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Noord-Amerikaanse XP-51F

Noord-Amerikaanse XP-51F


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Noord-Amerikaanse XP-51F

Die XP-51F was een van 'n reeks eksperimentele vliegtuie wat vervaardig is in 'n poging om 'n ligter Mustang te ontwikkel. Dit was 2,500 pond ligter as die P-51D, maar is aangedryf deur dieselfde Packard Merlin V-1650-7-enjin. Die gewigsvermindering is behaal deur 'n dunner vleuel, 'n ligter kajuitkappie en 'n ligte drie -lem propeller te gebruik. Die XP-51F's is gebou, en die nuwe tipe het 'n topsnelheid van 466 mph op 29,000 voet bereik. Alhoewel die P-51F nie in produksie gekom het nie, was dit die basis van die P-51H, die laaste groot produksieweergawe van die vliegtuig.


26 April 1948

Die toetsvlieënier van die Noord-Amerikaanse lugvaart, George S. Welch, vlieg die eerste van drie XP-86 prototipes, reeksnommer 45-59597. (North American Aviation, Inc.)

26 April 1948: By Muroc Field (nou bekend as Edwards Air Force Base), in die hoë woestyn van Suid-Kalifornië, het die Noord-Amerikaanse lugvaarttoetsvlieënier, George Welch, die prototipe XP-86 Saber, 45-59597, in 'n 40 ° duik gesit en het die Sound Barrier gebreek. Dit is slegs die tweede Amerikaanse vliegtuig wat supersonies vlieg. Die eerste was slegs 'n paar maande tevore die Bell X-1, bestuur deur Chuck Yeager.

In sy boek, Aces Wild: The Race For Mach 1, 'n mede-vlieënier van die Noord-Amerikaanse lugvaart, Albert W. Blackburn, beweer dat George Welch die eerste prototipe XP-86 Saber supersonies geneem het op sy eerste vlug, 1 Oktober 1947, en dat hy dit drie keer gedoen het voordat Chuck Yeager die Sound vir die eerste keer gebreek het. Versperring met die Bell X-1-vuurpyl, 14 Oktober 1947. Blackburn het op 13 November 1947 twee lopies deur die NACA radar teodoliet beskryf met 'n snelheid van Mach 1.02 en 1.04.

Blackburn bespiegel - volgens my oortuigend - dat die sekretaris van die lugmag W. Stuart Symington, Jr., beveel het dat Welch se uitstappies buite Mach 1 geheim moet bly. Tydens 'n radio -onderhoud het die Britse toetsvlieënier Wing Commander Roland Prosper (“Bee ”) Beamont, C.B.E, D.S.O. en Bar, D.F.C. en Bar, verklaar dat hy deur die Sound Barrier gevlieg het in die nommer twee XP-86 Sabre prototipe (45-59598). Nadat die nuus bekend geword het, het die Amerikaanse lugmag 'n verklaring uitgereik dat George Welch vroeër verby Mach 1 gevlieg het, maar die datum was 26 April 1948.

Toetsvlieënier George S. Welch, met sy kenmerkende oranje helm, in die kajuit van die prototipe XP-86. Hierdie foto is geneem op 14 Oktober 1947. (U.S. Air Force)

Dit was nie lank na die eerste vlug van die XP-86 op 1 Oktober 1947 dat Welch by Horkey & Edwardia Horkey, 'n aerodinamikus by North American Aviation] by die Inglewood-aanleg ingeloop het nie. Hy wou praat oor sy onlangse vlug en 'n paar lesings in die lugsnelheidsindikator. Hy het reguit gestyg tot meer as 35 000 voet. Toe hy terugdraai na Muroc Dry Lake, begin hy met 'n sterk, redelik steil afdraande.

Ek het ongeveer 290 knope begin, en Welch het vir Horkey verduidelik. Ek is in 'n japtrap op 350. Ek gaan nog steeds af, en ek versnel nog steeds, maar die snelheidsaanwyser lyk asof dit 'n soort obstruksie in die pitotbuis is. Ek stoot 'n bietjie steiler oor en teen hierdie tyd is ek 30.000 voet lank. Skielik draai die lugsnelheidsaanwyser na 410 knope. Die vliegtuig voel goed, geen snaakse geluide nie, geen trillings nie. Wou na links afrol, maar nie veel nie. Tog het ek op ongeveer 25 000 gelykgemaak en weer op die krag gekom. Die lugsnelheid het teruggekeer na 390. Wat dink jy? ”

“. . . U het moontlik 'n paar Mach -effekte teëgekom. . . . ”

Aces Wild: The Race For Mach 1, deur Al Blackburn, Scholarly Resources Inc., Wilmington, Delaware, 1999, op bladsye 147–148.

Die “ snaakse ” lesing van die lugsnelheidsindikator het bekend gestaan ​​as die “Mach spring. ” George Welch was die eerste wat dit beskryf het.

Die Sabre het tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog 'n legendariese straaljagter geword. 9 860 is gebou deur Noord -Amerika, sowel as deur lisensiehouers in Kanada, Australië en Japan.

George Welch is aanbeveel vir die Medal of Honor vir sy optrede as 'n P-40 Warhawk-vegvlieënier in Hawaii, 7 Desember 1941. Hy is dood tydens die toets van 'n North American Aviation F-100A Super Saber, 12 Oktober 1954.

Toetsvlieënier George S. Welch met 'n North American Aviation F-86 Sabre. (San Diego Air and Space Museum Archives)


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Kreatiewe inspirasie is belangrik, maar dit is slegs die eerste stap. Doeltreffende bemarking verg ook operasionele uitvoering. Ons sal u handelsmerk by elke raakpunt lewendig maak - vinnig, doeltreffend en lewendig.

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Stuur 'n e -pos as 'n variant ontbreek.



XP-51F geweeg 1600lbs minder as P-51D. 3-lem propeller. Topsnelheid 466MPH.
XP-51G het 2 200 pk Rolls-Royce Merlin met 'n 5-lem propeller gehad. Topsnelheid 495MPH.
XP-51J het 'n langwerpige afdak, die Allison V-12-enjin, die vergasserbak wat deur die integrasie in die radiatorbeker uitgeskakel is, het gelei tot die mees vaartbelynde Mustang ooit. Topspoed onbekend as gevolg van enjinprobleme.

Noord-Amerika het met 4 ligte prototipes eksperimenteer: XP-51F/G/H/J. Uiteindelik was die produksie van 'n liggewig Mustang gebaseer op XP-51H.

In vergelyking met P-51D, was P-51H meer hoekig gevorm. Toetsvlieëniers wat D en H vergelyk het, het opgemerk dat H se groter wendbaarheid, versnelling en klimtempo was. In normale kraginstellings was die snelheidsverskil marginaal.

Geen P-51H Mustangs het ooit gevegte [ref: David McLaren] beoefen nie, maar 'n paar NACA-literatuurdokumente is (of gaan) ontplooi om B-29's te begelei [ref: NACA, Reeder]. Die prototipe is in April 1945 getoets toe die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Europa geëindig het.

P-51H was broos. Die stertwiel is geneig om in duie te stort, dikwels vlieg ANG met die agterwiel gesluit. Sommige het swak vlerkspore, ANG -vlieëniers was beperk tot 2G.

Toe die Koreaanse oorlog begin, kies USAF om P-51D's te gebruik en P-51H's tuis te hou. In 'n vreemde ommekeer van sy hand-down-beleid, het USAF eintlik nuwer/vinniger P-51H's aan ANG-eenhede gegee in ruil vir ouer/stadiger P-51D's. Behalwe logistiek, was P-51D se betroubaarheid 'n rede, en P-51H het spoed gekry deur 'n swakker raam, sy vlerke was swakker, sy stertwiel was geneig om in duie te stort. USAF wou moontlik die beperkte aantal vinniger, maar brose P-51H's in die reservaat vir tuisverdediging hou, aangesien die enigste vegter met 'n lang afstand nog in die vroeë vyftigerjare die Mustang was.

Slegs 6 P-51H-modelle oorleef [ref: p51h.home.comcast.net]. Minstens 2 is lugwaardig.

P-51I-benaming is oorgeslaan (?). P-51K was net 'n P-51D met 'n ander propeller.
[ref: Noord-Amerikaanse P-51H Mustang deur David McLaren]
[ref: NACA, Reeder]
[verwys: p51h.home.comcast.net]


Inhoud

In 1938 het die Britse regering 'n aankoopkommissie in die Verenigde State gestig, onder leiding van sir Henry Self. [13] [14] Self het die algemene verantwoordelikheid gekry vir produksie, navorsing en ontwikkeling van RAF, en het ook saam met sir Wilfrid Freeman, die luglid vir ontwikkeling en produksie, gedien. Self was ook 'n lid van die British Air Council se subkomitee oor aanbod (of 'Supply Committee') en een van sy take was om die vervaardiging en verskaffing van Amerikaanse vegvliegtuie vir die RAF te organiseer. Destyds was die keuse baie beperk, aangesien geen Amerikaanse vliegtuie wat destyds in produksie of vlieg was aan Europese standaarde voldoen nie, met slegs die Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk wat naby was. Die Curtiss-Wright-aanleg was op volle kapasiteit, dus was daar 'n tekort aan P-40's. [15]

North American Aviation (NAA) lewer reeds sy T-6 Texan (in Britse diens bekend as die "Harvard") afrigter aan die RAF, maar is andersins onderbenut. NAA-president, "Dutch" Kindelberger, het Self genader om 'n nuwe medium bomwerper, die Noord-Amerikaanse B-25 Mitchell, te verkoop. Self het self gevra of NAA P-40's onder lisensie van Curtiss kan vervaardig. Kindelberger het gesê NAA kan 'n beter vliegtuig met dieselfde Allison V-1710-enjin in die lug hê as om 'n produksielyn vir die P-40 te vestig.

