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Sylvia Str - Geskiedenis

Sylvia Str - Geskiedenis


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Sylvia

(Str .: dp. 302; 1. 130 '(wl.); B. 18'6; dr. 10'; s. 9 k .;
kpl. 35; a. 1 3-par. rf., 3 1-par. rf., 2 mg.)

Tydens die oorlog met Spanje is Sylvia - 'n stoomjag wat in 1882 deur A. Stephen en Sons, Glasgow, Skotland gebou is - op 13 Junie 1898 deur die vloot gekoop en op 29 Junie 1898 in gebruik geneem.

Sylvia vaar op 21 Julie 1898 uit New York en gaan via Norfolk, Va., Na Key West, Fla. Sy het van 13 tot 17 Augustus in Key West gebly en op 25 op die 25ste keer teruggekeer na Norfolk. Sy is op 10 Desember by die Norfolk Navy Yard uit diens gestel en op 19 na die Maryland Naval Militia oorgeplaas.

Desember 1898. Op 6 Desember 1907 is die skip na die Naval Militia van Pennsylvania oorgedra en het dit ses jaar by die organisasie gebly. Op 13 September 1913 is Sylvia weer na die Naval Militia, District of Columbia, toegewys.

Op 10 April 1917, kort nadat die Verenigde State die Eerste Wêreldoorlog binnegegaan het, is Sylvia weer in diens geneem en in die 5de vlootdistrik tot in 1919 as patrolliediens aangestel. Sylvia is op 24 April 1919 uit die vlootlys geslaan en op 20 Oktober 1921 verkoop.


Henry Silva

Henry Silva (gebore 15 September 1928) [1] is 'n Amerikaanse afgetrede akteur. Silva, 'n produktiewe karakterakteur, was 'n gereelde rol in die internasionale genre -bioskoop, dikwels as 'n kriminele of gangster. Opvallende rolprentverskynings sluit in Oseaan se 11 (1960), Die Manchuriaanse kandidaat (1962), Johnny Cool (1963), Sharky's Machine (1981), en Spookhond: Die weg van die Samurai (1999).


Sylvia Plath

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Sylvia Plath, skuilnaam Victoria Lucas, (gebore 27 Oktober 1932, Boston, Massachusetts, VS-oorlede op 11 Februarie 1963, Londen, Engeland), Amerikaanse digter wie se bekendste werke, soos die gedigte "Daddy" en "Lady Lazarus" en die roman Die klokpot, gee 'n sterk gevoel van vervreemding en selfvernietiging uiting wat nou gekoppel is aan haar persoonlike ervarings en, in uitbreiding, die situasie van vroue in die middel van die 20ste eeu.

Waarom is Sylvia Plath belangrik?

Sylvia Plath was 'n Amerikaanse skrywer wie se bekendste werke, insluitend die gedigte "Daddy" en "Lady Lazarus" en die roman Die klokpot, gee 'n sterk gevoel van vervreemding en selfvernietiging uiting wat sedert die middel van die 20ste eeu by baie lesers aanklank gevind het.

Hoe was Sylvia Plath se vroeë lewe?

Sylvia Plath het haar eerste gedig op agtjarige ouderdom gepubliseer. Sy het deelgeneem en baie literêre wedstryde gewen. Sy verkoop eers 'n gedig, aan Die Christian Science Monitor, en verkoop eers 'n kortverhaal aan Sewentien tydskrif, terwyl hy nog op hoërskool was. Sy was 'n kollega van die Mademoiselle tydskriffiksiekompetisie in 1952.

Waar het Sylvia Plath gestudeer?

Sylvia Plath het in 1951 'n beurs by Smith College ingeskryf. Sy behaal aansienlike artistieke, akademiese en sosiale sukses, maar sy ly ook aan ernstige depressie, poging tot selfmoord en ondergaan 'n tydperk van psigiatriese hospitalisasie. Sy studeer in 1955 met die hoogste lof aan Smith en gaan na die Newnham College, Cambridge, op 'n Fulbright -beurs.

Wanneer was Sylvia Plath getroud?

In 1956 trou Sylvia Plath met die Engelse digter Ted Hughes hulle het twee kinders. Die egpaar het in 1962 geskei nadat Hughes 'n verhouding gehad het. Hughes het baie van Plath se postume publikasies saamgestel. Kontroversie het sy redaksiepraktyke omring, veral toe hy onthul het dat hy die laaste tydskrifte wat Plath geskryf het voor haar selfmoord vernietig het.

Watter toekennings het Sylvia Plath gewen?

Die versamelde gedigte, wat baie voorheen ongepubliseerde gedigte bevat het, verskyn in 1981 en ontvang die Pulitzerprys van 1982 vir poësie, wat Sylvia Plath die eerste gemaak het wat die eer postuum ontvang het.

Plath het haar eerste gedig op agtjarige ouderdom gepubliseer. Sy het deelgeneem en baie literêre wedstryde gewen, en terwyl sy nog op hoërskool was, het sy haar eerste gedig aan verkoop Die Christian Science Monitor en haar eerste kortverhaal aan Sewentien tydskrif. Sy het in 1951 'n beurs by Smith College ingeskryf en was 'n kollega van die Mademoiselle tydskriffiksiekompetisie in 1952. At Smith Plath behaal aansienlike artistieke, akademiese en sosiale sukses, maar sy het ook aan ernstige depressie gely, selfmoordpogings ondergaan en 'n tydperk van sielkundige hospitalisasie ondergaan. Sy studeer aan Smith met die hoogste lof in 1955 en gaan na die Newnham College in Cambridge, Engeland, op 'n Fulbright -beurs. In 1956 trou sy met die Engelse digter Ted Hughes hulle het twee kinders. Die egpaar skei in 1962, ná Hughes se verhouding met 'n ander vrou.

Gedurende 1957–58 was Plath 'n dosent in Engels aan Smith College. In 1960, kort nadat sy saam met Hughes na Engeland teruggekeer het, verskyn haar eerste digbundel as Die Kolos, wat goeie resensies gekry het. Haar roman, Die klokpot, is in 1963 in Londen gepubliseer onder die skuilnaam Victoria Lucas. Die boek is sterk outobiografies en beskryf die geestelike ineenstorting en die uiteindelike herstel van 'n jong universiteitsmeisie, en is gelyk aan Plath se eie ineenstorting en hospitalisasie in 1953.

Ariel (1965)-'n versameling van Plath se latere gedigte wat "Daddy" en nog een van haar bekende gedigte, "Lady Lazarus", insluit-het die groei van 'n veel groter aanhang van toegewyde en entoesiastiese lesers veroorsaak as wat sy gedurende haar leeftyd gehad het. Ariel 'n resensie ontvang in Die New York Times wat sy 'meedoënlose eerlikheid', 'gesofistikeerdheid van die gebruik van rym' en 'bitter geweld' geprys het en Poësie Die tydskrif het opgemerk dat "'n deurdringende ongeduld, 'n positiewe dringendheid vir die gedigte". Plath het vinnig een van die gewildste Amerikaanse digters geword. Die voorkoms van klein versamelings voorheen ongepubliseerde gedigte, insluitend Die water oorsteek (1971) en Winterbome (1971), is deur kritici en die publiek verwelkom. Die klokpot is in 1966 onder haar eie naam in Groot -Brittanje uitgegee, en dit is in 1971 vir die eerste keer in die Verenigde State gepubliseer. Johnny Panic and the Bible of Dreams, 'n boek met kortverhale en prosa, is in 1977 gepubliseer.

