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Neptunus III AC -8 - Geskiedenis

Neptunus III AC -8 - Geskiedenis


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III Neptunus
(AC-8: dp. 19, 375; 1. 542 '; b. 65'; dr. 27'7 "; s. 12,9 k; cpl. 104; a. 4 4")

Die derde Neptunus (AC-8), 'n kolwer, is neergelê deur die Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md. 23 Maart 1910 wat op 21 Januarie 1911 gelanseer is; en in diens geneem by 'n gewone bemanning by Norfolk Navy Yard 20 September 1911, meester F. E. Horton, Naval Auxiliary Service, in bevel.

Behalwe vir 'n tydperk buite diens by Norfolk Navy Yard 6 Mei tot 5 Desember 1912, het Neptunus langs die ooskus en in die Karibiese Eilande van Boston na Guantanamo Bay Cuba gewerk, wat skepe en installasies van die Atlantic Fleet iTltO 1913 ondersteun het. Voortgaan met haar aanvullingsoperasies , het sy in die lente en somer van 1913 twee kole -reise na Vera Cruz, Mexiko, gemaak, op 8 September na Norfolk teruggekeer, 13 Oktober daar buite gebruik geneem en in reserwe geplaas.

Neptunus het op 7 Desember 1914 'n vlootkomplement gekry en hervat diens by die Atlantiese Vloot. Opgedra by die hulpafdeling, Atlantic Fleet 28 Desember 1915, het sy hierdie plig tot in 1917 voortgesit en vier reise na Santo Domingo onderneem tussen Junie 1916 en Februarie 1917, met marines, brandstof en pos om vlooteenhede en mariene korpseenhede te beskerm wat Amerikaanse belange in die Dominikaanse Republiek tydens onrus daar.

Toe die Verenigde State die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betree, was Neptunus in Baltimore, Md, besig om 'n algemene vrag te laai. Sy vertrek uit die hawe en vertrek na Norfolk om 'n afdeling van die 1st Aeronautical Detsehment te onderneem en vaar 25 Mei na Frankryk, begelei deur die vernietigers Jarvis (DD-38) en Perkins (DD-26). By die aankoms van St. Nazaire op 8 Junie het die skip haar vrag afgelaai en haar troepe, die eerste Amerikaanse magte, wat in Europa geland het vir diens teen die vyand afgelaai. Neptunus vaar 28 Junie huis toe, arriveer New York 11 Julie en hervat weer diens met die Trein, die Atlantiese Vloot, op 'n reis na die Karibiese Eilande, van 12 Julie tot 27 Augustus, en ry daarna aan die Atlantiese Kus en lewer steenkool aan die hawens in Chesapeake Baai deur die einde van die oorlog.

In 1919, na drie reise na Guantanamo -baai om vlootmagte by die oefenbasis daar te voorsien, vertrek die kolwer op 3 Oktober uit Norfolk na die Stille Oseaan, en roep onderweg na die Canal Zone, Niearaugua en Honduras met mariniers en vrag en arriveer na San Diego op die 20ste. Sy het daarna langs die Weskus opereer en skepe afgekoel en vlootbasisse tussen Bremerton, Wash. En San Diego verskaf. Toe sy terugkeer na die ooskus, soos sy gekom het, het die kolwer 20 Januarie by Norfolk aangekom. Neptunus het nog 'n kole -vaart na die weskus gemaak voordat hy op 27 Augustus uit Philadelphia vertrek het vir 'n elf maande lange uitbarsting as deel van die trein, Pacific Fleet. Sy het Pearl Harbor van 8 September tot 25 Oktober besoek en in Januarie en Februarie 1921 na Valparaiso, Chili, na steenkooleenhede van die Slagmag wat aan die Chileense kus deelgeneem het. Die kolwer het 11 Julie na Norfolk teruggekeer en nog 'n reis na die Weskus gemaak van 23 Julie tot 30 Desember en 'n afvaart na die Karibiese Eilande, van 25 Januarie tot 3 April 1922, voordat dit in Boston in Junie 28 gestaak is.

Gesleep deur sleepbote Kalmia (AT-23) en Wandank (AT-26) Neptunus het op 14 Desember op Boston vertrek en Philadelphia drie dae later aangekom. Daar het die skip in reserwe gebly totdat dit op 14 Mei 1938 uit die vlootlys geslaan en verkoop is om dit te skrap aan Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia, 18 April 1939.


Neptunus III AC -8 - Geskiedenis

oorspronklik vir AOMCI Knuckle Buster Chapter se THE KNUCKLE KNEWS - Vol. 18, #4

In 1930 het die Muncie Gear Works van Muncie Indiana begin met die bou en bemarking van 'n tweelingpk van twee pk
buiteboordmotor. Van hierdie beskeie begin af kom 'n reeks buiteboordmotors wat byna 60 jaar strek.
In 1938 produseer hulle die eerste van wat baie jare later sou ontwikkel tot die gewilde Neptune Mighty Mite.


Hierdie klein enjin was 'n kopie van die Evinrude Scout -motor wat die vorige jaar so goed verkoop het. Dit
is aangewys as die 1A38- of 138A -model, en is aangeskryf as 1.2 pk. Dieselfde motor is byna vervaardig
onveranderd, soos die 1A39 of 139A in 1939. In 1940 is die perdekrag en boor tot 1.5 pk verhoog, met die
bekendstelling van die 10A1, en die 11A1 in 1941. Die 15A1 van 1945/46 was ook 1,5 pk.
Hierdie groep enjins was die eerste van die MIGHTY MITE -stylmotors. Hulle word maklik onderskei deur hul
bougie, wat aan die stuurboordkant van die silinderkop gemonteer is. Met die uitsondering van die suier
en silinderboring, byna al die onderdele was uitruilbaar binne hierdie eerste groep.

In 1947 is die motors met 1,7 pk verhoog met die bekendstelling van die 17A1 -model. Ek glo dit was die
eerste van die reeks met die agterste vonkprop. Die eerste verskyning van die naam MIGHTY MITE nie
gebruik tot die bekendstelling van die AA1A in 1956/57. Tot daardie jaar is hulle die Junior Singles genoem.

Die Muncie Gear Works was tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog sterk betrokke by die vervaardiging van militêre onderdele. Geen
buiteboorde is hoegenaamd gedurende die jare 1952 en 1953 vervaardig. Toe die buiteboordlyn weer begin is
1954, slegs die AA1 en 'n paar A1 oorskot is gemaak en verkoop. Na berig word, word hulle ook bedreig deur 'n
groot regsgeding van OMC. Hul groter modelle van 1948-51 was baie te na aan die van die beste
Johnson se buitebordbode van daardie tydperk verkoop.

In 1956 verhuis Muncie die afdeling vir lugversorging en warmtepompe na Cordele Georgia. Die buiteboordmotor
produksie is saam met hulle geskuif. Sedertdien is alle Muncie & rsquos -buiteboordmotors by Cordele vervaardig.
Die 17A1 en A1 motors was liggroen met rooi plakkers. Die AA1- en AA1-A-motors was silwer
maroen brandstoftenk. Die plakkate lees & ldquoNeptune & rdquo, hoewel die verkoopliteratuur hulle & ldquoMighty Mite & rdquo noem
1957-59.

Vanaf 1960 en tot 1969 is die mees algemene Mighty Mite in Cordele gemaak. Dit was
het die WC1 aangewys en word algemeen bekend as die & ldquoGold Bug & rdquo of & ldquoGold Fish & rdquo -motor. Die hele motor was
goud geverf en die brandstoftenk is agterkant afgevier. Die vorige modelle het almal spits of hart
gevormde tenks. Hierdie motor het die & ldquoMighty Mite & rdquo -etiket gedra. Dit lyk asof daar duisende en
duisende van hulle gemaak, maar niemand kon ooit met presiese produksiesyfers vorendag kom nie. Die 17A1,
A1, AA1A en WC1 vorm die tweede modelgroepering. Alhoewel daar baie klein verskille is, is die meeste van
die dele is uitruilbaar binne hierdie groep.