John Attwood van Noord -Amerika het van Januarie tot April 1940 baie tyd by die Britse aankoopkommissie in New York deurgebring om die Britse spesifikasies van die voorgestelde vliegtuie met Britse ingenieurs te bespreek. Die besprekings het bestaan ​​uit vryhandse konseptuele tekeninge van 'n vliegtuig met die Britse amptenare. Sir Henry Self was bekommerd dat die Noord-Amerikaner nog nooit 'n vegvliegtuig ontwerp het nie, en dring daarop aan dat hulle die tekeninge moet kry en die proefvliegtuie van Curtiss XP-46 en die windtunneltoetsresultate vir die P-40 bestudeer, voordat hulle gedetailleerde ontwerptekeninge aan hulle voorlê, gebaseer op die ooreengekome konsep. Noord -Amerikaner het die tekeninge en data van Curtiss vir £ 56,000 gekoop, wat die aankoop met die aankoopkommissie bevestig het. Die aankoopkommissie het die gevolglike gedetailleerde ontwerptekeninge goedgekeur, met die ondertekening van die aanvang van die Mustang -projek op 4 Mei 1940, met 'n vaste bestelling van 320 op 29 Mei 1940. Voor dit het Noord -Amerika slegs 'n konsepbrief gehad vir 'n bestelling van 320 vliegtuie. Curtiss -ingenieurs het Noord -Amerika van plagiaat beskuldig. [16]

Die Britse aankoopkommissie het bewapening van vier .303 in (7,7 mm) masjiengewere bepaal (soos gebruik op die Tomahawk), 'n eenheidskoste van nie meer as $ 40,000 nie, en aflewering van die eerste produksievliegtuig teen Januarie 1941. [17] In Maart In 1940 is 320 vliegtuie bestel deur Freeman, wat die uitvoerende hoof van die Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP) geword het en die kontrak is op 24 April afgekondig. [18]

Die NA-73X, wat ontwerp is deur 'n span onder leiding van hoofingenieur Edgar Schmued, het die beste konvensionele praktyk van die era gevolg, wat ontwerp is vir die gemak van massavervaardiging. [16] Die ontwerp bevat verskeie nuwe funksies. [nb 2] Die een was 'n vleuel wat ontwerp is met behulp van laminaire vloervlakke, wat saam ontwikkel is deur North American Aviation en die National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Hierdie vliegtuie het lae weerstand teen hoë snelhede opgelewer. [19] Tydens die ontwikkeling van die NA-73X is 'n windtunneltoets van twee vleuels uitgevoer, een met NACA-vyfsyfer-vliegblaaie en die ander met die nuwe NAA/NACA 45-100 vliegvlakke, in die Universiteit van Washington Kirsten Wind Tunnel. Die resultate van hierdie toets toon die superioriteit van die vleuel wat ontwerp is met die NAA/NACA 45-100 vliegvlakke. [20] [nb 3]

Die ander kenmerk was 'n nuwe verkoeling wat agter geplaas is (enkelkanaalwater- en olie -verkoelers) wat die rompweerstand en gevolge vir die vleuel verminder het. Later, [22] na baie ontwikkeling, het hulle ontdek dat die koelsamestelling voordeel kan trek uit die Meredith -effek: waarin verhitte lug die radiator met 'n geringe hoeveelheid straalstoot verlaat. Omdat NAA nie 'n geskikte windtunnel gehad het om hierdie funksie te toets nie, gebruik dit die GALCIT 3,0 m (10 voet) windtunnel by die California Institute of Technology. Dit het tot 'n mate van kontroversie gelei of die Mustang se aërodinamika van die verkoelingstelsel deur die NAA se ingenieur Edgar Schmued of Curtiss ontwikkel is, aangesien NAA die volledige stel P-40- en XP-46-windtunneldata en vlugtoetsverslae gekoop het. [23] [24] Die NA-73X was ook een van die eerste vliegtuie wat wiskundig 'n romp gehad het met behulp van kegelsnitte, wat gelei het tot gladde oppervlaktes met 'n lae weerstand. [25] Om die produksie te bevorder, is die vliegtuigraam verdeel in vyf hoofafdelings - vorentoe, middel, agterste romp en twee vleuelhelftes - wat almal met bedrading en leidings toegerus was voordat dit verbind was. [25]

Die prototipe NA-73X is in September 1940 uitgerol, slegs 102 dae nadat die bestelling geplaas is, het dit die eerste keer op 26 Oktober 1940 gevlieg, 149 dae in die kontrak, 'n ongewone kort ontwikkelingsperiode, selfs tydens die oorlog. [26] Met toetsvlieënier Vance Breese by die kontroles, [27] het die prototipe goed hanteer en 'n indrukwekkende brandstoflading geakkommodeer. Die vliegtuig se semi-monokoque romp met drie afdelings is geheel en al van aluminium gemaak om gewig te bespaar. Dit was gewapen met vier 0,30 kaliber (7,62 mm) AN/M2 Browning-masjiengewere in die vlerke en twee 0,50 kaliber (12,7 mm) AN/M2 Browning-masjiengewere wat onder die enjin gemonteer is en deur die skroefboog skiet met behulp van geweersynchronisering rat. [nb 4]

Alhoewel die USAAC enige verkope wat volgens hom nadelig was vir die belange van die VSA, kon blokkeer, word die NA-73 as 'n spesiale geval beskou omdat dit in opdrag van die Britte ontwerp is. In September 1940 is 'n verdere 300 NA-73's deur die MAP bestel. [17] Om ononderbroke aflewering te verseker, het kolonel Oliver P. Echols met die Anglo-Franse aankoopkommissie gereël om die vliegtuig af te lewer en NAA het twee voorbeelde (41-038 en 41-039) aan die USAAC vir evaluering gegee. [28] [nb 5]

Die Allison-enjin in die Mustang I het 'n enkeltrap-aanjaer gehad wat veroorsaak het dat die krag vinnig meer as 4600 m (15 000 voet) afgeneem het. Dit het dit ongeskik gemaak vir gebruik op die hoogtes waar gevegte in Europa plaasgevind het. Allison se pogings om 'n enjin op groot hoogte te ontwikkel, is onderfinansier, maar het die V-1710-45 vervaardig, wat 'n hulpaanjaer met 'n veranderlike spoed het, en 1,150 perdekrag (860 kW) op 22,400 voet (6 800 m) ontwikkel. In November 1941 het NAA die moontlikheid ondersoek om dit te gebruik, maar om die buitensporige lengte daarvan in die Mustang te pas, sal uitgebreide vliegtuigraamwerkaanpassings verg en lang produksievertragings veroorsaak. [30] [31] In Mei 1942, na positiewe verslae van die RAF oor die prestasie van die Mustang I onder 15.000 voet, stel Ronald Harker, 'n toetsvlieënier vir Rolls-Royce, voor om 'n Merlin 61 aan te pas, soos dit by die Spitfire Mk IX pas. [30] Die Merlin 61 het 'n tweespoed, tweestadige onderverkoelde aanjaer, ontwerp deur Stanley Hooker van Rolls-Royce. [32] Beide die Merlin 61 en V-1710-39 was in staat om ongeveer 1,570 perdekrag (1,170 kW) oorlogs noodkrag op relatief lae hoogte, maar die Merlin het 1,390 perdekrag (1,040 kW) op 23,500 voet (7,200 m) teenoor die Allison se 1,150 perdekrag (860 kW) op 11 800 voet (3600 m), [33] [34] [31] lewer 'n toename in topsnelheid van 340 mph (340 kn 630 km/h) teen

15 000 voet (4 600 m) tot 'n geskatte 440 mph (380 kn 710 km/h) op 28 100 voet (8 600 m). Aanvanklike vlugte van wat Rolls-Royce as die Mustang Mk X bekend gestaan ​​het, is in Oktober 1942 by die Rolls-Royce-vliegveld by Hucknall voltooi. [30]

Terselfdertyd is die moontlikheid om die P-51-vliegtuigraam te kombineer met die Amerikaanse lisensiegeboude Packard-weergawe van die Merlin-enjin aan die ander kant van die Atlantiese Oseaan ondersoek. In Julie 1942 is 'n kontrak aangegaan vir twee prototipes, kortliks XP-78 genoem, maar binnekort die XP-51B. [35] Op grond van die Packard V-1650-3 wat die Merlin 61 se prestasie dupliseer, het NAA vir die XP-78 'n topsnelheid van 387 kn 716 km/h geskat op 'n 8500 m en 'n diens plafon van 42.000 voet (13.000 m). [30] Die eerste vlug van die XP-51B het in November 1942 plaasgevind, maar die USAAF was so geïnteresseerd in die moontlikheid dat 'n aanvanklike kontrak vir 400 vliegtuie drie maande tevore in Augustus geplaas is. [36] Die omskakeling het gelei tot die produksie van die P-51B wat in Junie 1943 begin het by die fabriek in Inglewood, Kalifornië, in Noord-Amerika, [37] en P-51's het in die winter van 1943 begin beskikbaar raak by die 8ste en 9de lugmag. 1944. Omskakeling na die tweestadige Merlin 61, meer as 160 kg swaarder as die enkelfase Allison, met 'n vierbladige Hamilton Standard-skroef, het die vleuel effens vorentoe beweeg om die swaartepunt van die vliegtuig reg te stel. Nadat die USAAF, in Julie 1943, vegvliegtuigvervaardigers beveel het om die interne brandstofvermoë te maksimeer, bereken NAA die swaartepunt van die P-51B om vorentoe genoeg te wees om 'n bykomende brandstoftenk van 85 US gal (320 l 71 imp gal) in die romp in te sluit agter die vlieënier, wat die reikwydte van die vliegtuig aansienlik vergroot as die van die vroeëre P-51A. NAA het die tenk opgeneem in die vervaardiging van die P-51B-10, en het kits voorsien om dit aan alle bestaande P-51B's op te stel. [30]