Die versamelde gedigte, wat baie voorheen ongepubliseerde gedigte bevat, verskyn in 1981 en ontvang die Pulitzerprys van 1982 vir poësie, wat Plath die eerste maak wat die eer postuum ontvang het. 'N Boek vir kinders wat sy in 1959 geskryf het, Die pak wat nie saak maak nie, is in 1996 gepubliseer. Belangstelling in Plath en haar werke het tot in die 21ste eeu voortgeduur. Sy het 'n groot deel van haar lewe 'n dagboek gehou, en in 2000 The Unabridged Journals van Sylvia Plath, wat die jare van 1950 tot 1962 dek, is gepubliseer. 'N Biografiese film van Plath met Gwyneth Paltrow ( Sylvia) verskyn in 2003. In 2009 verskyn Plath se hoorspel Drie vroue (1962) is vir die eerste keer professioneel opgevoer. 'N Deel van Plath se briewe, wat in 1940–56 geskryf is, is in 2017 gepubliseer.' N Tweede versameling - wat haar latere briewe bevat, insluitend 'n aantal openhartige aantekeninge aan haar psigiater - verskyn die volgende jaar. In 2019 die verhaal Mary Ventura en die negende koninkryk, wat in 1952 geskryf is, is vir die eerste keer gepubliseer.

Baie van Plath se postume publikasies is saamgestel deur Hughes, wat die eksekuteur van haar boedel geword het. Omstredenheid het egter beide die bestuur van die boedel oor die outeursreg van haar werk en sy redigeerpraktyke omring, veral toe hy onthul het dat hy die laaste tydskrifte wat voor haar selfmoord geskryf is, vernietig het.

Die redakteurs van Encyclopaedia Britannica Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Adam Augustyn, besturende redakteur, verwysingsinhoud.


Sylvia Tyson maak (a) geskiedenis

Nie 'n mynwerker van ou padverhale of 'n skrywer van belydenisherinneringe nie, soos u sou verwag van 'n sanger/liedjieskrywer van haar gestalte en eerbiedwaardige toestand. Maar 'n bona fide skrywer van Big Fiction.

'Dit is lekker om te weet dat ek nog steeds die vermoë het om mense te verras,' glimlag Tyson, oor tee in 'n chi-chi-kafee in Rosedale naby haar huis, tydens 'n onlangse onderhoud oor haar literêre debuut, die roman Joyner se droom (HarperCollins).

Die boek, 'n boeiende gesinsverhaal wat aan die einde van die 1700's in Brittanje begin en in die hedendaagse Toronto beland, het 'n paar weke gelede op die rakke verskyn. Sedertdien ry Tyson van pilaar tot pos om aan die eise van 'n nuuskierige en byna ongelowige media te voldoen.

En dit het haar per ongeluk onderwerp aan die nog onuitgesproke toorn van lewenslange skrywers, jaloers op al die aandag wat sy gekry het.

'Niemand was onvriendelik nie,' het sy gesê. 'Maar ek voel die ontsteltenis by mense wat hul hele lewe lank professioneel skryf en selde hul name in die nuus sien.'

Tyson is immers al byna 50 jaar lank 'n konstante in die musikale uitspansel van Kanada. Eers was dit die helfte van die volksduo Ian & Sylvia in die 1960's, daarna as solo -kunstenaar en liedjieskrywer/opnamekunstenaar. Dit is gevolg deur hoë profiel in die 1970's en 1980's by CBC as gasheer van gewilde musiekradio- en TV-programme (Raak die aarde aan, Hartland, Land in my siel), dan as die skrywer en/of ster van musikale verhoogproduksies (Rivierweg, Die klavierman se dogter). Meer onlangs was sy deel van die Kanadese vroulike folk-pop-supergroep Quartette, saam met Cindy Church, Gwen Swick en Caitlin Hanford.

Sy was nog nooit ver van musiek nie, selfs al was sy nie 'n aktiewe kunstenaar nie. Tyson was lid van die FACTOR- en Juno -direksies, en is tans president van die Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame, wie se sewende jaarlikse inlywings- en toekenningsgala die afgelope naweek plaasgevind het.

Sy is selfs 'n bietjie verbaas. Joyner se droom -'n reeks eerstepersoonsvertellings, meestal in die stem van mans, wat die geskiedenis van 'n gesin volg wat uniek dubbel begaafd is met musikale vermoëns en groot natuur-het vyf jaar geneem om te skryf en is deur verskeie Kanadese uitgewers verwerp.

Toe kyk HarperCollins nog 'n keer en besluit dat die verhaal hul belegging werd is, op voorwaarde dat Tyson 100 van sy oorspronklike 500 bladsye kan deel.

Sy het dit gedoen, en gelukkig het sy erken.

Tog kan Tyson nie regtig glo dat sy so 'n radikale verskuiwing in haar kreatiewe lewe gemaak het met so 'n duidelike sukses nie.

'My vriende noem my die moeder van heruitvinding', het die statige 70-jarige, wat ook geskryf en opgeneem het, gesê-met die hulp van Terry McKenna, 'n spesialis in antieke geplukte instrumente, en 'n gereelde kunstenaar by Tafelmusik, Opera Atelier , die Canadian Opera Company en die Stratford Festival-'n CD met tydspesifieke musiek, beide instrumentaal en vokaal, om die episodes in haar roman te belig.

Uitgegee op die Salt -etiket, die musiek op die CD, Joyner's Dream - The Kingsfold Suite, kan gehoor word by die vele openbare lesings wat HarperCollins vir Tyson bespreek het, deur haar woorde te vleg.

'N Tweede album, wat die musikale vordering van die sage deur die ragtime- en jazz -tydperke voortsit, is ook aan die gang, het Tyson gesê.

So, wat het die gevierde liedjieskrywer aangespoor om na soveel vrugbare jare in musiek 'n nuwe slag te begin?

'Ek is 'n onophoudelike leser,' het sy gesê.

'Ek het altyd twee of drie boeke tegelykertyd onderweg, meestal moordmysteries, hoewel ek grootgeword het op die klassieke. My ouers was lede van die Book of the Month Club, en ek het alles verslind wat by die deur ingekom het. ”

Boonop is die skryf van 'n roman nie so anders as die skryf van 'n lied nie, het sy bygevoeg.

'Ek het nog altyd storieliedjies geskryf, en dit is selde in my eie stem. Dit is ander karakters wat hulle sing. En hulle het almal agterverhale, ten minste in my kop. ”

Laai tans.

In haar kop is waar Tyson geskryf het Joyner se droomtydens oggendwandelinge deur die beboste parke en klowe van Rosedale.

'Ek werk eintlik alles in my gedagtes uit voordat ek iets op papier neersit,' verduidelik sy.

'Ek wou 'n roman skryf waarin musiek, spesifiek 'n viool, die sentrale draad is.

'Toe ek eers uitvind wie al die mense in die verhaal is, het dit 'n kwessie geword van hoe om dit te koppel, sodat musiek en 'n tydskrif wat van die een geslag na die volgende oorgedra is, die middel geword het.

'Ek het die luukse geniet om iets te skryf wat langer as vier minute was en nie hoef te rym nie.'

Tyson het wel hele hoofstukke hardop gelees tydens die skryfproses.

'As die woorde maklik uit die mond kom, glip dit maklik in die gedagtes,' het sy gesê.

En hoewel sy karakters en persoonlikheidseienskappe van mense wat sy ken, gebruik, is daar niks outobiografies aan nie Joyner se droom.

'Daar is slegs perifere verwysings, niks spesifiek nie,' het Tyson gesê. 'Die karakters is my eie uitvindings. En ek het vir hulle stemme gekry deur te luister na die manier waarop mense praat. Ek het dit nog altyd gedoen.

'Mansstemme is nie vir my 'n streep nie. Ek het nog nooit in 'n vrou se wêreld gelewe nie. Ek was op 'n baie jong ouderdom saam met ouens. Ek weet hoe hulle dink, hoe hulle vermy. Mans het die luukse van eensgesindheid, dus is vroue genoodsaak om veelvuldige take te verrig.

'Ek was nog altyd meer 'n waarnemer as 'n deelnemer.