In Junie 1969 is Muncie Gear Works gekoop deur Applied Devices Corp van College Point NY. Die
die buiteboord -onderneming is aan 'n voormalige werknemer verkoop en is verhuis na Lehigh Acres Fla. E. Ray Abrams
vervaardig die Model 500, en die plastiek kap, Model 700, van die Lehigh Acres adres, onder die
vaandel van sy Telmar Corporation. Dit is hier waar die stedelike legende ontstaan ​​het. & rdquoth wat die motors was
saamgestel deur senior burgers en rdquo.

Die Model 500 was 'n opgedateerde weergawe van die WC1. Hierdie nuwe model het 'n Tillotson -diafragma -vergasser en
die sydeksels om aan die verandering te voldoen. Motors is gesien in beide goud en die minder algemeen
turkoois kleur. Alle aanduidings is dat die Model 500 van 1970 tot ten minste 1978 gemaak is
later verkoop. Die Model 700 is ook Mighty Mite genoem. Dit was 'n herontwerp van dieselfde ou kragkop, maar het gedra
'n plastiek kappie en 'n terugspoeling.
Die Model 500 en 700 vorm die derde deelgroep. Behalwe vir die voorblaaie en die terugspoel wat die meeste bymekaarkom
van die onderdele word tussen hierdie enjins gedeel.

Iewers in 1979 is die Telmar Corp aan 'n groep beleggers verkoop en die hoofkwartier is verskuif.
Die adres hernoem tot MIGHTY MITE MARINE, en verskyn as Colton Rd, Old Lyme Ct. Die buiteboordmotors
is nog steeds op Lehigh Acres vervaardig.

Kort daarna verskyn die totaal herontwerpte Model 800. Daar was drie weergawes van hierdie enjin. Die
800A, 800B en die Mighty Mite III. Daar is geringe verskille tussen die drie, maar basies al die dele
wisselaar. Dit is 'n uitstekende klein enjin wat meer suksesvol moes gewees het as wat dit was. Amerikaans
gemaak, watergekoel en met 'n neutrale koppelaar en 'n volledige draaibare omkeer, dit was so goed soos enigiets
destyds op die mark.

Ek sal die vertelling van die OLD LYME Mighty Mite & rsquos -verhaal bewaar vir 'n ander artikel.
Maar. Ons glo dat daar ongeveer genoeg onderdele vir 1000 volledige Model 800 -motors vervaardig is
dat die laastes nie later as Januarie 1987 bymekaargemaak is nie. Die onderneming sukkel onder die
leierskap van die laaste lid van die oorspronklike groep beleggers totdat dit tussen 1989 versprei is
en 1993 of moontlik 'n bietjie vroeër. Niemand in die buiteboord -versamelingsgemeenskap weet blykbaar wat nie
gebeur met die dies en die gereedskap vir die Model 800 -motors nadat die maatskappy stilweg sy deure gesluit het
die laaste keer. Gerugte lui dat die gereedskap verslete was en dat hul Amerikaanse gietery toegegee het
omgewingsregulasies.

'N Treurige einde vir een van die langste aanhangers in die buitelandse motor in Amerika.


Die 'kake' van die werklike lewe wat die Jersey-kus geterroriseer het

Terwyl Amerikaners hulle in 1916 voorberei het om die vierde naweek van die vierde Julie te vier, beloof die toevallige vakansieoord Beach Haven, New Jersey, 'n heiligdom van kommer oor die oorlog wat in Europa woed en die polio -epidemie wat deur die stad New York spoel. Op soek na toevlug van die snikhete hitte in sy geboortestad Philadelphia, stap Charles Vansant uit sy hotel aan die strand om 'n vinnige duik in die Atlantiese Oseaan te neem voor ete op 1 Julie 1916.

Die atletiese 25-jarige waai in die vlak branders en swem van die wal af met 'n roeiende Chesapeake Bay retriever aan sy sy toe 'n donker vin skielik deur die 3-en-1/2 voet diep water sny. Die seedier klou vas aan die linkerbeen van Vansant en weier om te laat gaan. Die swemmer het 'n morbide geskree losgelaat toe die witbrekers van die see rooi geword het. 'N Menseketting het probeer om hom in veiligheid te trek, maar die dier het sy kake nie losgemaak totdat sy maag op die klippies in die vlak water naby die oewer geskraap het nie. Die redders het die erg beseerde Vansant na die voorportaal van die luukse Engleside -hotel geneem waar hy doodgebloei het.

Die behandelende geneesheer het 'n merkwaardige oorsaak van dood aangeteken en 'n haai byt. Terwyl swem in die see nog steeds 'n ontluikende Amerikaanse tydverdryf was in die vroeë 1900's, was haai -aanvalle langs die kus van New Jersey ongehoord. Baie wetenskaplikes was van mening dat haaie skaam is, net nog 'n vis wat op die see geswem het en geen bedreiging vir swemmers inhou nie, en nie sterk genoeg was om 'n mens te beskadig nie. Verhale oor haai -aanvalle wat deur ou seevaarders vertel word, word dikwels as soutverhale afgemaak wat soortgelyk is aan verhale van seeslange. �rs hoef geen vrees vir haaie te hê nie, ” verklaar 'n opskrif in die Philadelphia Public Ledger waarin kenners die aanval op Vansant afgemaak het as 'n fratsvoorval waarin die haai eintlik probeer het om die hond aan te swem wat naby die slagoffer swem.

Vyf dae later het die terreur egter weer eens 45 kilometer noord van Beach Haven getref toe Charles Bruder verby die brekers van Spring Lake, New Jersey, geswem het. Die 27-jarige Switserse bellboy-kaptein by die Essex & amp Sussex Hotel was besig om sy gewone middagete te swem toe 'n mens-eter 130 meter van die wal af slaan en sy linkerbeen bokant die knie en die regterbeen net onder afbyt die knie. Lewensredders het die verminkte Bruder strand toe getrek toe vroue flou geword het tydens die gesig. Daar was niks wat gedoen kon word om hom te red nie.

Terwyl 'n assistent -kurator by die American Museum of Natural History in New York wat die liggaam van Bruder ondersoek het, die verminking die werk van 'n moordwalvis verklaar het, het ander vasgehou aan die oortuiging dat 'n reuse -tonyn of 'n groot seeskilpad die skuldige moes gewees het. Sommige samesweringsteoretici het geglo dat die aanval 'n haai se werk was, 'n haai wat deur die Duitsers opgelei is om hul U-bote te volg en Amerikaanse badmense te slaan.

Beskermingsnette is nou op strande langs die Jersey Shore geïnstalleer terwyl bote die seewater patrolleer, maar dit was nutteloos om die volgende aanval te voorkom, wat op 12 Julie 25 myl noord van Spring Lake plaasgevind het. dag het Lester Stillwell saam met ander seuns in 'n gewilde swemgat langs Matawan Creek baljaar. 'N Simpatieke voorman by die mandjieweefabriek waar die verswakte 11-jarige gewerk het, het hom oor sy oorverhitte werknemers ontferm en hulle die middag laat afkoel. Lester het verligting gevind in die brak water van die rustige spruit, meer as 'n kilometer in die binneland, vanwaar dit in Raritanbaai uitmond. Toe die seuntjie op sy rug dryf, kom daar skielik 'n skaduwee uit die dieptes. 'N Haai gryp hom aan die maag en trek hom onder die water. Hy het kort genoeg opgeduik om 'n aaklige gil te hoor voordat die haai hom weer onderkry.

Philadelphia Inquirer -voorblad nadat 'n haai in 1919 gevang is.