Operasionele diens in die Verenigde Koninkryk Redigeer

Die Mustang is aanvanklik ontwikkel vir die RAF, wat die eerste gebruiker was. Aangesien die eerste Mustangs volgens Britse vereistes gebou is, gebruik hierdie vliegtuie fabrieksnommers en was nie P-51 nie, maar die bestelling bestaan ​​uit 320 NA-73's, gevolg deur 300 NA-83's, wat almal aangewys is Noord -Amerikaanse Mustang Mark I deur die RAF. [38] Die eerste RAF Mustangs wat onder Lend-Lease verskaf is, was 93 P-51's, aangewys Mk Ia, gevolg deur 50 P-51As gebruik as Mustang Mk IIs. [39] Vliegtuie wat onder Lend-Lease aan Brittanje verskaf is, moes vir rekeningkundige doeleindes op die boeke van die USAAC wees voordat dit aan Brittanje verskaf kon word. Die Britse aankoopkommissie vir vliegtuie onderteken egter op 24 April 1940 sy eerste kontrak vir die Noord-Amerikaanse NA-73, voordat Lend-Lease van krag was. Die aanvanklike bestelling vir die P-51 Mustang (soos dit later bekend was) is dus deur die Britte onder die 'Cash and Carry'-program geplaas, soos vereis deur die Amerikaanse neutraliteitswette van die dertigerjare. [40]

Na die aankoms van die aanvanklike vliegtuig in die Verenigde Koninkryk in Oktober 1941, tree die eerste Mustang Mk in Januarie 1942 in diens, waarvan die eerste eenheid 26 eskader RAF was. [41] As gevolg van swak prestasie op groot hoogte, is die Mustangs gebruik deur die Army Co-operation Command, eerder as Fighter Command, en is dit gebruik vir taktiese verkennings- en grondaanvalpligte. Op 10 Mei 1942 vlieg Mustangs eers oor Frankryk, naby Berck-sur-Mer. [42] Op 27 Julie 1942 het 16 RAF Mustangs hul eerste langafstandverkenningsmissie oor Duitsland onderneem. Tydens die amfibiese Dieppe -aanval op die Franse kus (19 Augustus 1942) het vier Britse en Kanadese Mustang -eskaders, waaronder 26 eskader, aksie gesien wat die aanval op die grond dek. Teen 1943–1944 is Britse Mustangs wyd gebruik om V-1 vlieënde bomterreine te soek. Die laaste RAF Mustang Mk I en Mustang Mk II vliegtuie is in 1945 vrygespreek.

Weermag se samewerkingsbevel het die Mustang se superieure snelheid en lang afstand gebruik om lae-hoogte "rabarber" -aanvalle oor die vasteland van Europa uit te voer, wat soms die Duitse lugruim binnedring. Die V-1710-enjin het glad met 1,100 rpm geloop, teenoor 1,600 vir die Merlin, wat lang vlugte oor water op 15 m hoogte moontlik gemaak het voordat hy die vyandelike kuslyn bereik het. Oor land het hierdie vlugte 'n zig-zag-koers gevolg, wat elke ses minute na vyandige pogings om 'n onderskep te planne was, afgehandel is. Gedurende die eerste 18 maande van rabarberaanvalle het RAF Mustang Mk.Is en Mk.as 200 lokomotiewe, meer as 200 kanaalbakke en 'n onbekende aantal vyandelike vliegtuie wat op die grond geparkeer is, vernietig of ernstig beskadig vir 'n verlies van agt Mustangs. Op seevlak kon die Mustangs alle vyandelike vliegtuie teëkom. [43] Die RAF het 'n aansienlike prestasieverbetering op lae hoogte behaal deur die enjin se veelvuldige drukreguleerder te verwyder of terug te stel om oorverhoging moontlik te maak, en die opbrengs tot 1,780 perdekrag by 70 "Hg te verhoog. [43] [33] In Desember 1942 het Allison het slegs 1,570 perdekrag goedgekeur teen 'n 60 "Hg-spruitstukdruk vir die V-1710-39. [33]

Die RAF het ook 308 P-51B's en 636 P-51C's bedryf, [44], wat in RAF-diens bekend was as Mustang Mk IIIDie eerste eenhede is laat in 1943 en vroeg in 1944 omgeskakel. Mustang Mk III -eenhede was in werking tot aan die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, hoewel baie eenhede reeds na die Mustang Mk IV (P-51D) en Mk IVa (P-51K) (828 in totaal, bestaande uit 282 Mk IV en 600 Mk IVa). [45] Aangesien almal behalwe die vroegste vliegtuie onder Lend-Lease verkry is, is alle Mustang-vliegtuie wat aan die einde van die oorlog nog op RAF aangekla was, óf "op papier" na die USAAF teruggestuur, óf deur die RAF bewaar vir skrapping. Die laaste RAF Mustangs is in 1947 uit diens getree. [46]

Amerikaanse operasionele diens Redigeer

Vooroorlogse teorie Redigeer

Die vooroorlogse leerstelling was gebaseer op die idee "die bomwerper sal altyd deurkom". [47] Ten spyte van RAF- en Luftwaffe -ervaring met dagbomaanvalle, het die USAAF in 1942 steeds verkeerdelik geglo dat styf gepakte formasies bomwerpers soveel vuurkrag sou hê dat hulle vegters op hul eie kon afweer. [47] Vegbegeleiding was 'n lae prioriteit, maar toe die konsep in 1941 bespreek word, word die Lockheed P-38 Lightning as die mees geskikte beskou, aangesien dit die snelheid en reikafstand het. 'N Ander denkrigting was die voorstander van 'n swaar gewapende omskakeling van 'n strategiese bomwerper. [48] ​​'n Enkelmotorige, hoëspoedvegter met 'n omvang van 'n bomwerper is vermoedelik 'n ingenieurswese onmoontlikheid. [49]

Agtste lugmagbomwerperbedrywighede 1942–1943 Wysig

Die 8ste Lugmag het in Augustus 1942 uit Brittanje begin werk. Aanvanklik, weens die beperkte omvang van die operasie, het geen afdoende bewyse getoon dat die Amerikaanse leerstelling misluk het nie. In die 26 operasies wat tot einde 1942 gevlieg is, was die verlieskoers onder 2%. [50]

In Januarie 1943, tydens die Casablanca-konferensie, het die Geallieerdes die Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) -plan geformuleer vir '24-uur' bombardemente-USAAF bedrywighede wat die RAF-nagaanvalle op industriële sentrums aanvul. In Junie 1943 het die gesamentlike stafhoofde die Pointblank -richtlijn uitgereik om die kapasiteit van die Luftwaffe te vernietig voor die beplande inval in Europa, wat die CBO ten volle implementeer. Duitse vegpogings gedurende die dag was destyds gefokus op die Oosfront en verskeie ander verre plekke. Aanvanklike pogings deur die 8ste het beperkte en ongeorganiseerde weerstand gebied, maar met elke missie het die Luftwaffe meer vliegtuie na die weste beweeg en hul gevegsrigting vinnig verbeter. In die herfs van 1943 het die swaar bomwerpers van die 8ste Lugmag 'n reeks aanvalle na Duitsland uitgevoer, buite die reeks begeleiders. Die Schweinfurt-Regensburg-sending in Augustus verloor 60 B-17's van 'n mag van 376, die aanval op 14 Oktober verloor 77 van 'n mag van 291–26% van die aanvallende mag.