'Jackie Burroughs het my ooit vertel wat ek op die Festival Express gedoen het (die beroemde rock 'n' roll -sirkus wat in 1970 die land oorsteek met The Band, Janis Joplin, die Grateful Dead en meer) sit agter 'n hoek en skuil agter 'n boek en kyk na al die waansin. ”


Afskrif transkripsie

Ek is Eric Marcus en welkom by die derde seisoen van Making Gay History!

Net soos ek die eerste twee seisoene gedoen het, neem ek 'n diep duik in my dekades oue klankargief om die stemme van die LGBTQ-geskiedenis aan u te gee.

Vir die begin van hierdie nuwe seisoen bring ons u die tweede deel van 'n gesprek wat ek met Sylvia Rivera in 1989 gevoer het. Sylvia het gepraat oor haar herinneringe aan die Stonewall -opstand en hoe sy die huis verlaat het in 1962 toe sy net elf jaar oud was. oud. As u nog nie die episode gehoor het nie, raai ek u aan om te luister.

Hier is dus die tweede deel van die gesprek in die kombuis van Sylvia se woonstel in North Tarrytown, New York. Dit is Saterdagaand, 9 Desember, 1989. Sylvia se vriendin Rennie is pas werk toe. Op die uitweg van Rennie het sy Sylvia gevra om vir haar 'n drankie te spaar as sy terugkom. Sylvia belowe dat sy dit natuurlik sou doen, maar sodra Rennie by die deur uit is, skink Sylvia vir haar nog 'n glas wodka uit 'n bottel wat reeds op pad is om leeggemaak te word. Sylvia se kêrel Frank kyk in die kamer langs die TV.

Sylvia [aan Frank]: Frank! Wat maak jy? Ek het net besef, jy moet vir my tamatiesous gaan koop. Ek het vergeet om die tamatiesous vir die chili te koop. Kan u dus uitgaan en dit kry? En, huh? Haal 'n paar blikkies op. Ja, lekker blikkies. Nie die kleintjies nie. Nee, nie tant Millie s’n nie. Ek het tamatiesous nodig. Ons maak nie pasta nie.

Maar, nee ... Dis um ... U kan alles op straat verkoop. U kan mans, jong seuns en jong vroue verkoop. Daar is altyd 'n kliënt daar, en dit is diegene wat siek is.

Ek onthou dat ek net huis toe gegaan het en myself net in 'n bad warm water geskrop het. “ O, hierdie mense het my aangeraak. ” Ek bedoel, die sluip. Selfs as hulle nie oud was nie. Hulle kon jonk gewees het. Ek onthou hoe ek geslaap het ... Toe ek dertien en veertien jaar oud was, onthou ek hoe ek met ouens van een-en-twintig geslaap het omdat hulle my betaal het. En hulle het hul hang-ups gehad.

Eric : Jy het geweet wat jy was.

Sylvia : Ek het geweet ek was op daardie tydstip 'n hoer. Ek het geweet ek wil geld maak.

Eric : En hierdie ouens maak asof hulle iets anders is, en kom na jou toe vir#8230

Sylvia : Hulle het gekom vir 'n fantasiereis. Dit is wat dit was. Dit was 'n groot fantasie.

Eric : Hoe het die polisie jou behandel toe jy 'n kind was en op straat was?

Sylvia : Die eerste keer dat ek gearresteer is, was dit asof ek ’ waarheen gaan? ”

Eric : Wat het jy gedoen?

Sylvia : Jy was 'n laf.

Eric : Was u geklee in vroueklere?

Sylvia : Wel, toe ek die eerste keer begin het, was ek in vroueklere. Dit was wat hulle nou noem, selfs op die oomblik is dit wat ek dra, 'n sorg.

Eric : Bangmaak? Wat is bangmaak?

Sylvia : Wat ek nou dra. Jy het nie die tiete aan of so nie. Jy het net 'n bietjie make -up. Jy het jou hare uit. Jy het vroueklere aan. En dit is wat hulle genoem het bangmaak. Elke keer dat ek voor 'n regter, 'n boonste kop vroulike nabootsing was. ”

Eric : Dit was die aanklag.

Eric : Bo-kop vroulike nabootsing. Met ander woorde, van die nek af.

Eric : Dis ongelooflik.

Sylvia : Die wette destyds was baie vreemd.

Eric : Laat ons maar sê tot '69 jy nie betrokke was by gay -regte of iets dergeliks nie?

Sylvia : Voor die Stonewall was ek betrokke by die Black Liberation -beweging, die vredesbeweging. Ek het net gevoel ek het, ek het die tyd gehad en ek het geweet dat ek iets moes doen. En toe die Stonewall gebeur het …

Eric : Jy was, laat ons sien, negentien, agtien jaar oud toe ...

Eric : Jy was nog steeds 'n kind volgens die meeste standaarde.

Sylvia : Ja. Dit was asof 'n god iets vir my gestuur het. Ek bedoel, ek was net daar toe alles wegspring. Ek het gesê: 'Wel, wonderlik,' het ek gesê, 'Nou is dit my tyd.' Ek het gesê: 'Hier is ek 'n revolusionis vir almal.' Ek het gesê: 'Nou is dit tyd om my ding vir my eie mense te doen.' En ek het by GAA aangesluit, en die eerste jaar dat ons 'n petisie gedoen het vir gay -regte, op 15 April van daardie jaar ...

Sylvia Rivera (drabrief “E ”) saam met Marsha P. Johnson (drabrief “Y ”) en mede -aktiviste van die Gay Liberation Front buite die strafhof in New York, vroeg in die 1970's. Krediet: © Diana Davies, met vergunning van die afdeling Manuskripte en argiewe, The New York Public Library.

Eric : So dit was 1970?

Sylvia : Ek is gearresteer omdat ek 'n petisie gedoen het vir gay -regte in 42ste Straat.

Eric : U het 'n petisie gehad ... Was dit vir die …

Eric : … die wetsontwerp op gay -regte oor die stad?

Sylvia : Die wetsontwerp op gay -regte in die stad.

Eric : Wie het u onderteken?

Sylvia : Ek het mense gevra om dit in die middel van 42ste Straat te teken.

Eric : Was jy aangetrek in drag?

Sylvia : Nee, ek was gemaklik aangetrek. Grimering, jy weet, die hare en wat nog.

Sylvia : Die polisie kom na my toe en sê: 'Nee, nee, nee nee, jy kan dit nie doen nie. Of jy vertrek of ons gaan jou arresteer. ” Ek het gesê, “ Wel, goed, arresteer my. ” Hulle het my baie mooi opgetel en in 'n polisiemotor gegooi en my tronk toe geneem.

Eric : Vir die opneem van 'n versoekskrif.

Sylvia : Ja. Ek het voor die regter ingegaan. Die regter kyk na die twee inhegtenisnemende beamptes en hy hou van: 'Besef u nie wat aan die gang is nie?' Weet ek, ek kon sy voorkoms in sy gesig sien. “ Wel, nommer een, "sê ek," ek laat hom los. ”

Eric : Aan die polisieman.

Sylvia : Uh, hmm. Hy sê, “Jy besef nie wat jy so pas gedoen het nie. Hy sê: 'Die hele land is in oproer en jy mors met mense ...

Eric : Wie teken petisies.

Sylvia : Ja. Reg. En ek hou van, “ Ag, okay. ”

Eric : Was u deel van ... daar was 'n betoging by N.Y.U.

Sylvia : Een van die sit-ins. Dit was een van die sit-ins. Ons het altyd daar gedanse en skielik wou hulle nie hê ons moes daar dans nie. En oké, ons sal geen danse hê nie. Ons het pas Weinstein Hall oorgeneem. Dit was 'n lekker sit-in vir drie of vier dae. Dit was interessant.

Eric : So jy was daar.