Die res van die vreesbevange seuns hardloop in Matawan se hoofstraat af en skree om hulp. 'N Plaaslike kleremaker, die 24-jarige Stanley Fisher, het by die stadsmense aangekom wat na die toneel gejaag het en van 'n roeiboot af die troebel waters met 'n paal ondersoek. Omdat daar geen tekens van lewe gevind is nie, het dit uiteindelik duidelik geword dat die missie oorgegaan het van redding na herstel. Toe Fisher Lester se lyk raaksien terwyl die seuntjie se ouers van die oewer af toekyk, duik hy in die spruit in, selfs met die wete dat 'n moordenaarhaai daar naby skuil. Toe Fisher die lewelose liggaam ophaal, het die haai weer verskyn en in sy regterbeen geskeur. Fisher, wat deur sy bure, wat die wond desperaat probeer verbind het, aan die wal gesleep het, is ure later oorlede.

Dertig minute na die aanval op Fisher het 'n haai aan die been van die 12-jarige Joseph Dunn naby die monding van Matawan Creek gebyt, maar die seun het daarin geslaag om te oorleef. Die moordenaarvis het die vyand nommer een geword met 'n oorvloed van kennisgewings wat 'n beloning van $ 100 beloof aan die persoon of persone wat die haai vermoor het, vermoedelik in Matawan Creek. soos flottille van haaijagters na die water vat. Besitters het haelgewere afgevuur en stokke dinamiet gegooi by enige beweging wat hulle in die modderige waters van die spruit gesien het.

Telegramme en briewe het paniekbevange Amerikaners in die Withuis ingestroom en die federale regering aangemoedig om iets te doen om die skelm mense te stop. Twee dae na die aanval in Matawan Creek het president Woodrow Wilson 'n kabinetsvergadering belê om die gruwel van die haai oor die New Jersey -kus te bespreek. deur die kuswagters van die Amerikaanse kuswagter en die Buro vir Visserye om die seevrees te bederf. ”

1975 “Jaws ” filmplakkaat. (Krediet: Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images)

Daardie selfde oggend in 'n motorboot langs die kus van South Amboy, New Jersey, het die haaijagter Michael Schleisser 'n swart stertvin in die sleepnet gesien wat hy in Raritanbaai gegooi het en die haai herhaaldelik met 'n gebreekte roeispankop op die kop geslaan totdat dit nie meer beweeg nie. Terug op die land het Schleisser die haai uitgeroei en na bewering is menslike bene binne gevind, maar nooit afdoende geïdentifiseer nie. Of die spesifieke haai wel die menslike eter was, is nie bewys nie, maar die res van die somer het geen verdere aanvalle in New Jersey plaasgevind nie.

Die verhouding tussen Amerikaners en haaie sou egter nooit weer dieselfde wees nie. Nie meer as goedaardig beskou nie, was haaie mensvretende roofdiere. Selfs die mees skeptiese wetenskaplikes, soos die New York Times berig het, het nie meer getwyfel dat mense met groot vis aanval nie. sy roman “Jaws, ” wat in die grootfilm van 1975 aangepas is, is die parallelle van 'n mensvretende haai wat 'n somer-toeristeoord terroriseer, onmiskenbaar.


Inhoud

Die Air Force C-119 en Navy R4Q was aanvanklik 'n herontwerp van die vroeëre C-82-pakkie, wat tussen 1945 en 1948 gebou is. Die ontwerp het verskeie ernstige probleme ondervind. Al hierdie dinge is in die C-119 aangespreek.

In teenstelling met die C-82, is die kajuit vorentoe geskuif sodat dit pas by die neus, eerder as op die vorige plek oor die vragkompartement. Dit het gelei tot meer bruikbare laairuimte en groter vragte as wat die C-82 kon akkommodeer. Die C-119 het ook meer kragtige enjins en 'n breër en sterker vliegtuigraamwerk. Die eerste C-119-prototipe (die XC-82B genoem) het die eerste keer in November 1947 gevlieg, met aflewerings van C-119B's vanaf Fairchild's Hagerstown, Maryland-fabriek wat in Desember 1949 begin het. [2]

In 1951 het Henry J. Kaiser 'n kontrak gekry om bykomende C-119's bymekaar te maak by die motorfabriek Kaiser-Frazer in die voormalige B-24-aanleg op die Willow Run-lughawe in Belleville, Michigan. Aanvanklik het die Kaiser-geboude C-119F verskil van die Fairchild-vliegtuig deur die gebruik van Wright R-3350-85 Duplex Cyclone-enjins in plaas van Fairchild se gebruik van die Pratt & amp Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major radiale enjin. Kaiser het 71 C-119's by Willow Run in 1952 en 1953 gebou (AF Ser. No. 51-8098 tot 51-8168) voordat hy die fabriek omskep het vir 'n beplande produksie van die Chase C-123 wat nooit gebeur het nie. Fairchild het die Kaiser-subkontrak misgekyk, en deur politieke kanale is pogings aangewend om die produksie van Kaiser te stop, wat moontlik suksesvol was. Na die beëindiging van Kaiser se produksie van C-119 is die kontrak vir die C-123 in plaas daarvan aan Fairchild toegeken. Die meeste vliegtuie wat deur Kaiser gebou is, is as R4Q's aan die U.S. Marine Corps uitgereik, en verskeie het later in die sewentigerjare aan die Suid-Viëtnamese lugmag oorgegee.

Die AC-119G "Shadow" die geweerskip-variant was toegerus met vier ses-vat-7,62 mm (0,300 in) NAVO-miniguns, wapenrusting, fakkelwerpers en infrarooi toerusting wat in die nag geskik is. Net soos die AC-130 wat dit voorafgegaan het, was die AC-119 'n kragtige wapen. Die AC-119 is dodeliker gemaak deur die bekendstelling van die AC-119K "Stinger" weergawe, wat die toevoeging van twee General Electric M61 Vulcan 20 mm (0,79 in) kanon, verbeterde lugvaartkunde en twee ondervlieggemonteerde General Electric J85-GE-17 turbojet-enjins bevat, wat byna 6000 kB stootkrag byvoeg.

Ander groot variante sluit in die EC-119J, wat gebruik word vir satellietopsporing, en die YC-119H Skyvan-prototipe, met groter vlerke en stert.

In burgerlike gebruik het baie C-119's die "Jet-Pack" -modifikasie, wat 'n 3,400 lbf (15,000 N) Westinghouse J34-turbo-enjin in 'n nakel bo die romp bevat.

Produksie Redigeer

Aantal gebou: 1,183 bestaande uit:

Twee ekstra vliegtuie is deur Fairchild gebou vir statiese toetse

Die vliegtuig het tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog uitgebreide optrede beleef as 'n troepe- en toerustingvervoer. In Julie 1950 is vier C-119's na FEAF gestuur vir diens toetse. [ aanhaling nodig ] Twee maande later het die C-119 by die 314th Troop Carrier Group ontplooi en gedurende die oorlog in Korea gedien. [3]

In Desember 1950, nadat die People's Republic of China Expeditionary People's Volunteer Army-troepe 'n brug [N 1] op 'n noue punt op die ontruimingsroete tussen Koto-ri en Hungnam opgeblaas het, wat die terugtrekking van die VN-magte blokkeer, het agt Amerikaanse lugmag C- 119 Flying Boxcars gevlieg deur die 314ste Troop Carrier Group. [5] [N 2] is gebruik om draagbare bruggedeeltes per valskerm te laat val. Die brug, wat bestaan ​​uit agt afsonderlike sestien voet lange gedeeltes van 2.900 pond, is een afdeling op 'n slag laat val, met twee valskerms op elke afdeling. Vier van hierdie afdelings, tesame met ekstra houtuitbreidings, is suksesvol weer saamgevoeg in 'n vervangingsbrug deur Marine Corps se gevegsingenieurs en die Amerikaanse weermag se 58ste ingenieur Treadway Bridge Company, waardeur die VN -magte Hungnam kon bereik.