Vir die VSA is die konsep van selfverdedigende bomwerpers in twyfel getrek, maar in plaas daarvan om dagligaanvalle te laat vaar en oor te gaan na nagbomaanvalle, soos die RAF voorgestel het, het hulle aanvanklik ander paaie gekies, bomwerpers wat omskep is in vuurwapens (die Boeing YB- 40) is vermoedelik in staat om die bomwerpers te begelei, maar toe die konsep onsuksesvol was, het die gedagtes na die Lockheed P-38 Lightning gegaan. [51] Vroeg in 1943 besluit die USAAF ook dat die Republiek P-47 Thunderbolt en P-51B oorweeg word vir die rol van 'n kleiner begeleier, en in Julie lui 'n verslag dat die P-51B 'die belowendste' was vliegtuig "met 'n uithouvermoë van 4 uur 45 minute met die standaard interne brandstof van 184 liter plus 150 liter ekstern. [52] In Augustus is 'n P-51B toegerus met 'n ekstra interne tenk van 85 liter, maar probleme met stabiliteit in die lengte het plaasgevind, sodat 'n paar kompromieë met die tenk vol is. Aangesien die brandstof uit die romptenk tydens die aanvanklike stadiums van 'n missie gebruik sou word, sou die brandstoftenk in alle Mustangs wat vir VIII Fighter Command bestem was, aangebring word. [53]

P-51 inleiding Redigeer

Die P-51 Mustang was 'n oplossing vir die behoefte aan 'n doeltreffende bomwerpersbegeleiding. Dit gebruik 'n algemene, betroubare enjin en het interne ruimte vir 'n groter as gemiddelde brandstoflading. Met eksterne brandstoftenks kan dit die bomwerpers vergesel van Engeland na Duitsland en terug. [54]

Teen die tyd dat die Pointblank -offensief vroeg in 1944 hervat is, het sake verander. Bomber-escort-verdediging was aanvanklik in lae, met behulp van die P-38's en P-47's van die korter afstand om die bomwerpers tydens die aanvanklike stadiums van die aanval te begelei voordat dit aan die P-51's oorgegee is toe hulle gedwing was om huis toe te gaan. Dit bied deurlopende dekking tydens die aanval. Die Mustang was so duidelik beter as vroeër Amerikaanse ontwerpe dat die 8ste Lugmag sy gevegsgroepe geleidelik begin omskakel het na die Mustang, en eers die aankomende P-47-groepe omruil na die 9de Lugmag in ruil vir diegene wat P-51's gebruik het. geleidelik die omskakeling van sy Thunderbolt- en Lightning -groepe. Teen die einde van 1944 het 14 van sy 15 groepe die Mustang gevlieg. [55]

Die twee-motorige Messerschmitt Bf 110-swaardvegters van die Luftwaffe wat met die bomwerpers te doen gekry het, was 'n maklike prooi vir die Mustangs en moes vinnig aan die geveg onttrek word. Die Focke-Wulf Fw 190A, wat reeds gebuk gegaan het onder swak prestasie op hoë hoogte, het op die B-17 se hoogte beter gevaar as die Mustang, en gelaai met swaar bomwerpersjagte as plaasvervanger vir die meer kwesbare tweemotorige motor Zerstörer swaar vegters, het dit groot verliese gely. Die Messerschmitt Bf 109 het vergelykbare prestasie op groot hoogtes, maar sy liggewig vliegtuigraam is nog sterker beïnvloed deur toenemende bewapening. Die veel ligter bewapening van die Mustang, afgestem op gevegte, het hom in staat gestel om hierdie enkelmotorige teenstanders te oorkom.

Fighting the Luftwaffe Edit

Aan die begin van 1944 het generaal -majoor James Doolittle, die nuwe bevelvoerder van die 8ste lugmag, baie vegvlieëniers beveel om op te hou vlieg in formasie met die bomwerpers en in plaas daarvan die Luftwaffe aan te val waar dit ook al gevind kan word. Die doel was om lugheerskappy te bereik. Mustang -groepe is ver voor die bomwerpers gestuur in 'n 'vegveg' om aanvallende Duitse vegters te onderskep.

Die Luftwaffe antwoord met die Gefechtsverband ("strydvorming"). Dit het bestaan ​​uit a Sturmgruppe van swaar gewapende en gepantserde Fw 190 Soos begelei deur twee Begleitgruppen van Messerschmitt Bf 109's, wie se taak was om die Mustangs weg te hou van die Fw 190 terwyl hulle die bomwerpers aanval. Hierdie strategie was problematies, aangesien die groot Duitse formasie lank geneem het om saam te stel en moeilik was om te maneuver. Dit is dikwels deur die P-51 "vegvliegtuie" onderskep voordat dit die bomwerpers kon aanval. Duitse aanvalle op bomwerpers kan egter effektief wees wanneer dit gebeur het, het die bomwerper-vernietiger Fw 190As van agter af ingegee en hul aanvalle dikwels tot 90 m (100 m) gedruk. [56]

Alhoewel dit nie altyd in staat was om kontak met die begeleiers te vermy nie, is die bedreiging van massa -aanvalle en later die "kompanie front" (agt voor) aanvalle deur gepantserde Sturmgruppe Fw 190As het die Luftwaffe dringend aangeval, oral in die lug of op die grond. Aan die einde van Februarie 1944 het die 8ste lugmaggevegseenhede met toenemende frekwensie en intensiteit dwarsdeur die lente met stelselmatige aanvalle op Duitse vliegvelde begin, met die doel om lugheerskappy te verkry oor die slagveld van Normandië. Oor die algemeen is dit uitgevoer deur eenhede wat terugkeer van escort missies, maar vanaf Maart het baie groepe ook vliegveldaanvalle gekry in plaas van bomwerperondersteuning. Die P-51, veral met die koms van die K-14 Gyro gunsight en die ontwikkeling van "Clobber Colleges" [57] vir die opleiding van vegvlieëniers in die herfs van 1944, was 'n beslissende element in die geallieerde teenmaatreëls teen die Jagdverbände.

Die numeriese meerderwaardigheid van die USAAF-vegters, uitstekende vliegkenmerke van die P-51 en vlieëniersvaardigheid het gehelp om die Luftwaffe se vegmag te lam. Gevolglik is die vegbedreiging vir die VSA, en later die Britse, bomwerpers aansienlik verminder teen Julie 1944. Die RAF, lang voorstanders van nagbomaanvalle vir beskerming, kon in 1944 weer dagligbomaanvalle heropen as gevolg van die verlamming van die Luftwaffe vegter. Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, bevelvoerder van die Duitse Luftwaffe tydens die oorlog, het gesê: "Toe ek Mustangs oor Berlyn sien, het ek geweet die jig is op." [58] [59] [54]

Beyond Pointblank Edit

Op 15 April 1944 begin VIII Fighter Command met "Operation Jackpot", aanvalle op Luftwaffe -vegvliegtuie. Namate die doeltreffendheid van hierdie missies toegeneem het, het die aantal vegters by die Duitse lugbase tot die punt gedaal dat dit nie meer as die waardevolle teikens beskou is nie. Op 21 Mei is doelwitte uitgebrei met spoorweë, lokomotiewe en ander rollende materiaal wat die Duitsers gebruik het om materiaal en troepe te vervoer, in missies wat 'Chattanooga' genoem word. [60] Die P-51 presteer uitstekend tydens hierdie missie, alhoewel die verliese baie hoër was op toebehore as in lug-tot-luggevegte, deels omdat die Mustang se vloeistofgekoelde enjin (veral die vloeibare koelmiddelsisteem) kwesbaar was vir handwapens vuur, in teenstelling met die luggekoelde R-2800-radiale van sy Republiek P-47 Thunderbolt-stalmaats wat in Engeland gevestig is, en gereeld opdragte vir grondbesoeke doen.

Gegewe die oorweldigende geallieerde superioriteit van die Geallieerdes, het die Luftwaffe sy poging aangewend om vliegtuie van so hoë werkverrigting te ontwikkel dat hulle straffeloos kon werk, maar wat ook bomwerperaanval baie moeiliker gemaak het, bloot uit die vliegsnelhede wat hulle bereik het. Die belangrikste hiervan was die Messerschmitt Me 163B-puntverdedigingsraketontvangers, wat teen einde Julie 1944 met JG 400 begin het, en die Messerschmitt Me 262A-straaljagter met 'n lang uithouvermoë, wat eers met die Gruppe-sterkte Kommando Nowotny -eenheid teen einde September 1944. In aksie was die Me 163 gevaarliker vir die Luftwaffe as vir die Geallieerdes en was dit nooit 'n ernstige bedreiging nie. Die Me 262A was 'n ernstige bedreiging, maar aanvalle op hul vliegvelde het hulle geneutraliseer. Die baanbreker Junkers Jumo 004 aksiale vloei-enjins van die Me 262A's het sorgvuldige sorg van hul vlieëniers nodig gehad, en hierdie vliegtuie was veral kwesbaar tydens opstyg en landing. [61] Lt. Chuck Yeager van die 357th Fighter Group was een van die eerste Amerikaanse vlieëniers wat 'n Me 262 neergeskiet het, wat hy tydens die landing aangekom het. Op 7 Oktober 1944 het Lt. Urban L. Drew van die 361ste Fighter Group twee Me 262's neergeskiet wat opgestyg het, terwyl op dieselfde dag luitenant-kolonel Hubert Zemke, wat oorgeplaas het na die Mustang-toegeruste 479th Fighter Group, geskiet wat hy gedink het 'n Bf 109 was, net om sy geweer kamera film te laat onthul dat dit moontlik 'n Me 262 was. [62] Op 25 Februarie 1945 het Mustangs van die 55ste Fighter Group 'n hele Staffel van Me 262As by opstyg en vernietig ses stralers. [63]

Die Mustang was ook nuttig teen die V-1's wat na Londen gelanseer is. P-51B/C's wat 150-oktaan-brandstof gebruik het, was vinnig genoeg om die V-1 op te vang en het saam met vliegtuie met 'n kort afstand gery, soos gevorderde merke van die Supermarine Spitfire en Hawker Tempest.