Sylvia : Ja, ek was daar. En my broers en susters uit die gay -gemeenskap was self nie baie, baie ondersteunend nie.

Sylvia : Van enigiets wat afgegaan het. Destyds het ek in die park geslaap. Omdat ek my werk reeds opgegee het, alles opgegee het vir gay bevryding. Ek het in Sheridan Square Park geslaap, oké? En Bob Kohler het gekom en vir my gesê, sê hy, en ons het 'n sit-in. ” Hy was van GLF. Hy is een van die opstellers van Gay Liberation. En die mense wat drie dae lank die sitplek gehou het, was my mense, die mense van STAR. Ons was daar en almal sê: "O, dit was omdat jy nie 'n woonplek gehad het nie." Dit was nie waar nie, ons kon 'n truuk opgetel het en in 'n hotel gebly het. Maar ons was daar vir hulle. Marsha, myself en almal anders. Ek bedoel, toe hulle inkom en ons weggooi, was daar niemand behalwe wat hulle die straatmense noem nie. Of die STAR -mense.

Eric : Is STAR toe al gevorm?

Sylvia : Eintlik is STAR uit die N.Y.U. gebore sit in.

Eric : Wat beteken STAR.

Sylvia : Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries.

Eric : Wat was die rede vir die begin daarvan?

Sylvia : My broers en susters het ons aanhou gebruik en ons wou alleen wees.

Eric : Hoeveel koninginne was betrokke by STAR? Was dit 'n klein groepie? Drie? Vier?

Sylvia : Dit was baie klein.

Sylvia : Dit was soos… Dit was myself, Marsha Johnson, Bambi Lamour, Endora ... Ek het soos verskeie vroue daar gehad. Goed, wag 'n bietjie.

Eric : So dit was miskien 'n halfdosyn.

Sylvia : Ja, 'n halfdosyn. Bebe. Bebe was op 'n tyd deel van my groep.

Sylvia Rivera betoog by die St. Patrick ’s Cathedral met die Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries, herfs 1970. Krediet: © Diana Davies, met vergunning van die afdeling Manuskripte en argiewe, The New York Public Library.

Eric : Het u ooit saam met Bebe in die stadsaal getuig oor die wetsontwerp op gay -regte?

Eric : Vertel my daarvan.

Eric : Ek het verhale gehoor.

Sylvia : He, he, he ... Whoo… En juffrou June Bartel. Ek dink dit moes die eerste keer gewees het dat ons gegaan het. En weet jy, ek het hulle my standpunt gegee. En Bebe staan ​​op en gee haar standpunt. En daarna, weet u, het ons gesê: 'Wel, ons sal dit goed speel, weet u.' Ons het na die dameskamer gegaan. Wel, eintlik ... Nee, ons het na die dameskamer gegaan, hulle sou ons nie inlaat nie.

Eric : Dit is die polisie.

Sylvia : Ja. Dit is in orde, ons sal nie daar ingaan nie, ons gaan net in die mannekamer. ” Ons is na die mannekamer. Ons het uitgekom. Ons, jy weet, val uit, jy weet, in 'n klein tou. En ek vergeet die raadslid se naam. Hy sê: 'En waarom moet ek my kinders deur hulle laat onderrig, mans wat in vroueklere geklee was? Nou, hier gaan Bebe 'n onderwyser word, oké? En ons hou van, en wat is die probleem van hierdie man? Hy het ons net regtig neergesit.

So kom June uit die badkamer en sy loop reg voor die raads tafel en sy sê: 'Waar wil jy hê moet ek gaan poes? Wil jy hê ek moet my broek hier afneem en voor jou pis? ” En sy staan ​​daar met hierdie klein mini, en sy trek die mini op en daar staan ​​die G-string en hulle skrik. Hier is Junie soos, jy weet, hulle hou van, en my god, hy sal dit wys. Is dit werklik? ” En June sê baie mooi: “ Ag, ek dink ek moet nou vertrek. En sy trek net haar klere aan en sê: "Vertel my nou waar ek kan gaan pis."

Nee, maar ek het wel getuig. Ek het 'n paar keer getuig. En die wetsontwerp op gay -regte, wat my betref, weet u vir my die wetsontwerp op gay -regte en die mense saam met wie ek gewerk het op die wetsontwerp op gay -regte en toe ek al die versoekskrifte gedoen het en wat nog, toe die wetsontwerp geslaag ... Die wetsontwerp was myne wat my betref. Ek het gehelp om dit te verwoord en ek het baie hard daarvoor gewerk. En dit is waarom ek ontsteld raak as ek onderhoude gee en wat ook al, want die fokken gemeenskap het geen respek vir die mense wat dit regtig gedoen het nie. Drag queens het dit gedoen. Ons het dit gedoen, ons het dit gedoen vir ons eie broers en susters. Maar, verdoem dit, moenie aanhou om ons in die fokken rug te stoot en ons in die rug te steek nie, en dit is wat regtig seer is. En dit is baie ontstellend.

Eric : Nie net word jy deur die straights geslaan nie, jy word ook geslaan deur die gays.

Sylvia : Jy word deur jou eie geslaan en dit is wat seer maak.

Ek en Marsha het baie baklei vir die bevryding van ons mense. Ons het destyds baie gedoen. Ek en Marsha het 'n gebou in Second Street, wat STAR House genoem word, gehad. En toe ons die gemeenskap vra om ons te help, was daar niemand wat ons kon help nie. Ons was niks. Ons was niks! En nou het ons gesorg vir kinders wat jonger as ons was. Ek bedoel, ek en Marsha was jonk en ons het vir hulle gesorg. En GAA het onderwysers en prokureurs gehad, en alles wat ons hulle gevra het, is: Wel, as u ons kan help om ons eie te leer, sodat ons almal 'n bietjie beter kan word. Daar was niemand daar om ons te help nie. Daar was niemand nie.

Sylvia : Hulle het ons laat hang. Daar was net een persoon wat ons gehelp het. Weereens is Bob Kohler daar. Hy het ons gehelp skilder. Hy het ons gehelp om drade aanmekaar te sit. Ons het nie geweet wat de fok ons ​​doen nie. Ek bedoel, ons het 'n gebou geneem wat 'n krotgebou was. Ons het probeer. Ons het regtig. Ons het uitgegaan en geld uit die strate gemaak om hierdie kinders van die straat af te hou.

Eric : So, julle het julleself verkoop om vir die kinders te sorg.

Sylvia : In plaas daarvan om vir hulle te wys wat ons doen. Omdat ons dit al deurgemaak het.

Eric : Wou u hulle beskerm? Waarteen het jy hulle beskerm?

Sylvia : Uit die wêreld. Van die lewe in die algemeen. Daar is, jy weet, om vir hulle te wys dat daar 'n beter lewe was.

Eric : Wie was hierdie ander kinders, die kleintjies? Waar kom hulle vandaan?

Sylvia : Van oral. Ons het oral kinders uit Boston, Kalifornië, gehad. Ons het hulle gehad

Eric : Waar was hul gesinne?

Sylvia : Ek dink by die huis.

Eric : Dit was dus kinders soos jy wat moes vertrek.

Sylvia : Hulle was goeie kinders. Ek het 'n paar van hulle gesien na die beweging en wat nog. En hulle is almal ... Diegene wat ek gesien het, het hulle baie goed gedoen. Dit laat jou goed voel.

Eric : Ja, maar as u wil, sou u 'n gebou gehad het waar kinders kon kom en ...

Sylvia : Ek sou dit graag wou hê, om eerlik te wees met jou, soos elke keer as ek die advertensie sien, Covenant House, het ek gesê, ek sou dit graag wou hê. ” Ek sou dit graag wou sien, 'n STER Huis vir die kinders, vir mense wat weet … U weet, hierdie kinders het al geweet. U kry altyd die gevoel, weet u. Jy is anders, so gaan iewers heen.