Van 1951 tot 1962 het C-119C-, F- en G-modelle saam met die Amerikaanse lugmag in Europa (USAFE) en die Verre Ooste se lugmag (FEAF) gedien as die eerste lyn Combat Cargo-eenhede, en het u saam met die 60ste as vragmotors gewerk. Troop Carrier Wing, die 317ste Troop Carrier Wing en die 465th Troop Carrier Wing in Europa, eers in Duitsland en daarna in Frankryk, met ongeveer 150 vliegtuie wat oral van Groenland tot Indië werk. 'N Soortgelyke aantal vliegtuie het in die Stille Oseaan en die Verre Ooste gedien. In 1958 het die 317ste die 465ste geabsorbeer en oorgegaan na die C-130's, maar die eenhede van die voormalige 60ste Troop Carrier Wing, die 10de, 11de en 12de Troop Carrier Squadrons, het steeds C-119's gevlieg tot 1962, die laaste nie -Air Force Reserve en nie-Air National Guard operasionele eenhede om die "Boxcars" te vlieg.

Die USAF Strategic Air Command het C-119 Flying Boxcars in diens gehad van 1955 tot 1973.

Miskien was die opvallendste gebruik van die C-119 die lugherstel van ballonne, UAV's en selfs satelliete. Die eerste gebruik van hierdie tegniek was in 1955, toe C-119's gebruik is om Ryan AQM-34 Firebee onbemande teikens te herstel. [6] Die 456ste Troop Carrier Wing, wat van 25 April 1955 tot 26 Mei 1956 aan die Strategic Air Command (SAC) verbonde was, het C-119's gebruik om instrumentpakkette uit verkenningsballonne op groot hoogte te haal. C-119's van die 6593ste toets eskader gebaseer op die Hickam-lugmagbasis, Hawaii, het gedurende die beginjare van die Corona-spioenasiesatellietprogram verskeie lugherwinnings van film-terugkeer-kapsules uitgevoer. Op 19 Augustus 1960 was die herwinning deur 'n C-119 film uit die Corona-missie met die naam Discoverer 14 die eerste suksesvolle herstel van film vanaf 'n wentelende satelliet en die eerste lugherstel van 'n voorwerp wat terugkeer uit die baan van die aarde. [7]

Die C-119 sien uitgebreide diens in die Franse Indochina, begin in 1953 met vliegtuie wat in die geheim deur die CIA aan Franse magte geleen is vir troepe-ondersteuning. Hierdie vliegtuie is oor die algemeen op Franse merke aangebring deur Amerikaanse CIA -vlieëniers, dikwels vergesel van Franse offisiere en ondersteuningspersoneel. Die C-119 sou 'n groot rol speel tydens die beleg by Dien Bien Phu, waar hulle in toenemend swaar vuur vlieg terwyl hulle voorraad aan die beleërde Franse magte laat val. [8] Die enigste twee Amerikaanse vlieëniersongevalle van die beleg by Dien Bien Phu was James B. McGovern Jr. en Wallace A. Buford. Beide vlieëniers, tesame met 'n Franse bemanningslid, is vroeg in Junie 1954 dood toe hul C-119, terwyl hulle 'n artillerie laat val het, deur Viet Minh-vliegtuigvuur getref en verlam was, en die vliegtuig daarna 'n ekstra 75 myl gevlieg het ( 121 km) in Laos in voordat dit neerstort.

Tydens die Sino-Indiese oorlog van 1962 is die C-119 op groot skaal gebruik om Indiese magte te voorsien. President Kennedy het op aanvraag van die Indiese regering prioriteit aan die verkoop van ekstra C-119 toegestaan.

Tydens die Viëtnam-oorlog het die ongelooflike sukses van die Douglas AC-47 Spooky, maar die beperking van die grootte en drakrag van die vliegtuig daartoe gelei dat die USAF 'n groter vliegtuig ontwikkel het om meer toesig, wapens en ammunisie te dra, die AC-130 Spectre. . As gevolg van die sterk eise van C-130's vir vraggebruik, was daar egter nie genoeg Hercules-rame om Specters te voorsien vir operasies teen die vyand nie. Die USAF het die leemte gevul deur C-119's om te skakel in AC-119's wat elk toegerus is met vier 7,62 minigunpeule, 'n Xenon-soeklig, nagwaarneming, fakkelwerper, vuurbeheerrekenaar en TRW-brandbeveiligingsskerm om voorvalle van vriendelike vuur te voorkom. Die nuwe AC-119-eskader het die roepsein "Creep" gekry wat 'n golf van verontwaardiging van stapel gestuur het wat daartoe gelei het dat die lugmag die naam na "Shadow" verander het op 1 Desember 1968. [9] C-119G's is verander as AC- 119G Shadows en AC-119K Stingers. Hulle is suksesvol gebruik in beide nabye lugondersteuningsmissies in Suid -Viëtnam en interdikasie -missies teen vragmotors en voorrade langs die Ho Chi Minh -roete. Al die AC-119G Gunships is vanaf 1970 na die Lugmag van die Republiek van Vietnam oorgeplaas toe die Amerikaanse magte teruggetrek is.

Gedurende die laat 1960's en vroeë 1970's het Air National Guard en USAF Reserve-vlieëniers C-119's gevlieg om valskermspringers vir die US Army Parachute School in Ft. Benning, Georgia.

Na aftrede uit aktiewe diens, het 'n aansienlike aantal C-119's en R4Q's in die Amerikaanse vloot, US Marine Corps, die Lugmagreservaat en die Air National Guard tot in die middel van die sewentigerjare aangesluit, terwyl die R4Q's ook herontwerp is as C-119s in 1962. Die laaste militêre gebruik van die C-119 deur die Verenigde State het in 1974 geëindig toe 'n enkele eskader van Navy Reserve C-119's gebaseer was op Naval Air Facility Detroit/Selfridge Air National Guard Base naby Detroit, Michigan, en twee eskaders gebaseer op Naval Air Station Los Alamitos, Kalifornië, het hul C-119's vervang met nuwer vliegtuie.

Baie C-119's is aan ander lande verskaf as deel van die Militêre Bystandsprogram, insluitend België, Brasilië, Ethiopië, Indië, Italië, Jordanië, Taiwan en (soos voorheen genoem) Suid-Viëtnam. Die tipe is ook gebruik deur die Royal Canadian Air Force, en deur die United States Navy en United States Marine Corps onder die benaming R4Q tot 1962 toe hulle ook herontwerp is as C-119.


USS Neptunus (AC-8)

Die derde USS Neptunus (AC – 8), 'n kolwer van die Amerikaanse vloot, is neergelê deur die Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md. 23 Maart 1910 wat op 21 Januarie 1911 gelanseer is en in diens geneem is by 'n handelaarsbemanning by Norfolk Navy Yard 20 September 1911, meester FE Horton, Navalhulpdiens, in bevel.

Behalwe vir 'n tydperk buite diens by Norfolk Navy Yard 6 Mei tot 5 Desember 1912, het Neptunus langs die ooskus en in die Karibiese Eilande van Boston tot by Guantanamo Bay, Kuba, ondersteun om skepe en installasies van die Atlantiese Vloot in 1913 te ondersteun. operasies, het sy in die lente en somer van 1913 twee kole -reise na Vera Cruz, Mexiko, gemaak, op 8 September na Norfolk teruggekeer, 13 Oktober daar ontneem en in reserwe geplaas.

Neptunus het op 7 Desember 1914 'n vlootkomplement gekry en hervat diens by die Atlantiese Vloot. Opgedra by die Hulpafdeling, Atlantic Fleet 28 Desember 1915, het sy hierdie plig tot in 1917 voortgesit en vier reise na Santo Domingo onderneem tussen Junie 1916 en Februarie 1917, wat mariniers, brandstof en pos vervoer om vloot- en mariene korpseenhede te beskerm wat Amerikaanse belange in die Dominikaanse Republiek tydens onrus daar.