Teen 8 Mei 1945 het [64] die P-51-groepe van die 8ste, 9de en 15de lugmag [nb 6] beweer dat ongeveer 4,950 vliegtuie neergeskiet is (ongeveer die helfte van alle USAAF-eise in die Europese teater, die meeste wat deur 'n geallieerde vegter geëis word) in lug-tot-lug-geveg) [64] en 4,131 op die grond vernietig. Verliese was ongeveer 2 520 vliegtuie. [65] Die 8de Lugmag se 4de Vegtergroep was die top-gevegsgroep in Europa, met 1 016 vyandelike vliegtuie wat beweer is vernietig. Dit sluit 550 in luggevegte en 466 op die grond in. [66]

In luggeveg was die P-51-eenhede met die hoogste telling (wat albei uitsluitlik Mustangs gevlieg het) die 357ste vegtergroep van die 8ste lugmag met 565 lug-tot-lug-gevegsoorwinnings en die 9de lugmag se 354ste vegtergroep met 664, which made it one of the top-scoring fighter groups. The top Mustang ace was the USAAF's George Preddy, whose final tally stood at 26.83 victories (a number that includes shared one half- and one third victory credits), 23 of which were scored with the P-51. Preddy was shot down and killed by friendly fire on Christmas Day 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge. [64]

In China and the Pacific Theater Edit

In early 1945, P-51C, D, and K variants also joined the Chinese Nationalist Air Force. These Mustangs were provided to the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Fighter Groups and used to attack Japanese targets in occupied areas of China. The P-51 became the most capable fighter in China, while the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force used the Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate daarteen.

The P-51 was a relative latecomer to the Pacific Theater, due largely to the need for the aircraft in Europe, although the P-38's twin-engined design was considered a safety advantage for long, over-water flights. The first P-51s were deployed in the Far East later in 1944, operating in close-support and escort missions, as well as tactical photo-reconnaissance. As the war in Europe wound down, the P-51 became more common. With the capture of Iwo Jima, USAAF P-51 Mustang fighters of the VII Fighter Command were stationed on that island starting in March 1945, being initially tasked with escorting Boeing B-29 Superfortress missions against the Japanese homeland.

The command's last major raid of May was a daylight incendiary attack on Yokohama on 29 May conducted by 517 B-29s escorted by 101 P-51s. This force was intercepted by 150 A6M Zero fighters, sparking an intense air battle in which five B-29s were shot down and another 175 damaged. In return, the P-51 pilots claimed 26 "kills" and 23 "probables" for the loss of three fighters. The 454 B-29s that reached Yokohama struck the city's main business district and destroyed 6.9 square miles (18 km 2 ) of buildings over 1000 Japanese were killed. [67] [68] Overall, the attacks in May destroyed 94 square miles (240 km 2 ) of buildings, which was equivalent to one-seventh of Japan's total urban area. The Minister of Home Affairs, Iwao Yamazaki, concluded after these raids that Japan's civil defense arrangements were "considered to be futile". [69] On the first day of June, 521 B-29s escorted by 148 P-51s were dispatched in a daylight raid against Osaka. While en route to the city, the Mustangs flew through thick clouds, and 27 of the fighters were destroyed in collisions. Nevertheless, 458 heavy bombers and 27 P-51s reached the city, and the bombardment killed 3,960 Japanese and destroyed 3.15 square miles (8.2 km 2 ) of buildings. On 5 June, 473 B-29s struck Kobe by day and destroyed 4.35 square miles (11.3 km 2 ) of buildings for the loss of 11 bombers. A force of 409 B-29s attacked Osaka again on 7 June during this attack, 2.21 square miles (5.7 km 2 ) of buildings were burnt out and the Americans did not suffer any losses. Osaka was bombed for the fourth time that month, on 15 June, when 444 B-29s destroyed 1.9 square miles (4.9 km 2 ) of the city and another 0.59 square miles (1.5 km 2 ) of nearby Amagasaki 300,000 houses were destroyed in Osaka. [70] [71] This attack marked the end of the first phase of XXI Bomber Command's attack on Japan's cities. During May and June, the bombers had destroyed much of the country's six largest cities, killing between 112,000 and 126,762 people and rendering millions homeless. The widespread destruction and high number of casualties from these raids caused many Japanese to realize that their country's military was no longer able to defend the home islands. American losses were low compared to Japanese casualties 136 B-29s were downed during the campaign. [72] [73] [74] In Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, Kobe, and Kawasaki, "over 126,762 people were killed . and a million and a half dwellings and over 105 square miles (270 km 2 ) of urban space were destroyed." [75] In Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya, "the areas leveled (almost 100 square miles (260 km 2 )) exceeded the areas destroyed in all German cities by both the American and British air forces (about 79 square miles (200 km 2 ))." [75]

P-51s also conducted a series of independent ground-attack missions against targets in the home islands. [76] The first of these operations took place on 16 April, when 57 P-51s strafed Kanoya Air Field in Kyushu. [77] In operations conducted between 26 April and 22 June, the American fighter pilots claimed the destruction of 64 Japanese aircraft and damage to another 180 on the ground, as well as a further 10 shot down in flight these claims were lower than the American planners had expected, however, and the raids were considered unsuccessful. USAAF losses were 11 P-51s to enemy action and seven to other causes. [78]

Due to the lack of Japanese air opposition to the American bomber raids, VII Fighter Command was solely tasked with ground-attack missions from July. These raids were frequently made against airfields to destroy aircraft being held in reserve to attack the expected Allied invasion fleet. While the P-51 pilots only occasionally encountered Japanese fighters in the air, the airfields were protected by antiaircraft batteries and barrage balloons. [79] By the end of the war, VII Fighter Command had conducted 51 ground-attack raids, of which 41 were considered successful. The fighter pilots claimed to have destroyed or damaged 1,062 aircraft and 254 ships, along with large numbers of buildings and railway rolling stock. American losses were 91 pilots killed and 157 Mustangs destroyed. [80]

Pilot observations Edit

Chief Naval Test Pilot and C.O. Captured Enemy Aircraft Flight Capt. Eric Brown, CBE, DSC, AFC, RN, tested the Mustang at RAE Farnborough in March 1944 and noted, "The Mustang was a good fighter and the best escort due to its incredible range, make no mistake about it. It was also the best American dogfighter. But the laminar-flow wing fitted to the Mustang could be a little tricky. It could not by any means out-turn a Spitfire. No way. It had a good rate-of-roll, better than the Spitfire, so I would say the plusses to the Spitfire and the Mustang just about equate. If I were in a dogfight, I'd prefer to be flying the Spitfire. The problem was I wouldn't like to be in a dogfight near Berlin, because I could never get home to Britain in a Spitfire!" [81]

The U.S. Air Forces, Flight Test Engineering, assessed the Mustang B on 24 April 1944 thus: "The rate of climb is good and the high speed in level flight is exceptionally good at all altitudes, from sea level to 40,000 feet. The airplane is very maneuverable with good controllability at indicated speeds up to 400 MPH [sic]. The stability about all axes is good and the rate of roll is excellent however, the radius of turn is fairly large for a fighter. The cockpit layout is excellent, but visibility is poor on the ground and only fair in level flight." [82]

Kurt Bühligen, the third-highest scoring German fighter pilot of World War II's Western Front (with 112 confirmed victories, three against Mustangs), later stated, "We would out-turn the P-51 and the other American fighters, with the Bf 109 or the Fw 190. Their turn rate was about the same. The P-51 was faster than us, but our munitions] and cannon were better." [83] Heinz Bär said that the P-51 "was perhaps the most difficult of all Allied aircraft to meet in combat. It was fast, maneuverable, hard to see, and difficult to identify because it resembled the Me 109". [84]

Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog Edit

In the aftermath of World War II, the USAAF consolidated much of its wartime combat force and selected the P-51 as a "standard" piston-engined fighter, while other types, such as the P-38 and P-47, were withdrawn or given substantially reduced roles. As the more advanced (P-80 and P-84) jet fighters were introduced, the P-51 was also relegated to secondary duties.

In 1947, the newly formed USAF Strategic Air Command employed Mustangs alongside F-6 Mustangs and F-82 Twin Mustangs, due to their range capabilities. In 1948, the designation P-51 (P for pursuit) was changed to F-51 (F for fighter) and the existing F designator for photographic reconnaissance aircraft was dropped because of a new designation scheme throughout the USAF. Aircraft still in service in the USAF or Air National Guard (ANG) when the system was changed included: F-51B, F-51D, F-51K, RF-51D (formerly F-6D), RF-51K (formerly F-6K) en TRF-51D (two-seat trainer conversions of F-6Ds). They remained in service from 1946 through 1951. By 1950, although Mustangs continued in service with the USAF after the war, the majority of the USAF's Mustangs had become surplus to requirements and placed in storage, while some were transferred to the Air Force Reserve and the ANG.

From the start of the Korean War, the Mustang once again proved useful. A "substantial number" of stored or in-service F-51Ds were shipped, via aircraft carriers, to the combat zone, and were used by the USAF, the South African Air Force, and the Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF). The F-51 was used for ground attack, fitted with rockets and bombs, and photo reconnaissance, rather than being as interceptors or "pure" fighters. After the first North Korean invasion, USAF units were forced to fly from bases in Japan and the F-51Ds, with their long range and endurance, could attack targets in Korea that short-ranged F-80 jets could not. Because of the vulnerable liquid cooling system, however, the F-51s sustained heavy losses to ground fire. [4] Due to its lighter structure and a shortage of spare parts, the newer, faster F-51H was not used in Korea.