Eric : So hulle het hiernatoe gekom. Maar jy het die hulp nodig gehad van ... Ek sou my voorstel dat jy en Marsha nie oor die nodige hulpbronne beskik nie, uh …

Sylvia : Ons het net geen geld gehad nie en ons ...

Eric : U het die hulp van GAA of iemand anders nodig gehad#8230

Sylvia : Ons het die geld uit die gemeenskap nodig, en die gemeenskap gaan ons nie help nie.

[Frank keer huis toe met die tamatiesous.]

Frank : Ek het twee blikkies.

Sylvia : O, het jy? Goed. Laat ek hierdie chili klaarmaak en dan maak ek die rys. Kry die blikopener. Dit is heeltemal daar verby.

Eric : Is daar dan iets, wat ek jou nie gevra het nie, 'n storie, iets wat jy graag wil hê ... wat ek moet weet?

Sylvia : Ek wil baie meer doen vir die beweging, maar die beweging wil net nie met my te doen kry nie.

Sylvia Rivera tydens 'n demonstrasie van gay -regte, Albany, New York, 1971. Krediet: © Diana Davies, met vergunning van die afdeling Manuskripte en argiewe, The New York Public Library.

Sylvia Rivera (middel) met vennoot Julia Murray (regs) en vriendin Christina Hayworth sit op 'n klipmuur met 'n bordjie by hul voete wat lees “ Respekteer Trans People/Men! ” die dag voor New York ’s 2000 Pride Parade . Dit is die eerste portret van 'n transgender in die versameling van The Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. Krediet: © Luis Carle.
Sylvia se droom van 'n veilige plek vir LGBTQ -jeugdiges het tot 'n einde gekom toe sy en Marsha uit die verlate gebou van STAR House gesit is. Maar later daardie dekade, in 1979, stig dr. Emery Hetrick en sy lewensmaat Damien Martin The Institute for the Protection of Lesbian and Gay Youth. Dit heet nou HMI en jy kan meer leer oor die organisasie in Making Gay History se seisoen twee, in die episode van Joyce Hunter.

Ek wens ek kon sê dat sy in die jare nadat ek Sylvia die eerste keer ontmoet het, gelukkig en gelukkig saam met haar kêrel in North Tarrytown gewoon het. Maar haar vriend en vennoot in die beweging Marsha P. Johnson is in 1992 oorlede, en Sylvia se lewe het van die spoor gegaan. Sy het dakloos gelind en op 'n verlate pier naby Greenwich Village gewoon.

Sylvia het uiteindelik opgehou drink en weer by beweging aangesluit, en in 2001 selfs probeer om STAR weer te begin, en dit hernoem tot Street Transgender Action Revolutionaries, maar sy sterf 'n jaar later aan lewerkanker. Sylvia was 50 jaar oud.

Sylvia Rivera (middel) saam met maat Julia Murray (regs) en vriendin Christina Hayworth die dag voor New York se Pride Parade in 2000. Dit is die eerste portret van 'n transgender persoon wat opgeneem is in die versameling van die National Portrait Gallery van The Smithsonian. Krediet: @Luis Carle.

Ek het 'n paar mense om te bedank vir hierdie eerste episode van seisoen drie, waaronder ons uitvoerende vervaardiger Sara Burningham en klankingenieur, Anne Pope. Ons het produksiehulp van Josh Gwynn gekry. Ons temamusiek is gekomponeer deur Fritz Meyers. Dankie ook aan die sosiale media-strateeg Will Coley, ons webmeester, Jonathan Dozier-Ezell, en navorsers, Bronwen Pardes en Zachary Seltzer. Ons leidraad sedert die heel eerste episode is Jenna Weiss-Berman.

Die Making Gay History-podcast is 'n koproduksie van Pineapple Street Media, met hulp van die New York Public Library se afdeling Manuskripte en argiewe en ONE Archives by die USC Libraries.

Seisoen drie van hierdie podcast word moontlik gemaak met befondsing van die Ford Foundation, wat wêreldwyd op die voorgrond staan ​​van sosiale verandering.


Transgender-aktivis, advokaat vir drag queens en ander nie-gelykvormige geslagte, en die stem en ondersteuning vir talle vreemde jeugdiges, Sylvia Rivera was iemand wat nooit die status quo stil of kalm aanvaar het nie. Haar lewe strek oor die tweede helfte van die twintigste eeu, 'n tyd toe gay -regte 'n nasionale onderwerp geword het en die weefsel van die LGBTQ -gemeenskap drasties verander het. Rivera, wat die grootste deel van haar lewe in New York was, het geveg vir die insluiting van transgender mense, drag queens, hawelose jeugdiges en ander wat gemarginaliseer is deur toenemend algemene en eksklusiewe veldtogte vir gay regte. As 'n vreemde, Latina en drag queen, het Rivera haar lewe op die rand gelewer en geveg vir ander wat geweier het om na die kant gestoot te word of stilgemaak te word ten gunste van 'n smaakliker wet op gay -regte. Alhoewel baie van haar roem rondom haar beweerde (en betwiste) teenwoordigheid tydens die Stonewall Riot fokus, strek Rivera & rsquos se werk veel verder as die aand, maar sy was aktief in die gemeenskap voor en na die oproer, en het haar werk voortgesit tot met haar ontydige dood in 2002 Rivera & rsquos se stem van onenigheid herinner aan diegene wat in die gay -regte -diskoers aan die kant gestoot word, en haar aktivisme is 'n bewys van die belangrikheid van die aanspreek van probleme wat diegene raak wat deur die krake van die hoofstroom LGBT -regtebeweging val.

Rivera is gebore as Ray Rivera op 2 Julie 1951 aan 'n Venezolaanse moeder in die Bronx, New York. Rivera & rsquos se pa, wat van Puerto Ricaanse afkoms was, het vinnig verdwyn nadat Ray gebore is, en eers weer in die Rivera & rsquos -lewe verskyn voordat hy vir ewig verdwyn het. Dit was nie lank voordat die vele struikelblokke waarmee Rivera te kampe het, begin het nie, soos sy later onthou, en my ma was 22 toe sy besluit om haarself los te maak. Sy het 'n wankelrige tweede huwelik gehad en hy het gedreig om haar en my en my suster dood te maak. Ek was drie jaar oud, het sy vertel [1]. Van nou af wees sy sorg dat Rivera & rsquos -ouma vir 'n tyd lank vir haar gesorg het, maar haar afkeuring uitgespreek het nie net oor die gemengde agtergrond van Rivera en rsquos wat haar vel donkerder gemaak het as wat sy verkies het nie (Venezolaanse en Puerto Ricaanse), maar ook oor haar gedrag, wat is te vroulik vir 'n seuntjie [2] geag. Nadat Rivera & rsquos se halfsuster, Sonia, deur haar geboortevader weggeneem is, het haar ouma haar nog meer ontstel en het sy gereeld slae van haar gekry [3]. Rivera&rsquos experience in school as a child contributed to continued mockery and altercations with other students her wearing of make-up, which started in fourth grade, contributed to her ultimate abandonment of formal education when she was mocked in the sixth grade and called &ldquofaggot&rdquo by a fellow classmate[4]. After years of switching between living at her grandmothers&rsquo house, living at a Catholic boarding school, and living with various family friends for long periods of time, Ray Rivera left home at the age of 11, never to return. Her destination? Forty-second Street, an area that was home to a community of drag queens, sex workers, and those who were hustling inside and outside of the gay community of New York in the early 1960s.