Toe die Verenigde State die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betree, was Neptunus in Baltimore, Maryland, besig om 'n algemene vrag te laai. Sy vertrek uit die hawe en vertrek na Norfolk om 'n afdeling van die 1st Aeronautical Detachment te onderneem en vaar 25 Mei 1917 na Frankryk begelei deur vernietigers USS Jarvis (DD-38) en USS Perkins (DD – 26). By die aankoms van St. Nazaire op 8 Junie het die skip haar vrag afgelaai en haar troepe, die eerste Amerikaanse magte, wat in Europa geland het vir diens teen die vyand, gelaai. Neptunus vaar 28 Junie huis toe, arriveer New York 11 Julie en hervat weer diens met die Trein, die Atlantiese Vloot, op 'n reis na die Karibiese Eilande, van 12 Julie tot 27 Augustus, en ry daarna aan die Atlantiese Kus en lewer steenkool aan die hawens in Chesapeake Baai deur die einde van die oorlog.

In 1919, na drie reise na Guantanamo -baai om vlootmagte by die oefenbasis daar te voorsien, vertrek die kolwer op 3 Oktober uit Norfolk na die Stille Oseaan, en roep onderweg na die Panamakanaalsone, Nicaraugua en Honduras met mariniers en vrag en arriveer na San Diego op die 20ste. Sy het daarna langs die Weskus opereer, skepe afgekoel en vlootbasisse tussen Bremerton, Washington en San Diego verskaf. Toe sy terugkeer na die ooskus, het sy op 20 Januarie 1920 by Norfolk aangekom. Neptunus het weer 'n kole -reis na die weskus gemaak voordat hy op 27 Augustus uit Philadelphia vertrek het vir 'n seilvaart van elf maande as deel van die Train, Pacific Fleet. Sy besoek Pearl Harbor van 8 September tot 25 Oktober en vaar in Januarie en Februarie 1921 na Valparaiso, Chili, na steenkooleenhede van die Slagmag wat aan die kus van Chili deelgeneem het. Die kolwer het 11 Julie na Norfolk teruggekeer en nog 'n reis na die Weskus gemaak van 23 Julie tot 30 Desember en 'n afvaart na die Karibiese Eilande, van 25 Januarie tot 3 April 1922, voordat dit in Boston in Junie 28 gestaak is.

Getrek deur sleepbote USS Kalmia (AT – 23) en USS Wandank (AT -26), vertrek Neptunus op 14 Desember op haar laaste reis uit Boston en arriveer drie dae later in Philadelphia. Daar het die skip in reserwe gebly totdat dit op 14 Mei 1938 uit die vlootlys geslaan is en verkoop is om dit te skrap aan Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia, 18 April 1939.

Hierdie artikel bevat teks uit die publieke domein Woordeboek van Amerikaanse vlootgevegskepe.


Soek term rekord

Muncie Gear Works Corporation is gestig in Muncie, Indiana omstreeks 1910. Hulle het 'n mislukte, twee jaar oue onderneming met die naam "Muncie High Wheel Auto Parts Company" oorgeneem. Een van die vele onderdele -winkels wat in die vroeë dae van die motor ontstaan ​​het.

Die eerste president van Muncie Gear Works was H.L. Warner en hy is later opgevolg deur T.W. Warner. Beide mans sou bekend word vir hul verbintenis met Warner Gear Division van Borg Warner en Warner Machine Products, 'n filiaal van Essex International.

Die onderneming het die afgelope tien jaar vinnig gegroei en koppelaars en transmissies vir die motorbedryf vervaardig. Met die groeiende tyd wat dit nodig het om Muncie Gear te bestuur, het die Warner's die onderneming verlaat om hul ander sakebelange na te gaan. Dr William A Spurgeon het die nuwe president geword. Hy is in die vroeë 1920's vervang deur sy seun Kenneth A Spurgeon, wat tot sy dood in 1967 president gebly het.

Gedurende die 1920's het Muncie Gear Works voortgegaan om hul transmissies aan maatskappye soos International Trucks en die Ford Motor Company te verkoop. Teen die laat 20's was die sakeklimaat aan die afneem met veranderinge in die motorbedryf, die ineenstorting van die aandelemark in 1929 en die depressie wat sou volg.

Anders as soveel ander maatskappye van die tydperk, het Muncie Gear Works aangepas en oorleef. Sommige van die produkte wat hulle vervaardig het, is soos volg: Transmissies vir aartappelgrawers, outomatiese steenkoolstookers, warmtepompe, lugversorgers, kommersiële vrieskaste en meer.

Hulle het in 1930 by die buiteboordmotor aangesluit en 'n tweelingpomp van 2 pk gebou, en in 1938 het hulle die gewilde enkelsilinder Evinrude Scout -motor van 1,2 pk gekopieer.

Muncie Gear Works, vervaardig motors onder baie handelsmerke soos Muncie, Neptune, Sea Gull, Skipper, Mighty Mite en ook Sea King -handelsmerk vir Montgomery Wards, sowel as die Motorgo- en Waterwitch -handelsmerke vir Sears Roebuck and Company.

Werkgeleenthede het teen die laat sestigerjare weer gegroei, met Muncie Gear wat 'n belangrike verskaffer van vuurpylonderdele aan die weermag was vir die konflik in Viëtnam. In Junie 1969 is Muncie Gear Works gekoop deur Applied Devices Corp van College Point, New York.

Van hierdie beskeie begin af kom 'n reeks buiteboordmotors wat byna 60 jaar strek. In 1938 produseer hulle die eerste van wat baie jare later sou ontwikkel tot die gewilde Neptune Mighty Mite.

Hierdie klein enjin was 'n kopie van die Evinrude Scout -motor wat die vorige jaar so goed verkoop het. Dit is aangewys as die 1A38- of 138A -model en het 'n nommer van 1.2 pk. Dieselfde motor is byna onveranderd geproduseer as die 1A39 of 139A in 1939. In 1940 is die perdekrag en boor tot 1,5 pk verhoog, met die bekendstelling van die 10A1 en die 11A1 in 1941. Die 15A1 van 1945/46 was 1,5 hp as well. This group of engines was the first of the MIGHTY MITE style motors. They are easily distinguished by their spark plug, which was mounted on the starboard side of the cylinder head. With the exception of the piston and cylinder bore, almost all the parts were interchangeable within this first group.

Business continued to grow over the next ten years, but their outboard motor line took a back seat when World War II broke out. During the war they manufactured 37mm gun carriages, aircraft parts, rocket parts and a outboard drive for barges that would be the for-runner of the inboard/outboard of today.

After the war in 1947 the motors were increased to 1.7 hp with the introduction of the 17A1 model. It was the first of the series to have the rear facing spark plug. The first appearance of the name MIGHTY MITE does not come into use until the introduction of the AA1A in 1956/57. Until that year they were called the Junior Singles.

The Muncie Gear Works was heavily involved in military parts production during the Korean War. No outboards, at all, were produced during the years 1952 and 1953. When the outboard line was restarted in 1954, only the AA1 and some A1 leftovers were made and sold. Reportedly they were also under threat of a major lawsuit from OMC. Their 1948-51 larger models were way too close in appearance to those of the best selling Johnson outboards of that period.

In 1956 Muncie moved the air conditioning and heat pump division to Cordele Georgia. The outboard motor production was moved with them. From that time on, all Muncie’s outboard motors were made at Cordele. The 17A1 and A1 motors were light green with red decals. The AA1 and AA1-A motors were silver with maroon fuel tanks. The decals read "Neptune", although the sales literature called them "Mighty Mite" from 1957-59.