Mustangs continued flying with USAF and ROKAF fighter-bomber units on close support and interdiction missions in Korea until 1953 when they were largely replaced as fighter-bombers by USAF F-84s and by United States Navy (USN) Grumman F9F Panthers. Other air forces and units using the Mustang included the Royal Australian Air Force's 77 Squadron, which flew Australian-built Mustangs as part of British Commonwealth Forces Korea. The Mustangs were replaced by Gloster Meteor F8s in 1951. The South African Air Force's 2 Squadron used U.S.-built Mustangs as part of the U.S. 18th Fighter Bomber Wing and had suffered heavy losses by 1953, after which 2 Squadron converted to the F-86 Sabre.

F-51s flew in the Air Force Reserve and ANG throughout the 1950s. The last American USAF Mustang was F-51D-30-NA AF serial no. 44-74936, which was finally withdrawn from service with the West Virginia Air National Guard's 167th Fighter Interceptor Squadron in January 1957 and retired to what was then called the Air Force Central Museum, [85] although it was briefly reactivated to fly at the 50th anniversary of the Air Force Aerial Firepower Demonstration at the Air Proving Ground, Eglin AFB, Florida, on 6 May 1957. [86] This aircraft, painted as P-51D-15-NA serial no. 44-15174, is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, in Dayton, Ohio. [87]

The final withdrawal of the Mustang from USAF dumped hundreds of P-51s onto the civilian market. The rights to the Mustang design were purchased from North American by the Cavalier Aircraft Corporation, which attempted to market the surplus Mustang aircraft in the U.S. and overseas. In 1967 and again in 1972, the USAF procured batches of remanufactured Mustangs from Cavalier, most of them destined for air forces in South America and Asia that were participating in the Military Assistance Program (MAP). These aircraft were remanufactured from existing original F-51D airframes fitted with new V-1650-7 engines, a new radio, tall F-51H-type vertical tails, and a stronger wing that could carry six 13 mm (0.50 in) machine guns and a total of eight underwing hardpoints. Two 1,000-pound (450 kg) bombs and six 130 mm (5 in) rockets could be carried. They all had an original F-51D-type canopy but carried a second seat for an observer behind the pilot. One additional Mustang was a two-seat, dual-control TF-51D (67-14866) with an enlarged canopy and only four wing guns. Although these remanufactured Mustangs were intended for sale to South American and Asian nations through the MAP, they were delivered to the USAF with full USAF markings. They were, however, allocated new serial numbers (67-14862/14866, 67-22579/22582 and 72-1526/1541). [87]

The last U.S. military use of the F-51 was in 1968 when the U. S. Army employed a vintage F-51D (44-72990) as a chase aircraft for the Lockheed YAH-56 Cheyenne armed helicopter project. This aircraft was so successful that the Army ordered two F-51Ds from Cavalier in 1968 for use at Fort Rucker as chase planes. They were assigned the serials 68-15795 and 68-15796. These F-51s had wingtip fuel tanks and were unarmed. Following the end of the Cheyenne program, these two chase aircraft were used for other projects. One of them (68-15795) was fitted with a 106 mm recoilless rifle for evaluation of the weapon's value in attacking fortified ground targets. [88] Cavalier Mustang 68-15796 survives at the Air Force Armament Museum, Eglin AFB, Florida, displayed indoors in World War II markings.

The F-51 was adopted by many foreign air forces and continued to be an effective fighter into the mid-1980s with smaller air arms. The last Mustang ever downed in battle occurred during Operation Power Pack in the Dominican Republic in 1965, with the last aircraft finally being retired by the Dominican Air Force in 1984. [89]

Service with other air forces Edit

After World War II, the P-51 Mustang served in the air arms of more than 25 nations. [11] During the war, a Mustang cost about $51,000, [90] while many hundreds were sold postwar for the nominal price of one dollar to signatories of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, ratified in Rio de Janeiro in 1947. [91]

These countries used the P-51 Mustang:

P-51s and civil aviation Edit

Many P-51s were sold as surplus after the war, often for as little as $1,500. Some were sold to former wartime fliers or other aficionados for personal use, while others were modified for air racing. [121]

One of the most significant Mustangs involved in air racing was serial number 44-10947, a surplus P-51C-10-NT purchased by film stunt pilot Paul Mantz. He modified the wings, sealing them to create a giant fuel tank in each one these "wet wings" reduced the need for fuel stops or drag-inducing drop tanks. Genoem Blaze of Noon after the film Blaze of Noon, the aircraft won the 1946 and 1947 Bendix Air Races, took second in the 1948 Bendix, and placed third in the 1949 Bendix. Mantz also set a U.S. coast-to-coast record in 1947. He sold the Mustang to Charles F. Blair Jr (future husband of Maureen O'Hara), who renamed it Excalibur III and used it to set a New York-to-London (about 3,460 miles or 5,570 kilometres) record in 1951: 7 hr 48 min from takeoff at Idlewild to overhead London Airport. Later that year, Blair flew from Norway to Fairbanks, Alaska, via the North Pole (about 3,130 miles or 5,040 kilometres), proving that navigation via sun sights was possible over the magnetic North Pole region. For this feat, he was awarded the Harmon Trophy and the Air Force was forced to change its thoughts on a possible Soviet air strike from the north. This Mustang now sits in the National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. [122]

In 1958, the RCAF retired its 78 remaining Mustangs. RCAF pilot Lynn Garrison ferried them from their various storage locations to Canastota, New York, where the American buyers were based. Garrison flew each of the surviving aircraft at least once. These aircraft make up a large percentage of the aircraft presently flying worldwide. [123]

The most prominent firm to convert Mustangs to civilian use was Trans-Florida Aviation, later renamed Cavalier Aircraft Corporation, which produced the Cavalier Mustang. Modifications included a taller tailfin and wingtip tanks. A number of conversions included a Cavalier Mustang specialty: a "tight" second seat added in the space formerly occupied by the military radio and fuselage fuel tank.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the United States Department of Defense wished to supply aircraft to South American countries and later Indonesia for close air support and counterinsurgency, it paid Cavalier to return some of their civilian conversions back to updated military specifications.

In the 21st century, a P-51 can command a price of more than $1 million, even for only partially restored aircraft. [123] There were 204 privately owned P-51s in the U.S. on the FAA registry in 2011, [124] most of which are still flying, often associated with organizations such as the Commemorative Air Force (formerly the Confederate Air Force). [125]

In May 2013, Doug Matthews set an altitude record of 12,975 m (42,568 ft) in a P-51 named The Rebel for piston-powered aircraft weighing 3,000 to 6,000 kg (6,600 to 13,200 lb). [126] Flying from a grass runway at Florida's Indiantown airport and over Lake Okeechobee, Matthews set world records for time to reach altitudes of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), 18 minutes and 12,000 m (39,000 ft), 31 minutes. He set a level-flight altitude record of 12,200 m (40,100 ft) in level flight and an absolute altitude record of 13,000 m (42,500 ft), [127] [128] breaking the previous record of 11,248 m (36,902 ft) set in 1954.

Incidents Edit

  • On 9 June 1973, William Penn Patrick (43) a certified pilot and his passenger, Christian Hagert, died when Patrick's P-51 Mustang crashed in Lakeport, California. [129] [130]
  • On 1 July 1990 at the National Capital Air Show (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), Harry E. Tope was killed when his P-51 Mustang crashed. [131]
  • On 16 September 2011 The Galloping Ghost, a modified P-51 piloted by Jimmy Leeward of Ocala, Florida, crashed during an air race in Reno, Nevada. Leeward and at least nine people on the ground were killed when the racer suddenly crashed near the edge of the grandstand. [132]

Over 20 variants of the P-51 Mustang were produced from 1940 to after the war.

Produksie Redigeer

Except for the small numbers assembled or produced in Australia, all Mustangs were built by North American initially at Inglewood, California, but then additionally in Dallas, Texas.


Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose

Geskryf deur: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 08/26/2017 | Inhoud en kopie www.MilitaryFactory.com | Die volgende teks is eksklusief vir hierdie webwerf.

The Vultee XP-54 was one of the more distinct aircraft creations designed during World War 2. Produced through the essentially "empty canvas / blank check" approach by an Army Air Corps initiative (the specification was known as "Request for Data R-40C") , the XP-54 (later nicknamed the "Swoose Goose" by Vultee employees) doomed itself to failure thanks to the integration of a myriad of unproven systems, subsystems, design philosophies and other factors generally out of Vultee's control. Sadly, this single-engine, twin-boom fighter of a most optimistic design would not progress past two "X" developmental aircraft. Instead, the Swoose Goose would become another of America's multi-million dollar gaffes to which there was nothing to show for by project's cancellation.

In the decade that was the 1930's, American aviation design and production was essentially proceeding at a snail's pace with bombers generally stealing the limelight in terms of firepower and speed over their fighter ("pursuit") counterparts. Many aircraft design firms were quite content with providing fighter creations based on an outdated yet tried-and-true formula from a decade before. This formula made heavy use of the most basic of fuselages, a standard monoplane wing structure arrangement and, at the very least, a simple twin-machine gun setup.