Although Rivera had been engaging in sex work before she left home by hustling with her uncle to earn extra money, her experience living on her own at a young age with drag queens is what set the stage for her continued activism for transgender rights. Informally &ldquoadopted&rdquo by a group of young drag queens and adopting the name &ldquoSylvia&rdquo for herself, Rivera learned how to survive on the streets with their guidance, often changing sleeping location every night depending on where her friends could secure shelter[5]. Sylvia, like many young homeless queer youth and older LGBT people in New York City, often frequented Mafia-run bars, which were often the only places where they could maintain a sense of safety and community. Although not a typical drag queen bar, the Stonewall Inn was a place where many young men went to hustle, and people from across the city would use it as a hangout space and a place to escape after working all night.

The evening of the Stonewall Riot is hallmarked as the starting point of what is considered the modern gay rights movement, despite earlier outbreaks of resistance such as the Compton&rsquos Cafeteria Riot of 1966 in San Francisco and protests against police treatment of LGBTQ people across the country. Sylvia Rivera&rsquos presence at the Stonewall Inn on June 28, 1969 has been widely debated, although she is often credited with &ldquothrowing the first brick&rdquo at the police that night[6]. Regardless of the degree of her participation in the frenzy that took place at the Stonewall Inn that night, Sylvia laid low for a few months afterward for unknown reasons. When her friend, Marsha P. Johnson, told her about meetings of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF)[7], she jumped at the chance to become involved in the activity emerging in the aftermath of Stonewall[8]. Despite Sylvia&rsquos enthusiasm to be involved in these newly formed activists groups, such as the GLF and the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) that would split from the GLF, from the beginning her identities as a street worker, drag queen, poor, and a Latina were troubling to the largely white, middle-class activist groups: According to Martin Duberman, a historian who has written extensively on the Stonewall riot and the people involved in it, &ldquoSylvia was from the wrong ethnic group, from the wrong side of the tracks, wearing the wrong clothes &ndash managing single-handedly and simultaneously to embody several frightening, overlapping categories of Otherness&rdquo[9]. This &ldquoOtherness&rdquo would continue to plague Sylvia as she navigated the territory of the GLF, GAA, and of the emerging gay rights movement as a whole. Despite the increasing conservative nature of the GAA, and their attempts to exclude trans people from their work, Sylvia continued to work within the group in hopes of achieving inclusion for all gender variant people.

Within the GLF, and later with the more mainstream GAA, Rivera was involved in the campaign to pass New York City&rsquos first gay rights bill, and fought tirelessly so that drag queens were included in the language of the bill. At one point, the GAA had decided to attend a meeting of the Greenwich Independent Democrats in order to bring them a petition they had circulated for the gay rights bill. After a councilwoman leading the meeting continuously refused to even look at the petition, Sylvia marched up to the front of the meeting and hit the councilwoman over the head with it[10]. She constantly fought for the inclusion of trans people and drag culture in the gay rights bill, and often conflicted with the mainstream gay advocacy organizations. When the bill was finally passed in 1986, it did not include any language addressing the need for the protection of drag queens, trans people, and other gender-variant people who did not fit neatly into the mainstream gay community that appealed to lawmakers. When she discovered this, Sylvia&rsquos response was: &ldquoHell hath no fury like a drag queen scorned"[11].

Despite the constant exclusion from the gay rights movement that she faced, Sylvia continued to be active during the 70&rsquos with her organization S.T.A.R. (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries), a group she formed with Marsha P. Johnson that focused on giving shelter to queer, homeless youth. Sylvia provided this service as a means to reach out to others like herself who were not able to access many of the gay-oriented resources in New York City due to their gender identity or presentation. Although active with S.T.A.R. for most of the 1970s, the organization &ldquodied&rdquo in 1973 according to Sylvia, and she became so disheartened by the state of the gay rights movement that she attempted suicide in 1974[12]. She eventually left New York City and moved to Tarrytown, New York and worked in food service management her activism there revolved around local drag shows and Pride Week activities[13]. Sylvia moved back to New York City sometime during the early 1990s and lived on a pier in the West Village. In 1995, she attempted suicide by walking into the Hudson River the same river where her close friend and co-founder of S.T.A.R., Marsha P. Johnson, was found dead in 1992. Sylvia revived S.T.A.R. on January 6, 2001 in an effort to make the murder of transwoman Amanda Milan well-known to the public[14]. Still retaining the determination she had from decades past, Sylvia declared &ldquoBefore I die, I will see our community given the respect we deserve. I&rsquoll be damned if I&rsquom going to my grave without having the respect this community deserves. I want to go to wherever I go with that in my soul and peacefully say I&rsquove finally overcome"[15]. On February 19, 2002, Sylvia passed away at the age of 50 due to complications from liver cancer. Even on her deathbed, she was working for trans inclusion in yet another mainstream gay rights organization, the Empire State Pride Agenda.

Sylvia Rivera worked tirelessly for a more inclusive and intersectional approach to LGBTQ activism. From the Stonewall Riot, to fighting for inclusive gay rights legislation, to living on the piers in solidarity with queer homeless youth, Rivera refused to take a seat and let others forget about those who had been &ldquoothered&rdquo by the mainstream gay rights movement. Her life serves as a testament to the power of resistance, and as a stark reminder that the fight to appear acceptable and palatable to mainstream America adopted by the mainstream gay rights movement is not everyone&rsquos struggle.


Activism & the Stonewall Riots

With the surge of the Civil Rights Movement, the Women&aposs Rights Movement and the Vietnam War protests of the 1960s, Rivera&aposs activism began to take shape. In 1969, at age 17, she took part in the famous Stonewall Riots by allegedly throwing the second molotov cocktail in protest to a police raid of the gay bar the Stonewall Inn in Manhattan. The event was one of the major catalysts of the gay liberation movement and to further push the agenda forward, Rivera co-founded the group, the Gay Liberation Front.

In later interviews, she reminisced about her special place in history. “We were the frontliners. We didn’t take no s**t from nobody. We had nothing to lose.”


Kristel was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands she was the elder daughter of an innkeeper, Jean-Nicholas Kristel, and his wife Pietje Hendrika Lamme. [7] [8] In her 2006 autobiography, Nue, she stated that she was sexually abused by an elderly hotel guest when she was nine years old, an experience she otherwise refused to discuss. Her parents divorced when she was 14 years old, after her father abandoned the family for another woman. "It was the saddest thing that ever happened to me," she said of the experience of her parents' separation. [9]

Kristel began modeling when she was 17 years old. In 1971, before becoming famous, she took part in an audition for the female lead in the film Last Tango in Paris (1972) but lost out to Maria Schneider. In 1973, she won the Miss TV Europe contest in 1973. She spoke Dutch, English, German, and Italian fluently, as well as several other languages to a lesser extent. Kristel gained international attention in 1974 for playing the title character in the softcore film Emmanuelle, which remains one of the most successful French films ever produced.

Na die sukses van Emmanuelle, she often played roles that capitalized on that sexually provocative image, most notably starring in an adaptation of Lady Chatterley's Lover (1981), and a nudity-filled biopic of the World War I spy in Mata Hari (1985).

During the Seventies, she worked on lesser known films by prominent French directors including Claude Chabrol and Roger Vadim. She also starred next to Joe Dallesandro in Walerian Borowczyk' "La Marge", a success at the French box office.

She was originally cast to play the part of Stella in Roman Polanski's film The Tenant (1976) but, after one day of shooting, she was replaced by Isabelle Adjani. In 1977, she was invited to star as Hattie in Louis Malle's controversial erotic drama Pretty Baby (1978) but the role eventually went to Susan Sarandon instead. She was friends with Sergio Leone who wanted her to play the role of Carol in the movie Once Upon a Time in America (1984) the producers did not agree to her participation and the role went to Tuesday Weld. In 1982, she was turned down by Tony Scott for the role of Miriam in The Hunger (1983) Catherine Deneuve ended up playing the part. She was considered for the role of Lois Lane in Superman (1978), which went to Margot Kidder. Sylvia unsuccessfully applied for the role of a Bond Girl in the movies: The Spy Who Loved Me (1977), Moonraker (1979), For Your Eyes Only (1981) and Octopussy (1983).

