS-Div. “Russian#1”
- 38 SS-Div. “Nibelungen”

Opmerking: alle eenhede is Duits, tensy anders aangedui.
Alle foute, weglatings of "tikfoute" is die van die skrywer.


Runner II SS-476 - History

The concept of military smoke screening dates back hundreds of years. One of the earliest documented uses of smoke screen in combat was the burning of green vegetation by the Romans and later the burning of peat moss by the Vikings. In the American Civil War, General Robert Schenck burned wet tree limbs and leaves to create a smoke screen to cover his retreat (click here to see picture)--note:picture is available for purchase at:[insert link here] In all of these early smoke screen attempts, the method employed was direct flame contact with combustible material.

These combustion methods were a bit uncontrollable and had only limited advantages in combat. Generally, they could only be used to conceal troop numbers or to cover a retreat but could not effectively be used in covering troop advances due to the effect of smoke on the advancing troops. In addition, because smoke is lighter than air, the smoke cover was only temporary and large volumes of smoke were necessary to create sufficient cover. Thus a sizable amount of time was required to ignite and burn the material.

During WW I there were two important improvements to the early direct flame methods. One method was the smudge pot which involved the burning of oil by contact with a heated metal plate thus avoiding direct flame contact. This method had numerous advantages over the direct flame methods in that it was more controllable--being a uniform liquid in a specially designed container--and it produced a much thicker smoke than did the burning of peat moss or wood. However its product was still a smoke and thus the smudge pot retains the three disadvantages the direct flame methods: lighter than air, harmful to friendly troops, and taking a fair amount of time to produce. In addition, large amounts of oil were required to make the amount of smoke necessary to cover large troop numbers and thus this method was expensive and involved transport problems.

During the end of WWI, military researchers experimented with naval uses for this method of smoke generation, and developed apparatuses to fit a much larger equivalent of the smudge pot to the engines of large naval ships. These inventions used heavy oil pumped directly into the engines combustion chambers and created huge columns of thick, black and toxic smoke that poured out of the ship's smoke stacks. Once again, there many problems. Hundreds of gallons of heavy oil were necessary to create a wall of smoke less than a mile long, and the smoke cloud that was created was lighter than air and dissipated rapidly. Because of this fact, many ships would be required to make sufficient cover for a fleet. This type of smoke production saw very limited use in the naval battles of WWI.

Another method that evolved at this time was the chemical smoke bombs. This method produced by the mixing of chemical compounds. The "smoke" produced was therefore not a smoke at all--not being the product of combustion--but was instead a chemical gas. The advantages of this method was that the gas was highly controllable, could be produced in small containers (gas grenades), and could be made heavier than air and thus linger on the ground. Also, some of these gasses especially due to their heavier than air properties could form a thicker screen than the combustion methods. There were several disadvantages to this system, however. First, the chemicals used were generally highly toxic phosphorous compounds, so, like the actual smoke of the other smoke screen methods, this gas was neither useful to advancing troops nor naval vessels. Secondly, the gas could not be produced in mass quantities due to the expense of chemicals involved and was thus generally only usable in small strike operations.

Sometime shortly after WWI, during the prohibition days, a rum runner, and WWI veteran, named Alonzo Patterson developed an entirely new method superior to all previous ones, but it remained unknown to the millitary until the years just prior to the US involvement in WWII. His invention was to become the first effective large area smoke screen in the history of warfare, and every military smoke screen technology from WWII to the present day would be firmly based on his revolutionary methods. WWII. Before the military discovery of the Patterson methods, early WWII inventions were mere improvements on the smudge pot systems and the chemical smoke screen methods.

Near the end of WWI to the beginning of WWII, leaders of the worlds armies employed their greatest minds in to develop new and better methods of making smoke. In fact, the United States employed Thomas Edison as head of the U.S. Navy consulting Board during WWI to, among other things, create an effective smoke machine. Later, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was formed, and one of its first projects was to discover an effective large area smoke screen.

The early research of these organization was on technologies based on the smudge pot and the chemical smoke bomb methods. Numerous improvements were made but even at the the start of WWII, they had not been able to discover an effective large area smoke screen. At one point, the OSRD had almost given up on smoke technologies after numerous experiments with oil and chemical generators in Panama. But when the Patterson system was brought to their attention, their interest in smoke screening was quickly rekindled.

Alonzo Patterson was, during the prohibition days, a well known and highly successful rum runner given the name "Smoky" by the agents who attempted to chase his fleet of ships while being foiled by his smoke screen. Near the end of Prohibition, Patterson became a Customs Agent and gained several contacts in the government. When US involvement WWII seemed imminent, Patterson's contacts in the government, being highly aware of the effectiveness of his smoke screen, asked him to refine his technology for military use.

To this end, Patterson employed the help of his chemist friend Harold Levy (the chemist who also invented Cellophane, among other significant chemical inventions), to perfect the chemical formulas already developed by Patterson years ago while Patterson worked on refining the apparatuses necessary to the smoke production system. Within a matter of months, the two had refined the smoke screen system used by Patterson during his rum running days, and the invention was presented to the government during several demonstrations, some of which were accomplished with the help of Andrew Higgins, a close friend and business associate of Patterson who, during prohibition, had built Patterson's rum running fleet according to Patterson's unique designs.

In the end, the Navy and the other branches of the military, found the smoke screen to be highly effective and extremely important to combat. Prior to the Patterson system, military smoke screening was, at best, a minimal factor in combat, but with the Patterson system, military strategy was forever changed by the numerous offensive and defensive advantages created by the first ever effective large area smoke screen.

View a detailed description of the technology and what makes it so dramatically different from all smoke screening methods that came before it.


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