USAAF Initiative R-40C

The United States Army Air Corps was looking to change all that and stir the creative juices of these design firms to produce the very best aircraft possible with whatever powerplants and armament configurations the firms themselves deemed appropriate. The Army Air Corps would then evaluate each submission (submissions could include monoplane or biplane wing types) against other like-aircraft designs under a series of basic performance and armament categories by awarding points with the overall total not exceeding 1,000. With designs now coming in across all fronts from a variety of American aircraft producers (each smelling a potentially lucrative production contract to follow), the Vultee XP-54 garnered the top prize, scoring 817.9 points out of the maximum 1,000. Vultee assigned the company designation of Model 84 to the winning design and would work with the USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) on refining the fighter. It should be noted that not one design was a biplane and all used the relatively new construction method of all-metal stressed skin. Vultee assigned relatively optimistic performance specs of a 510 mile-per-hour top speed, a 500 mile range and a ceiling of 37,000 feet with a gross weight of 8,500lbs. The USAAF signed a contract order for the Model 84 (s/n 41-1210) on January 8th, 1941.

Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose Walk-Around

The Vultee design featured a twin-boom arrangement with a centralized fuselage nacelle containing the pilot, cockpit, fuel, engine and armament. The central nacelle was sleek and slim with the cockpit situated amidships. The engine was mounted to the rear of the nacelle and was of a "pusher" type contra-rotating arrangement while the armament would have been fitted into the nose. The twin booms emanated from the wing trailing edges and were connected aft by a large horizontal plane. Each boom was capped with a short vertical tail surface. Wings themselves were set as inverted "gull" wings. Wings would contain the needed intercoolers and radiators for the engine. The selected engine was a Pratt & Whitney X-1800 liquid-cooled system powering contra-rotating propellers fitted between the booms. The undercarriage was of a tricycle arrangement made up of two single-wheeled main landing gears retracting into the forward portions of the booms and a long-stemmed single-wheeled nose landing gear recessing under the forward fuselage.

Cockpit entry for the pilot was addressed through a rather distinct approach. The pilot activated an electrically powered lift that would drop the cockpit floor - seat and all - down to where the pilot could climb aboard. Once strapped down, the system was reactivated once more to bring the pilot up and into the cockpit.

Interestingly enough, the originally intended nose-mounted armament of 6 x .50 caliber Browning air-cooled heavy machine guns was to sit with in a pivoting assembly allowing the guns to pivot 3-degrees and lower up to 6-degrees. The idea behind this technology was to aid the pilot in strafing runs while keeping his aircraft relatively level in flight. The weapon system would be managed by an equally complex sighting system that computed both angle an range to further assist the pilot. The system as a whole proved quite a novelty and perhaps even unnecessary not to mention the additional cost in weight. The addition of protective armor and self-sealing fuel tanks (quite standard features on any warplane by the end of the war) did little to offset the ballooning total.

Trouble for the Goose

While life for the Swoose Goose began rosy enough, storm clouds began to form along the horizon. Pratt & Whitney dropped support and further development of any liquid-cooled engines altogether, leaving the Vultee team to scatter for a new powerplant to power their XP-54. The selected system became an unproven Lycoming XH-2470 of 2,300 horsepower, another liquid-cooled engine that was larger and heavier than the XP-54 airframe originally intended. The new engine also forced the dropping of the contra-rotating propellers and a four-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller was selected in its place. To help provide the XP-54 with top-flight high altitude performance, a turbosupercharger was fitted to the XH-2470. This also meant that high altitude flight would require a pressurized cockpit for the pilot - all these systems adding further weight to the XP-54 airframe.

Vultee Adds Insult to Injury

Not to leave well enough alone, the Vultee team devised an effort to give the XP-54 increased lethality. With the second prototype being ordered by the Army on March 11th, 1942 (s/n 41-1211) the 6 x 12.7mm machine gun arrangement was dropped in favor of a twin 37mm cannon / 2 x .50 caliber machine gun set up. Cannons were shown to have better results against fighter and bomber targets alike but they suffered from a slower rate-of-fire when compared to machine guns. As such, the 2 x .50 caliber machine guns would complement the slower-firing cannons. The selected 37mm T-9 series cannons were a development of Oldsmobile and found some success in implements such as Bell's P-39 Airacobra. This new armament arrangement would still be installed in the nose in the same envisioned pivoting assembly as before - once again increasing the weight of the XP-54 beyond the original specifications - and once again detracting from the optimistic performance numbers.

Showtime for the Goose

The Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose was finally completed and ready for show in January of 1943. The aircraft was trucked out to the Mojave Desert to be assembled and flown. First flight of the initial XP-54 prototype was achieved on January 15th, 1943 and lasted 30 minutes, being more or less a success. After a move to Wright Field on October 28th, 1943, the Lycoming engine failed irreparably.

This is where the legacy of the Swoose Goose effectively ends. By 1943, the USAAF was already finding successes with the pursuit fighters it already had in inventory. The XP-54 was doomed by its new engine, heavy operating weight and complicated internal workings. As such, the XP-54 - with just the one completed prototype at hand - was beginning to lose the focus of the USAAF in favor of fielding existing fighters such as the North American P-51 Mustang, the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the Lockheed P-38 Lightning. Despite the drop in effort on the part of the USAAF, the original prototype continued in a limited testing procedure for whatever reason, by which time, the second prototype was completed and made available. The United States Army Air Force now moved in and officially cancelled the XP-54 project in whole.

The second prototype first flew on March 24th, 1944 in another short test flight this time to Norton Army Air Force Base. Like the first prototype before it, the second prototype's engine inexplicably failed as well, putting an end to the XP-54 legacy - what little there was to it to begin with. Now that both prototypes were essentially worthless, the two airframes were dismantled and used for scrap (a common practice during World War 2). As such, no remnants of the XP-54 Swoose Goose exist except for a few photographs, some memories and text.

Not one official (or usable) product came from the USAAF initiative known as Request for Data R-40C.


North American P-51H Mustang: Includes Lightweight Fighters XP-51F, XP51G, & XP52J

The North American Aviation Corporation's series of "Lightweight" Mustangs, the XP-51F, XP51G, XP-51J, and ultimately the P-51H, came as a result of North American's further development of their standard P-51A and B/C designs. These efforts were the direct result of combat experience in Europe in attempting to counter the fast German Luftwaffe's Focke Wulf 190 with its higher rate of roll, and the requirement in the Pacific Theater for a light, long-range fighter to counter Japanese aircraft, particularly the long-range, . Lees meer

The North American Aviation Corporation's series of "Lightweight" Mustangs, the XP-51F, XP51G, XP-51J, and ultimately the P-51H, came as a result of North American's further development of their standard P-51A and B/C designs. These efforts were the direct result of combat experience in Europe in attempting to counter the fast German Luftwaffe's Focke Wulf 190 with its higher rate of roll, and the requirement in the Pacific Theater for a light, long-range fighter to counter Japanese aircraft, particularly the long-range, high manueverable Mitsubishi A6M Reisen ("Zero" or "Zeke"). Read Less


Geskiedenis [wysig | wysig bron]

Lockheed’s P-38 Lightning was one of the most recognizable fighter planes in World War II. Few twin-engine fighters during that period were agile enough to survive for long in combat, but the Lightning fought successfully in all fronts, and its high speed, long range and heavy firepower proved to be especially lethal against Japanese forces in the Pacific. Its unusual twin-engine, twin-boom configuration continues to make it a favorite today among modelers and airplane buffs worldwide.

The immense distances between islands in the Pacific Theater required a fighter type that could fly for hours between islands, yet have its pilot fresh for combat at any time. The P-38 only had one pilot, so a new plane was needed. North American’s solution was its XP-82 Twin Mustang, essentially two modified P-51H fuselages combined in a twin-boom configuration, carrying two pilots to share the tasks of flying and fighting. Although the Twin Mustang arrived too late for World War II, it joined the Air Force as the F-82 escort fighter and night fighter, and went on to a successful combat career in the Korean War.

As a double fuselaged P-51 Mustang, the post World War II P-82 in reality reached back to October 1940, when the P-51 prototype first flew. (The North American P-51 Mustang was developed in record time to satisfy British WWII requirements for a fighter that would take into account the early lessons of aerial combat over Europe. Among the aircraft's most notable features were a laminar flow wing section, aft mounted ventral radiator for minimum drag, and simple lines to ease the production that began in late 1941. A year later, the Army Air Forces adopted the P-51 for its own use. It ordered some 2,000 P-51Bs, a ground attack version o

North American F-82F Twin Mustang night fighter Serial 46-415

f the Royal Air Force P-51 singleseat fighter.)

Since North American used some Curtiss P-40 technical data to quickly develop the YP-51, the P-82's ancestry may even be traced to 1937, when the experimental P-40 Warhawk was ordered. During May 1939, in competition with other pursuit prototypes, the Curtiss Warhawk was evaluated at Wright Field. This plane. was immediately selected for procurement under a first contract of nearly $13 million-largest at the time for a US fighter. The first P-40s (of 12,302 produced) were delivered in May 1940.

A special escort plane was needed. The ADO of 1942 responded to the AAF's 1941 air war plans that "urged development of special escort planes [even though] bombers for the moment could rely on current interceptor type models for support, especially the P-47. Since Republic's incoming P-47s also served as fighter bombers, these plans suggested employment of a modified bomber type for the escort role. The 1941 air war plans sounded a discordant note at a time of overwhelming faith in the bomber's supremacy. Moreover through the late summer of 1942, WWII experience tended to confirm that escorts were only necessary to support bombers past enemy fighters along the coasts of France and Belgium. Once the "fighter belt" was crossed, little if any German opposition would be met.