She rejected the main female roles in The Story of Adele H. (1975), King Kong (1976), Logan's Run (1976), Caligula (1979), Body Heat (1981), Blade Runner (1982), Scarface (1983), Dune (1984), Body Double (1984) and Blue Velvet (1986).

Haar Emmanuelle typecasting image followed her to the United States, where she played Nicole Mallow, a maid who seduces a teenaged boy in the sex comedy Private Lessons (1981). [10] Another mainstream American film appearance was a brief comic turn in the Raak slim revival film The Nude Bomb in 1980.

Alhoewel Private Lessons was one of the highest-grossing independent films of 1981 (ranking number 28 in US domestic gross), [11] Kristel reportedly saw none of the profits and continued to appear in movies and last played Emmanuelle in the early 1990s. In May 1990, she appeared in the television series My Riviera, filmed at her home in Saint-Tropez and offering insights of her life and motivations in an interview with writer-director Michael Feeney Callan. Her friend, Gérard Depardieu, wanted to secure her comeback and unsuccessfully tried to persuade the producers of 1492: Conquest of Paradise to cast her as Queen Isabel. In 2001, she played a small role in Forgive Me, Dutch filmmaker Cyrus Frisch's debut. In May 2006, Kristel received an award at the Tribeca Film Festival, New York, for directing the animated short film Topor and Me, written by Ruud Den Dryver. The award was presented by Gayle King.

After a hiatus of eight years, she appeared in the film Two Sunny Days (2010), and that same year, in her last acting role, she played Eva de Leeuw in the TV series The Swing Girls. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In September 2006, Kristel's autobiography Nue (Kaal) was published in France. The writing was translated into English as Undressing Emmanuelle: A Memoir, by Fourth Estate, 2 July 2007, in which she described a turbulent personal life that was blighted by addictions to drugs and alcohol, and her quest for a father figure, which resulted in some destructive relationships with older men. The book received some positive reviews. [12]

She had her first major relationship with Belgian author Hugo Claus, who was more than two decades her senior. Their union produced her only child, a son named Arthur, who was born in 1975. She left her husband for British actor Ian McShane, whom she had met on the set of the film The Fifth Musketeer (1979). [13] They moved in together in Los Angeles, where he had promised to help her launch her American career. However, their five-year affair led to no significant career break for Kristel, but a relationship she describes in her autobiography as "awful – he was witty and charming, but we were too much alike." She began using cocaine about two years into their relationship. This proved her downfall, although at the time she thought of it as a "supervitamin, a very fashionable substance, without danger, but expensive, far more exciting than drowning in alcohol – a fuel necessary to stay in the swing." [14] Sylvia Kristel also had a relationship with French singer Michel Polnareff. [15]

Kristel was interviewed in 2006 for the documentary Hunting Emmanuelle. She described how she made a number of poor decisions due to an expensive cocaine addiction. One of those mistakes included selling her interest in Private Lessons to her agent for US$150,000 the film grossed more than US$26 million domestically. After McShane, she married twice, first to Alan Turner, an American businessman. That marriage ended after five months, and she later married film producer Philippe Blot. She spent a decade with Belgian radio producer Fred De Vree, until his death. [16]

Her authorized biography was written by Dutch journalist Suzanne Rethans and was published in September 2019. It took Rethans more than three years to write it. Titled 'Begeerd en Verguisd'- Atlas Contact-ISBN 9789045033174 ('Desired and Vilified'), it has not yet been translated in the English language. [17]

Kristel was an extremely heavy cigarette smoker from the age of 11. She was diagnosed with throat cancer in 2001 and underwent three courses of chemotherapy and surgery after the disease spread to her lungs. [18] On 12 June 2012, she suffered a stroke and was hospitalized in critical condition. [19] Four months later, she died in her sleep at age 60 from esophageal and lung cancer. [20] Kristel is buried at her place of birth in Utrecht, the Netherlands. [3]


Sylvia Rivera: Street Transgender Action Revolutionary

S ylvia Rivera was dying, but she kept up the struggle. On February 19th, 2002, as she was on her deathbed due to complications from liver cancer, she pressed on, as she always had, working for the inclusion of trans and gender nonconforming people in the mainstream gay rights organization, the Empire State Pride Agenda. Rivera died much in the way she lived: calling attention to the ways the concerns of queer and gender-variant people — especially those who were poor, homeless, and of color — were excluded within the Gay Rights Movement. As a queer, Latinx, transvestite drag queen, Rivera resisted being pushed to the margins as gay rights struggles became increasingly mainstream, cautioning that LGBTQ activism could not affect long-term and systemic change if it focused primarily on the concerns of the most “normal” members of the movement — white middle-class gays and lesbians — at the expense of the most vulnerable.

Sylvia was born Ray Rivera on July 2nd, 1951 in the Bronx, New York. Her mother was Venezuelan, and her father, who was Puerto Rican, left the family soon after Sylvia was born, and never returned. After Rivera’s mother committed suicide at the age of 22, she was raised by her grandmother, Viejita, who expressed disapproval for both her dark skin and her feminine behavior. Sylvia was intensely bullied for her femininity at home and at school, causing her to run away at the age of 10. She went to 42nd Street in New York, an area in the 1960s that was populated by a colorful mix of drag queens, sex workers, and other members of the gay community. The time Rivera spent on 42nd Street laid the foundation for her work as an activist. Engaging in sex work in order to survive, she renamed herself “Sylvia” and was adopted by a family of queens (the term “queen,” during the 1960s, generally referred to feminine gay men) who taught her to live on the streets. During this time she learned how difficult it was to survive as a queer gender-nonconforming person of color in 1960s New York.

One day, as Sylvia was hustling on 42nd, she spotted an older black queen — Marsha P. Johnson — who she was immediately drawn to. Fearless in both her appearance and her approach to life, Sylvia marched right up to Johnson and struck up a conversation. Marsha ended up inviting Sylvia out for a spaghetti dinner, and took her under her wing, teaching her how to apply her makeup and the rules of the street. The pair remained friends for the rest of their lives, and participated in many of the most significant early gay liberation struggles.

Sylvia and Marsha, like many other gay people at the time, frequented Mafia-run gay bars, one of the only spaces where gay and gender-variant people could congregate and form a sense of community. In 1969, the year of the landmark Stonewall Inn Riots, to be gay in the United States meant that one most likely lived a closeted life unless they found their way to an urban center such as Greenwich Village or San Francisco’s Castro District. Medical professionals regarded “homosexuality” not as a legitimate orientation, but as a mental illness. In New York State, it was recently determined that gay bars were not illegal, though many regarded serving alcohol to gay people and allowing them to dance together in public as criminal offenses. Gay bars were regularly raided, with patrons being subjected to police brutality in the form of physical and sexual violence. Drag queens and persons whom today we would refer to as transgender could be arrested for the crime of “masquerading,” or publicly wearing the clothes of a gender other than the one they were assigned at birth and as represented on their identity documents.

Within this cultural context was the Stonewall Inn, a Mafia-run gay bar located on Christopher Street in Greenwich Village. On the muggy night of June 28th a police raid, led by Inspector Seymour Pine of the New York Police Department, resulted in five days of rioting during which patrons of the Stonewall and other local queer and gender-nonconforming people fought back against the police and won. The Stonewall Inn Riots are the event most commonly cited as the catalyst of the Gay Rights Movement in the United States, despite earlier incidents of militant queer resistance, such as the Compton’s Cafeteria Riot of 1966, and nearly two decades of organizing by early homophile groups such as the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis.