Starting in 1960 and continuing thru 1969 the most common Mighty Mite, was made at Cordele. It was designated the WC1 and is commonly know as the "Gold Bug" or "Gold Fish" motor. The entire motor was painted gold and the fuel tank was squared off at the back. The previous models all had pointed or heart shaped tanks. This motor carried the "Mighty Mite" decal. There seems to have been thousands and thousands of them made, but no one has ever been able to come up with exact production figures. The 17A1, A1, AA1A and WC1, constitute the second model grouping. While there are many small differences, most of the parts are interchangeable within this group.

In June of 1969 Muncie Gear Works was purchased by Applied Devices Corp of College Point NY. The outboard business was sold to a former employee and moved to Lehigh Acres Fla. E. Ray Abrams manufactured the Model 500, and the plastic hooded, Model 700, from the Lehigh Acres address, under the banner of his Telmar Corporation. It is here that the urban legend originated. "that the motors were assembled by Senior citizens".

The Model 500 was an updated version of the WC1. This new model had a Tillotson diaphragm carburetor and the side covers to accommodate that change. Motors have been seen in both gold and the less common turquoise color. All indications are the Model 500 was made from 1970 to at least 1978. Possible some were sold later. The Model 700 was also called Mighty Mite. It was a redesign of the same old power head but wore a plastic hood and had a rewind starter. The Model 500 and 700 constitute the third parts group. Except for the covers and the rewind assemble most of the parts are shared between these engines.

Sometime in 1979 the Telmar Corp was sold to a group of investors and the headquarters were moved. Renamed MIGHTY MITE MARINE, the address appeared as Colton Rd, Old Lyme Ct. The Outboard Motors were still produced at Lehigh Acres.

Shortly after that, the totally redesigned Model 800 appeared. There were three versions of this engine. The 800A, 800B and the Mighty Mite III. There are slight differences between the three but basically all the parts interchange. This is an excellent little engine that should have been more successful than it was.American made, water cooled, and incorporating a neutral clutch and full pivot reverse, these were as good as anything on the market at that time.

It is believed that there were roughly enough parts produced for 1000 complete Model 800 motors and that the last ones were assembled no later than January 1987. The company struggled on under the leadership of the last member of the original group of investors until it was dispersed sometime between 1989 and 1993 or possible a little earlier. No one in the outboard collecting community seems to know what happened to the dies and the tooling for the Model 800 motors after the company quietly closed its doors for the last time. Rumor has it that the tooling was worn out and that their US foundry had succumbed to environmental regulations.

Information added by LeeRoy Wisner
From what information that can be pieced together the following is close to the year/model for this style of the single cylinder motors which later became known as the "Mighty Mite". There were others made prior to this date, but they were of a different style or twin cylinder motors. You may notice some correlation between the model numbers & the year of manufacture up until 1942 during WWII & then a carry over in 1946 with the models again resuming this in 1947. Then there was a carry over of model numbers into years some later years. From 1948 on was a different story. I have not been able to track down any serial numbers however.

1936-37 OB-11, 12,
1938 2A38
1939 2A39, 10A2
1940 10A2, 11B2
1941 10A2, 11A2, 11B2
1946 11A2, 11B2, 14B2
1947 17A1, 17B1, 17B2
1948-55 A1, A2, AA1, AA2, B1
1956 AA1
1957 AA1-A
1961-69 WC-1
1970 500
1978 700
1980-86 800, 800B, Mighty Mite III


USS Neptune (AC-8)

Vanuit Wikipedia, die vrye ensiklopedie

Die derde USS Neptunus (AC–8), a collier of the U.S. Navy, was laid down by the Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md. 23 March 1910 launched 21 January 1911 and placed in service with a merchant crew at Norfolk Navy Yard 20 September 1911, Master F. E. Horton, Naval Auxiliary Service, in command.

Except for a period out of service at Norfolk Navy Yard 6 May to 5 December 1912, Neptunus operated along the east coast and in the Caribbean from Boston to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, supporting ships and installations of the Atlantic Fleet into 1913. Continuing her replenishment operations, she made two coaling voyages to Vera Cruz, Mexico in the spring and summer of 1913, returned to Norfolk 8 September, decommissioned there 13 October, and was placed in reserve.

Neptunus commissioned with a naval complement 7 December 1914 and resumed collier service with the Atlantic Fleet. Assigned to the Auxiliary Division, Atlantic Fleet on 28 December 1915, she continued this duty into 1917. She made four voyages to Santo Domingo between June 1916 and February 1917, carrying Marines, fuel and mail to support Navy and Marine Corps Units protecting American interests in the Dominican Republic during unrest there.

When the United States entered World War I, Neptunus was at Baltimore, Maryland, loading general cargo. Departing that port, she put into Norfolk to embark a division of the 1st Aeronautical Detachment and sailed 25 May 1917 for France escorted by destroyers Jarvis en Perkins. Arriving at St. Nazaire on 8 June, the ship offloaded her cargo and disembarked her troops, the first American forces to land in Europe for service against the enemy. Neptunus sailed for home 28 June, arriving at New York on 11 July. The vessel again resumed service with the Train, Atlantic Fleet, making one voyage to the Caribbean, 12 July to 27 August, and then operated off the Atlantic Coast, delivering coal to ports in Chesapeake Bay through the end of the war.

In 1919, following three voyages to Guantanamo Bay to supply naval forces at the training base there, the collier departed Norfolk on 3 October for the Pacific, calling en route at the Panama Canal Zone, Nicaragua, and Honduras with Marines and cargo and arriving at San Diego on the 20 October. She then operated along the West Coast, coaling ships and supplying naval bases between Bremerton, Washington, and San Diego. Returning to the east coast the way she came, the collier arrived at Norfolk on 20 January 1920. Neptunus made another coaling voyage to the west coast before departing Philadelphia on 27 August for an eleven-month cruise as part of the Train, Pacific Fleet. She visited Pearl Harbor from 8 September to 25 October and cruised to Valparaiso, Chile in January and February 1921 to coal units of the Battle Force engaged in maneuvers off the Chilean coast. The collier returned to Norfolk 11 July and made one more voyage to the West Coast from 23 July to 30 December and a coaling cruise to the Caribbean, 25 January to 3 April 1922 before decommissioning at Boston on 28 June 1922.

Towed by tugs Kalmia en Wandank, Neptunus departed Boston 14 December on her last voyage, arriving at Philadelphia three days later. There the ship remained in reserve, until struck from the Navy List 14 May 1938 and sold for scrapping to Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia 18 April 1939.


Kramer Guitars Info

If the serial number of your Kramer starts with the following serial numbers, it is NOT a USA Made or "American" series Kramer:

1) Two letters followed by a serial number (e.g. AA1234, AC1234, FA1234, FC1234, SA1234)

2) One letter followed by five letters (e.g. b12345) The only exception to this would be some of the "E" series neckplates did have one letter followed by five letters (e.g. e12345).

3) Five numbers, no letters (e.g. 12345)

4) Model numbers preceding serial number (e.g. XL-1234)

5) A chrome or black neck plate with nothing on it but a Kramer headstock and a serial number stamped on them. These neck plates are smooth flat neck plates with no "Neptune, N.J." stamped on them

Keep in mind that just because the neckplate is imprinted with "Kramer, Neptune, NJ" does NOT mean that the guitar was Made in the USA or an "American" series. Kramer was very careful to not stamp "Made In USA" anywhere on its neckplates starting in about 1985/1986.

Starting in late 1985, virtually all Kramer guitars were being made by ESP Guitars in Japan. Although the "American" Series guitars were made by ESP in Japan, they were assembled in the US. In general, the following is a good way to determine if your Kramer is USA made or an "American" series:

  • If your Kramer has a Strat or Classic headstock and has a Kramer logo with a capital "K" followed by a lower caser "ramer", the guitar is an early 1981-1984 USA made Kramer guitar.
  • If your guitar has a banana headstock and a block style Kramer logo in all caps "KRAMER", it is a 1984-1986 USA Made/American Series Kramer Guitar.
  • If your guitar has a pointy headstock and a block style Kramer logo in the same sized lettering in all caps, it is a 1986/1987 American Series Kramer Guitar.
  • If your guitar has a pointy headstock and a diminishing sized Kramer logo with the letters diminishing in size from the K to the R and, there is a script "American" decal after the "KRAMER" logo, it is a 1987-1994 American Series Kramer Guitar.
  • If your guitar has a pointy headstock and a diminishing sized Kramer logo but does not have "American" in script after the logo, it is NOT an American series guitar.