With even longer range than the latest P-51 then in production the new plane was to penetrate deep into enemy territory. This was a requirement learned the hard way. Two 1943 missions (17 August and 14 October) over Schweinfurt, Germany, had resulted in the loss of 120 B-17s (more than 25 percent of those engaged) and death or capture of 1,200 airmen. In the P-51's case, this had prompted the AAF to rush modification of the plane's fuselage to insert an extra tank that would extend range to more than 800 miles.

This P-51D, like the later P-51H and P-51K, closely resembled the P-51B and P-51C, both of which could carry 184 gallons of fuel internally, 150 gallons in external tanks, and remain in the air 4 hours and 45 minutes. In November 1943 (1 month before the first P-51Bs entered service with the British based Eighth Air Force), the AAF chose the P-51B and P-51C for escort duty over the battletested P-47 and Lockheed's slightly older P-38. This step was meant to stop the soaring bomber losses due to escorts being too short ranged even with extra fuel tanks. (The use of extra fuel tanks for longer range dated back to WWI, when it first proved a definite fire hazard. It was also long resisted on the grounds that interceptor type fighters weighted with fuel

USAF operational F-82 Twin Mustang, F-82F 46-415, on the ramp at Ladd AFB, just before going to salvage at Elmendorf, May 1953

would be more vulnerable to enemy aircraft.)

The new plane's immediate role would be to escort the B-29 bombers used in the Pacific against Japan.

On 7 January North American presented a bold design based on the successful P-51. North American's idea of joining two standard, well proven, P-51 fuselages (complete with engine) was not unique. It was reminiscent of the Heinkel 111Z transport and glider tug, a "Siamese Twin" arrangement of two Heinkel 111 bombers, built by the Germans earlier in the war. In any case, North American's plane proved to be the sole American example.

This design promised range, reliability, and less pilot fatigue (the two pilots could spell one another). The AAF endorsed it at once. In fact, a February letter contract to construct and test three experimental P-82s gave way in the same month to an order for 500 productions.

The XP-82 made its first flight on 6 July 1945.

The AAF accepted this XP-82 in August and a second one in September. Both were equipped with Packard Merlin V 1650 23 and 25 engines. (British Rolls Royce type engines built in the United States) The third experimental plane, designated XP82A, had two Allison V 1710 119 engines. It was accepted in October.

The Air Force accepted a grand total of 272 F-82s (including 22 prototype, test, and early productions received by the AAF). Specifically, the F-82 program consisted of 2 XF-82s, 1 XF-82A, 19 F-82Bs (known for a while as P-82Zs and all allocated to testing), 4 F-82As, 96 F-82Es, 91 F-82Fs, 45 F-82Gs, and 14-F82Hs.

The Caribbean Air Command was the first to receive F-82s, 15 by year's end. Fifth Air Force was next, with one squadron (the 68th) soon flying F-82s out of Itazuke Air Base in Japan. Another squadron (the 4th) was in place at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, before the Korean war. It was part of the Twentieth Air Force, which once had directed the worldwide operations of all B-29 Superfortresses.

Few of the 40 F-82s available to the Far East Air Forces in mid 1950 were combat ready. In July, Fifth Air Forces (The Fifth was the largest air force under FEAF) spared three F-82s of the 68th Fighter All Weather Squadron for operations over Korea, but the planes proved of little value except against known and fixed targets. In addition, FEAF's F-82 operations (like ADC's, ADC resumed major air command status in January 1951) were hampered by parts shortages and maintenance troubles. If Fifth Air Force continued to use F-82s over Korea, only 60 days of extra supply support could be expected. Hence, although a few of SAC surplus F-82Es went to FEAF, all F-82s were withdrawn from combat in February 1952. Despite limited use, the F-82s

Mockup of a night fighter F-82

managed to leave a solid war record. They destroyed 20 enemy planes (4 in air fights, 16 on the ground). They scored the first aerial victory in Korea on 27 June 1950, downing a Soviet built Yakovlev Yak-11.

In the mid 1950s Air Defense units began trading F-82s for F-94s, and in early 1951 the few Twin Mustangs remaining in ADC were towing targets. The F-82s coming out of Korean combat in February 1952 lingered a bit longer in the inventory. After June 1953, no F-82s appeared on Air Force, Air National Guard, or Air Reserve Forces rolls.


Dream Catcher History & Legend

Droomvangers is een van die mees fassinerende tradisies van inheemse Amerikaners. Die tradisionele droomvanger was bedoel om die slapende individu te beskerm teen negatiewe drome, terwyl hy positiewe drome deurlaat. Die positiewe drome glip deur die gat in die middel van die droomvanger en gly deur die vere na die slapende persoon daaronder. Die negatiewe drome sou vasgevang word in die internet en verval wanneer die eerste sonstrale hulle tref.

Die droomvanger was al generasies lank deel van die inheemse Amerikaanse kultuur. Een element van die inheemse Amerikaanse droomvanger hou verband met die tradisie van die hoepel. Sommige inheemse Amerikaners van Noord -Amerika het die hoepel hoog geag, omdat dit krag en eenheid simboliseer. Baie simbole het rondom die hoepel begin, en een van hierdie simbole is die droomvanger.

Dream Catcher Lore:

Inheemse Amerikaners glo dat die naglug gevul is met goeie en slegte drome. Die droomvanger wanneer hy oor of naby u bed hang en vrylik in die lug swaai, vang die drome terwyl hy verbyvloei. Die goeie drome weet hoe om deur die droomvanger te gaan, deur die buitenste gate te glip en so saggies deur die sagte vere te gly dat die slaper baie keer nie weet dat hy/sy droom nie. Die slegte drome wat nie die weg ken nie, raak verstrengel in die droomvanger en vergaan met die eerste lig van die nuwe dag.

Hoe die Dream Catcher gemaak word:

Daar word geglo dat die droomvanger die krag het om al die drome van 'n mens te vang en die drome te vang. slegte mense, en laat net die goeie drome deur die droomvanger gaan.


Does North America Have A Chance At MSI?

The teams have qualified and now all that’s left is the waiting as we count down the days to the League of Legends Mid-Season Invitational (MSI). It marks the first major international tournament of the League of Legends season, which means two things historically. Disappointment and apathy.

But with COVID having shut down the League of Legends MSI last year, I feel more buzz for the invitational than I have in awhile. Or maybe. Just maybe, it’s because people think North America might make some noise.

History Says There’s A Chance

I don’t need to get on here and pontificate about North America’s abysmal history at the World Championships. I do that often enough. But the Mid-Season Invitational has historically been much kinder to our corner of the world. It was just a few short years ago that Team Liquid made it all the way to the finals.

A few years before that, CLG lost to SK Telecom T1 in the finals of MSI 2016. My point is that while North America has never won the Mid-Season Invitational, they’ve had a far more successful run there than they have at Worlds.

At MSI, it’s not just the top four regions on display. All the regional leagues send their best. And with Riot Games putting an extra worlds spot on the line this year, what better time to make history?

A Hope And A Prayer In Group C

Ah group stages. The natural predator of North American esports. To qualify for the main event of the Mid-Season Invitational, competitors need to place in the top two teams of their group. So let’s take a look at Cloud9’s competition in Group C.

  • Damwon Gaming – This is the first problem that Cloud9 will run into. Last year’s world champions have slotted into Group C with them. The South Korean juggernaut features one of the most talented top laners I’ve seen in Khan. In addition, their bottom lane connection of Ghost and Beryl should be keeping North America fans awake at night. This is an almost guaranteed 2 losses.
  • Infinity eSports – Listen. I’d love to get on here and tell you I’ve watched every game in the Latin American region this year, and thus have all the info on Infinity eSports. I haven’t, and I don’t. The Costa Rican squad defeated Furious Gaming to advance to MSI, and likely into a buzzsaw. Their support, Ackerman is a rookie sensation, but their team spells it “eSports” and for that alone, I hope Cloud9 buries them.
  • Detonation FocusMe – Perhaps better known by their title of “The only team from Japan you can name.” They’ve been the best of the region for what feels like 70 years, but their success has never transitioned to the international stage in a meaningful way. I would expect them to be better than Infinity, and not much else.

The Main Event

So what does it all mean? While International League of Legends has almost always been the death knell of North America, we should have hope. Cloud9, lead by Perkz, is a better team than either Infinity eSports or Detonation FocusMe and that’s good enough to make it into the main event of MSI 2021.

After that, who knows? The play-in stages are over, the group stages are over, and you just need to win some one-on-one matches. Cloud9 could get hot at the right time. Their opponents could get sick. Hell, it’s Reykjavík Iceland, a volcano could explode and the ash could get in the eyes of the opposing team. The point is, you’ve got a puncher’s chance once you make it out of group stages.

I’m not about to get on here and predict Cloud9 to stun the world and win North America’s first international League of Legends event. I don’t think they’re going to win that additional slot for the hometown region. I just think it might be more fun to watch than people are giving credit. They’ll have plenty of time to prove me wrong.

What’s New At CheckpointXP?

Cyberpunk 2077 To Sell For “Years To Come”, Big Changes To CS:GO Rosters- Xypn9x Benched RpK Retires

CD Projekt Red, the developers behind Cyberpunk 2077 and The Witcher 3, have recently said that they are currently focused on improving Cyberpunk and want to…


Kyk die video: NAFTA-Mesec [email protected] M (November 2022).

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