Rivera and Johnson, who were at Stonewall that night to celebrate Johnson’s birthday, were among the first patrons to throw bricks at the police, capitalizing on a prime opportunity for resistance, while others fled the scene. “I’m not missing a minute of this,” Sylvia told her comrades as the riots began, “it’s the revolution!” Poor street queens were the first to act, to ignite the anger that blossomed into a full-blown riot, because they were fed up and had little to lose. Though some argued the death of actress and singer Judy Garland, an icon of the gay community, inspired the riots, in reality, they were born from a moment of anger and spontaneity. Following Stonewall, and at Johnson’s encouraging, Sylvia kept up the struggle and began to attend meetings of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) and the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA), newly-formed radical gay rights organizations.

Rivera soon learned that the multiple marginalized identities she occupied — queer, brown, sex worker, drag queen, gender nonconforming, feminine, poor — were troubling to movement leaders who were largely white middle-class gay men, and to a lesser extent, white middle-class lesbians. These leaders sought to pursue an agenda that often marginalized the concerns or queer and gender-nonconforming people of color who were not seen as “respectable.” As historian Martin Duberman observes of Rivera’s presence in the GLF and the GAA: “A Hispanic street queen’s transgressive being produced automatic alarm: Sylvia was from the wrong ethnic group, from the wrong side of the tracks, wearing the wrong clothes — managing single-handedly and simultaneously to embody several frightening, overlapping categories of Otherness.”

Sylvia cared little about labels and definitions, alternately referring to herself as a “drag queen,” a “transvestite,” or a “half sister.” That she insisted upon defining herself and her existence on her own terms further contributed to her reputation as a radical within gay liberation circles. Though contemporary scholars and activists have reclaimed Rivera as a transgender woman, she did not see herself this way. Though Sylvia loved to express her femininity by dressing in drag, she sometimes disliked the terms “drag queen” and “transvestite.” In the lingo of 42nd Street during the 1960s and ’70s, “drag queen” and “transvestite” were used to describe persons who dressed as women, but did not necessarily claim or desire to wees vroue. The practice of drag, during the 1970s, was further differentiated as dressing as a woman specifically for stage performance, exemplified at the time by figures such as actress and Andy Warhol-muse Holly Woodlawn.

Though often referred to as a “drag queen,” Rivera did not actually perform drag, nor did she claim to be a woman. She identified simply as Sylvia, refusing to contort herself into the boxes or labels others created. And for this reason, among others, she was regarded as dangerous. Her very presence in the movement created change, serving as a reminder of those who existed on the fringes of gay activism. Though we can apply the label transgender — in particular, the way the term was forwarded by activists in the 1990s to refer to anyone who transgressed gender norms — to Rivera, this was not necessarily the way she saw herself, and her gender identity remained fluid throughout her life. “I’m tired of being labeled,” she said, in an essay written near the end of her life in 2002. “I don’t even like the label transgender. I’m tired of living with labels. I just want to be who I am. I am Sylvia Rivera. Ray Rivera left home at the age of 10 to become Sylvia. And that’s who I am.”

Sylvia’s struggles with “Otherness” in the GLF and the GAA led her and Johnson to form the activist group STAR (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries), to address the needs of poor street queens. The pair also created STAR House, a shelter of sorts for homeless youth, street queens, and hustlers. Both Sylvia and Marsha worked tirelessly for the inclusion of gender-nonconforming and queer people of color in the Gay Rights Movement despite their routine exclusion. Sylvia, for example, was frequently called upon by the GAA to front dangerous protests, only to be pushed aside by more “respectable” movement leaders when the media appeared.

Sylvia was also involved in the campaign to pass the New York City Gay Rights Bill, repeatedly insisting drag queens and other gender nonconforming people were included within the bill’s language. She was so insistent on the inclusion of drag queen and transvestite concerns that she was famously arrested after scaling the walls of City Hall — while wearing full makeup, a dress, and heels — to crash a closed-door meeting on the bill. When the bill eventually passed in 1986, it did not contain language to protect those who did not fit neatly into the mainstream movement. When Sylvia learned of this exclusion, she famously responded:

“Hell hath no fury like a drag queen scorned.”

Rivera was routinely pushed to the margins not only by movement men, but by lesbian feminists as well. This exclusion was particularly evident in the events that led to Rivera’s delivery of her most well-known speech — referred to as “Y’all Better Quiet Down” — following the fourth annual Christopher Street Liberation Day Rally in Washington Square Park in June of 1973. Though Rivera was scheduled to speak at the rally, she was blocked from taking the stage by the radical lesbian feminist and GAA member Jean O’Leary, who physically attacked her and accused her of mocking womanhood. Sylvia fought her way onto the stage and delivered an impassioned speech in which she called out the whiteness and class privilege that made the audience, and the Gay Rights and Women’s Liberation movements as a whole, blind to the needs of poor gender nonconforming and queer people of color:

“You all tell me, go and hide my tail between my legs. I will no longer put up with this shit. I have been beaten. I have had my nose broken. I have been thrown in jail. I have lost my job. I have lost my apartment. For gay liberation, and you all treat me this way? What the fuck’s wrong with you all? Think about that!”

After the rally, Rivera returned to STAR House and attempted suicide. Marsha P. Johnson found her in time to save her life, but her spirit was broken. O’Leary’s public betrayal caused Rivera to disband STAR and abstain from activism for two decades. Formally rejoining the movement in 1993, Sylvia changed the name of STAR to Street Transgender Action Revolutionaries, and rededicated herself to her community. O’Leary went on to become the co-chair of the National Gay Task Force. Her attack on Sylvia took place at a time when the GAA was becoming increasingly reformist and conservative, due to the political ambitions of many of its members. She eventually acknowledged that it was wrong for her to exclude Rivera, and others like her, from the movement, though the damage she inflicted could not be undone.

Sylvia was cremated, and her ashes reside at the Metropolitan Community Church of New York (MCCNY) in Midtown Manhattan, where she attended services and worked in the food pantry. In honor of her legacy of working on behalf of homeless queer youth and queer youth in crisis, MCCNY opened Sylvia’s Place, a shelter for homeless LGBTQ youth, and renamed their food pantry The Sylvia Rivera Memorial Food Pantry. Never one to hide in the shadows, at Sylvia’s request, her ashes make an appearance every Sunday to attend mass with her chosen family and her many children.

The embrace of Rivera and Johnson by mainstream gay rights leaders only after their deaths shows the movement is not, and has never been, for all members of the LGBTQ community equally. This newfound celebration of their legacies ignores the ways poor street queens of color were undermined by the Gay Rights Movement. Sylvia and Marsha were not given the resources — by society at large or the movement — to achieve their full potential as revolutionary leaders. As we celebrate and uplift trans women of color revolutionaries, we should simultaneously critique the oppressive forces, past and present, that result in gender nonconforming people of color being left behind and left out. Had Sylvia been honored and supported as the visionary leader she was during her lifetime, she may have lived beyond the age of fifty.

Sylvia’s children — low income gender nonconforming and queer people of color — remain the most vulnerable. According to the National Center for Transgender Equality, the lives of transgender Americans are characterized by pervasive mistreatment and violence, severe economic hardship, and physical and mental health issues due to discrimination and lack of access to necessary resources. Let us not forget poor street queens of color created the blueprint for gay liberation. Let us not forget that these radical and visionary women were kept from living out their full potential. History should give great respect to those, like Sylvia Rivera, who refuse to be silent in the face of a society who tells them they are wrong and should not exist.

“I’d like to do a lot more for the movement,” she told historian Eric Marcus, “but the movement just doesn’t want to deal with me.”


Johnson’s story is featured in Pay It No Mind: Marsha P. Johnson (2012) and Die dood en lewe van Marsha P. Johnson (2017) en Happy Birthday, Marsha! (2017). In 2015, The Marsha P. Johnson Institute was established. Its mission is to defend and protect the human rights of transgender and gender nonconforming communities. Marsha is honored as a Stonewall instigator, a drag queen, an Andy Warhol model, an actress and a revolutionary trans activist.

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