The following wood neck guitar models were the ONLY Made in USA or "American" Series guitars:

  • Baretta Series, Pacer Series, Stagemaster Series, Vanguard Series, Voyager Series, Classic Series, ProAx Series, NightSwan Series, Ripley Series, Spector Series, Paul Dean Series, Richie Sambora Series, Triax, Enterprize, Elliot Easton Series, Sustainer Series, Liberty Series, & Condor Series.

The following wood neck guitar models were NOT Made in USA or "American" Series guitars. These guitars were made either in Korea, Indonesia, or Japan.

  • Striker Series, Focus Series, Hundred Series (e.g. 410, 610), Thousand Series, XL Series, Aerostar Series, Showster Series, and Ferrington Series. Furthermore, the Gorky Park special edition model is also an overseas made guitar.

Another good way to tell if your Kramer is an overseas made model is if it is made out of plywood or composite wood. Also, if your Kramer has "non-name" pickups or "Designed by Seymour Duncan" pickups, it is an overseas model. Finally, if your Kramer came with a Floyd Rose II, Floyd Rose with no fine tuners, or a Floyd Rose unit that does not require the ball ends of the strings to be cut off, it is an overseas model.

Oh yeah, If you bought your Kramer from Music Yo' you can be sure it is a low cost Korean instrument. Please don't confuse any product that comes from Music Yo' with the original.


Treating stage I breast cancer

These breast cancers are still relatively small and either have not spread to the lymph nodes or have spread to only a tiny area in the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread).

Local therapy (surgery and radiation therapy)

Surgery is the main treatment for stage I breast cancer. These cancers can be treated with either breast-conserving surgery (BCS sometimes called lumpectomy or partial mastectomy) or mastectomy. The nearby lymph nodes will also need to be checked, either with a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).

In some cases, breast reconstruction can be done at the same time as the surgery to remove the cancer. But if you will need radiation therapy after surgery, it is better to wait to get reconstruction until after the radiation is complete.

If BCS is done, radiation therapy is usually given after surgery to lower the chance of the cancer coming back in the breast and to also help people live longer.

In a separate group, women who are at least 70 years old may consider BCS sonder radiation therapy if ALL of the following are true:

  • The tumor was 2 cm (a little less than 1 inch) or less across and it has been removed completely.
  • None of the lymph nodes removed contained cancer.
  • The cancer is ER-positive or PR-positive, and hormone therapy is given.

Radiation therapy in this set of women still lowers the chance of the cancer coming back, but it has not been shown to help them live longer.

If mastectomy is done, radiation therapy is less likely to be needed, but it might be given depending on the details of your specific cancer. You should discuss if you need radiation treatment with your doctor. They may send you to a doctor who specializes in radiation (a radiation oncologist) for evaluation.

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapy (chemo and other drugs)

For women who have a hormone receptor-positive (ER-positive or PR-positive) breast cancer, most doctors will recommend hormone therapy (tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor, or one followed by the other) as an adjuvant (additional) treatment, no matter how small the tumor is. Women with tumors larger than 0.5 cm (about ¼ inch) across may be more likely to benefit from it. Hormone therapy is typically given for at least 5 years.

If the tumor is larger than 1 cm (about ½ inch) across, chemo after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) is sometimes recommended. A woman's age when she is diagnosed may help in deciding if chemo should be offered or not. Some doctors may suggest chemo for smaller tumors as well, especially if they have any unfavorable features (a cancer that is growing fast hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive or having a high score on a gene panel such as Oncotype DX).

After surgery, some women with HER2-positive cancers will be treated with trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) for up to 1 year.

Many women with HER2-positive cancers will be treated with trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) followed by surgery and more trastuzumab (with or without pertuzumab) for up to 1 year. If after neoadjuvant therapy, residual cancer is found during surgery, trastuzumab may be changed to a different drug, called ado-trastuzumab emtansine, which is given every 3 weeks for 13 doses. If hormone receptor-positive cancer is found in the lymph nodes, your doctor might recommend one year of trastuzumab followed by additional treatment with an oral drug called neratinib for 1 year.


HALES, or LODDEN-HALES,

Bigot's Manor.

By some accounted to be in Loddon-hundred. There were at the survey several lordships in this town: Roger Bigot, ancestor to the Earls of Nofolk, had a grant of one, which Alestan (a thane of King Harold) was deprived of to this there belonged one carucate of land, and 40 acres with 9 bordarers, and 2 carucates in demean, one among the tenants, and 5 acres of meadow, paunage for 3 swine, one runcus, one cow, &c. and 10 sheep. There were also 13 freemen belonging to the lord's fold, and under his commendation with 40 acres of land, valued at 20s. but at the survey at 40s. hierdie Alestan put himself under the commendation of Alwin de Tedford, in the reign of King William, and was seised of it at the time when the Conqueror gave it to Roger Bigot. But the hundred never saw any writ or livery, whereby it was granted to Alwin. All Hales was fifteen furlongs long, and 12 perches and six furlongs broad and pays 8d. gelt. (fn. 1)

This lordship extended into Loddon, and was held by the Bigots Earls of Norfolk, and by the grant of Roger Bigot Earl of Norfolk, who died s. bl. it came to King Edward I. and was given by King Edward II. to his brother, Thomas de Brotherton Earl of Norfolk, and so came to the Lord Segrave, die Mowbrays, en die Howards Dukes of Norfolk.

On the attainder of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it was in the Crown, and King James I. on Junie 17, ao. 1, bestowed it on Thomas Here Howard, of Walden, en Henry Howard, afterwards Earl of Northampton, from whom it passed to Thomas Howard Earl of Surry, who in the 21 of the said King, April 1, had license to alien it to Anthony Hobart, Esq. and his heirs Anthony conveyed it in the same year to James Hobart, his son and heir, who, by deed, dated Sep. 12, ao. 12 of Charles I. sold it to Henry Humberston Esq. seun van William Humberston, of Loddon deur Joan, his wife, daughter of John Smith, of Lanham in Suffolk, watter William was son of John Humberston van Loddon.

Henry had 2 wives: by Maria, dogter van Henry Yaxley van Beauthorp, Esq. his 2d wife, he had no issue by his first wife Anne, dogter van Giles Bladwell, Esq. van Thorlow Magna, in Suffolk, was father of William Humberstone, Esq. wat getroud is Mildred, dogter van Charles Walgrave van Stanninghall in Norfolk, Esq. who conveyed this manor to Francis Gardiner, Esq. mayor of Norwich in 1685, (son of Francis Gardiner D. D. vicar of Kendal,) and burgess in parliament for that city, in 1695. Stephen Gardiner, Esq. his son, was recorder of Norwich, and died in 1727. Gardiner, bore, gules a chevron, between three griffins heads erased, of.

Ralph Here Baynard was rewarded with a lordship, of which Toke, a freeman (of Stigand, the Archbishop of Canterbury) of Frans extraction, was deprived consisting of 30 acres of land, 3 villains, with a carucate and 3 acres of meadow, &c. and 60 sheep there were 12 freemen under his protection, and of his fold who held 41 acres of land, with a carucate and a half, and 3 acres of meadow: there were also 2 freemen under his protection only, with 18 acres, of land and half a carucate, also one freeman with 30 acres one, borderer and one carucate, and one acre of meadow the whole valued at 17s. but at the survey at 30s. (fn. 2)

A family who took their name from this town, was early enfeoffed of it, and held it under the Lord Baynard. Roger de Hales en William, his son, were living in the reign of Henry II.—Walter de Hales, in the time of King John and Sir Roger, seun van Walter, in the 34 of Henry III. John, son of Sir Roger, in the 22 of Edward I. which Sir Roger, by deed, sans date, confirmed the exchange of lands (between 2 persons) that were held of his fee in Hales which shows that it was the custom for lords of manors to confirm the purchases, before the statute of Quia Emplores, & ampc. and sealed with barry of 12, azure en of, on a canton, gules, a lion passant. meneer John de Hales was living, ao. 20 Edward III. en deur Catherine, (after married to Roger de Wellesham,) was father of John de Hales, who died s. bl. ao. 43 Edward III. and held this lordship of the barony of Fitz-Walter.

In the 17 of Richard II. William, seun van Edmund de Redesham van Kirkby Caam, conveyed by fine, to Sir Robert de Willoughby, Sir Miles Stapleton, John, son of Sir John de Norwich, & ampc. the manor of HalesHall in Loddon, one messuage, 4 carucates of land, 24 acres of meadow, 2 of wood, 20 of marsh, and 100s. rent, in Hales, Loddon, Kirkeby, with the advowson of Hales-Hall chapel, purchased by John de Norwich in reversion Sir George Felbrigg van Tottington, holding two parts of the manor and lands, in right (as I take it) of the widow of Edmund de Reedisham, then his wife, and Joan, widow of John de Hales, holding a 3d part in dower. (vn. 3)

meneer Simon Felbrigg, in the 12th of Henry IV. recovered the manor of Hales-Hall by writ of Novel Disseisin, against John Hotot, and held his first court on Dinsdag next after the assumption of the blessed Virgin, and it was after settled on his two feoffees, Sir John Howard, and Sir John de Ingaldesthorp, & ampc.

In the 19th of Henry VI. Nicholas Waleys en John Pewk, were querents in a fine, and Henry Walpole, en Margaret his wife, deforciants of 10l. rent, per ann. in Loddon-Hales manor, conveyed to Pewk and in the 30th of that King, Hugh Croke, vicar of Hale, was a trustee of Thomas Cleymonds, Esq. deceased, late lord.

After this, it was possessed by Sir James Hobart, attorney-general, and of the privy council to King Henry VII. of whom, and his ancestors, see in Plumstede Parva, in Blofield hundred. His benefactions and good works, testify his charity and generosity he resided in his manor-house here, which he built for the most part, (and died here,) with the elegant parish church of the Holy Trinity, by Loddon also a fair bridge over the Waveney river, between Norfolk en Suffolk, called St. Olaves, of Tooley's bridge, with a good causeway to it (fn. 4) contributed to the rebuilding of the council chamber in the Guild-Hall of the city of Norwich, and to the noble arched stone roof of the cathedral church of Norwich. meneer Walter Hobart was his son and heir, and lord of this manor sheriff of Norfolk en Suffolk, ao. 1, Henry VIII. in the 20 of that King, he settled this lordship, with that of Chatgrave, Lille ford's, Tilney in Norfolk, and others in Suffolk, as may be seen in Chatgrave, Loddon hundred, on Walter Hobart, Esq. his son and heir. A pedigree of the eldest branch of the family I have here annexed.

James Hobart, Esq. sold it in the 12 of Charles I. to Henry Humberstone, Esq. (as is mentioned in Bigot's manor above,) whose son William, is said to have conveyed part of it to Francis Gardiner, Esq. and part to the Lady Dionysia Williamson, relict of Sir Thomas Williamson, Baronet, of Markham Magna in Nottinghamshire, daughter and heir of William Hales, Esq. seun van Richard Hales, Esq. who was lady of this manor of Hales-Hall, in 1666, and resided here she gave 4000l. to the rebuilding the church of St. Dunstan in the East, of Londen to the rebuilding of St. Paul's cathedral, 2001l. and was a benefactress to the rebuilding of the church of St. Mary Le Bow, in Londen, giving 2000l. and at her death, left Hales-Hall aan John Hoskins, Esq. her nephew, (who was lord in 1687,) with the impropriated rectory of Loddon.

The abbot of St. Edmund van Bury, had a lordship which Frodo held of them at the survey 9 men, 2 of them were socmen, and 7 more, belonged to the abbot's lordship, and were under his protection only, held 64 acres in King Edward's reign, when there were 2 borderers and 5 freemen, with 6 acres this was valued with Loddon. (vn. 5)

Frodo, also, held of the abbot one acre, of which 2 freemen were deprived valued at 4d. (fn. 6) Of this Frodo, & ampc. see in Loddon, which manor extended also into this town.

Godric, the King's steward, held one acre and a half, out of which a freeman was ejected: this was granted to Godric on the forfeiture of Ralph Earl of Norfolk, who had a moiety (as lord) of this freeman. (fn. 7)

The tenths were 2l. 10s. Deducted 10s. Temporalities of St. Olaves 8d. en van Langley abbey 24s.

The Church of Hales was a rectory, but granted in the 4th of Henry I. by Ralph de Chedgrave, en Emma his wife, to William, prior of St. Olaves, probably founder of that priory and a vicar was appointed on its appropriation to that convent. It was dedicated to St. Margaret, and it appears by the register of Langley abbey, that the prior and convent of St. Olaves by Hering flete in Suffolk were rectors of Hale, and had the tithe of 235 acres of land in Hale parish belonging to Langley abbey, in exchange for 235 acres of land in Loddon en Heckingham, belonging to the priory of St. Olaves. (fn. 8)

In the reign of Edward I. the rectory was valued at 11 marks, and the vicarage at 40s. The vicar had then a manse with 30 acres of land. Petrus-pence 18d. Carvage 12d. 0b.

Vicars.

In 1317, Adam de Blofield was instituted vicar, presented by the prior of St. Olaves, and nominated by the Bishop of Norwich.

1326, John de Carlethorp. Ditto.

1333, Roger de Petengraunt. Ditto.

1366, William Warren. Ditto.

1366, John Stalworth. Ditto.

1377, Peter de Wynch. Ditto.

1382, John Wandeford. Ditto.

1398, Richard Bytering. Ditto.

1403, Richard Bangoot. Ditto.

1413, William Norwich. Ditto.

In 1458, Hugh Croke occurs vicar.

In 1503, I find it served by a stipendiary curate, for 5l. per ann. and he then returned 45 communicants, John Hill being the impropriator and in 1742, the heirs of Mr. Peter Lawes.

Here was also a chapel at Hales-Hall, belonging to the manor of the family of De Hales, dedicated to St. Andrew: this, with the hall, stood in the parish of Loddon, and in 1287, it is said to stand in the manor of Wrantishagh, belonging to Sir Roger de Hales, in Loddon parish, and leave was then granted to him, that he might institute the chaplains of it, by the concession and grant of the abbot of Langley, rectors of the church of Loddon, and of John de Feryby, official to William, Bishop of Norwich, the said Sir Roger and his heirs granting to the chaplains all the obventions and oblations, with the small tithes of his court, and that the servant, of him and his heirs having their habitations in the parish of Loddon, shall pay to the mother church of Loddon, the oblations accustomed, and shall receive the sacraments there. (fn. 9) And the chaplains administering in the said chapel, were to pay yearly to the said mother church, in acknowledgment of subjection, all the oblations and obventions given on Easter-day, and St. Andrew's day, and two wax candles of a pound of wax, on Trinity Sunday, and to give security to the vicars of Loddon, for the time being, that they should not say any anniversaries, trentals, or any masses for any parishioners of Loddon.

In 1331, Sir John de Hales was patron, and in 1349 and John, son and heir of Sir John, in 1361.

Alexander de Hales, styled Doctor Irrefragabilis, who died in 1245, was born here. Hales, Halesworth, Halestead, Alesham en Aylesford, so called, as near to some river or water.


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