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Kopskoot van Tel Kabri

Kopskoot van Tel Kabri


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1947–1949 Palestina oorlog

Die 1947–1949 Palestina oorlog was 'n oorlog op die grondgebied van Palestina onder die Britse mandaat. Dit staan ​​in Israel bekend as die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog (Hebreeus: מלחמת העצמאות, Milkhemet Ha'Atzma'ut) en in Arabies as 'n sentrale komponent van die Nakba. [a] [11] [12] [13] Dit is die eerste oorlog tussen die Israelies -Palestynse konflik en die breër Arabies -Israeliese konflik. Tydens hierdie oorlog het die Britse Ryk onttrek uit die verpligte Palestina, wat tot 1917 deel uitgemaak het van die Ottomaanse Ryk. , met die verplasing van ongeveer 700 000 Palestynse Arabiere en die vernietiging van die meeste van hul stedelike gebiede. [14] Baie Palestynse Arabiere beland staatloos, hetsy verplaas na die Palestynse gebiede wat deur Egipte en Jordanië gevang is of na die omliggende Arabiese state, baie van hulle, sowel as hul afstammelinge, bly staatloos en in vlugtelingkampe.

  • Israeliese oorwinning
  • Jordaanse marginale oorwinning [3] [4]
  • Palestynse Arabiese nederlaag
  • Egiptiese nederlaag
  • Strategiese mislukking van die Arabiese Liga en Joodse uittog uit Arabiese en Moslemlande
  • Vestiging van die staat Israel buite die grense wat deur die verdelingsplan voorgestel word
  • Stigting van die hele Palestynse regering in die Gazastrook onder Egiptiese beskerming
  • Jordaanse heerskappy van Wesbank en Oos -Jerusalem
  • Siriese vastrapplek noord en suid van die See van Galilea

Voor 26 Mei 1948
Yishuv
Paramilitêre groepe:

Na 26 Mei 1948:
Israel
Israel se weermag

ALA
al-Najjada

Heilige Oorlog weermag
(voor 15 Mei 1948)
Egipte
Transjordanië
Irak
Sirië
Libanon
(na 15 Mei 1948)

Die gebied wat voor die oorlog onder Britse administrasie was, is verdeel tussen die staat Israel, wat ongeveer 78% daarvan ingeneem het, die koninkryk van Jordanië (destyds bekend as Transjordanië), wat die gebied wat die Wes -oewer geword het, verower en later geannekseer het, en Egipte, wat die Gazastrook verower het, 'n kusgebied aan die oewer van die Middellandse See, waarin die Arabiese Liga die hele Palestina-regering gestig het.

Die oorlog het twee hooffases gehad, die eerste was die burgeroorlog van 1947–1948 in Mandatoriese Palestina, wat op 30 November 1947 begin het, [15] 'n dag nadat die Verenigde Nasies besluit het om die grondgebied van Palestina in Joodse en Arabiese soewereine state te verdeel, en 'n internasionale Jerusalem (VN -resolusie 181), wat die Joodse leierskap aanvaar het, en die Palestynse Arabiese leiers, sowel as die Arabiese state, het eenparig daarteen gekant. [16] Hierdie fase van die oorlog word deur historici beskryf as die 'burgerlike', 'etniese' of 'interkommunale' oorlog, aangesien dit hoofsaaklik tussen Joodse en Palestynse Arabiese milisies gevoer is, ondersteun deur die Arabiese Bevrydingsleër en die omliggende Arabiese state . Dit word gekenmerk deur guerrilla -oorlogvoering en terrorisme, en het aan die einde van Maart 1948 toegeneem toe die Jode in die offensief begin en eindig met die verslaan van die Palestyne in groot veldtogte en gevegte, wat duidelike frontlinies daarstel. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die Britte steeds 'n dalende heerskappy oor Palestina gehandhaaf en soms by die geweld ingegryp. [17] [18]

Die Britse Ryk beplan om alle aansprake op Palestina vir 14 Mei 1948 terug te trek en te laat vaar. Op daardie datum, toe die laaste oorblywende Britse troepe en personeel die stad Haifa verlaat, verklaar die Joodse leierskap in Palestina die oprigting van die staat Israel. Hierdie verklaring is gevolg deur die onmiddellike inval in Palestina deur die omliggende Arabiese leërs en ekspedisiemagte om die oprigting van Israel te voorkom en om die Palestynse Arabiere, wat op daardie stadium aan die verloorkant was, met 'n groot deel van hul bevolking te help reeds gevlug of deur die Joodse milisies gedwing.

Die inval was die begin van die tweede fase van die oorlog, die Arabies -Israeliese oorlog van 1948. Die Egiptenare vorder op die suidelike kusstrook en word naby Ashdod gestop, die Jordaanse Arabiese Legioen en Irakse magte het die sentrale hooglande van Palestina verower. Sirië en Libanon het verskeie skermutselinge met die Israeliese magte in die noorde beveg. Die Joodse milisies, georganiseer in die Israeliese weermag, het daarin geslaag om die Arabiese magte te stuit. Die daaropvolgende maande het hewige gevegte tussen die IDF en die Arabiese leërs plaasgevind, wat stadig teruggedruk is. Die Jordaanse en Irakse leërs het daarin geslaag om beheer oor die grootste deel van die sentrale hooglande van Palestina te behou en Oos -Jerusalem, insluitend die Ou Stad, te verower. Die besettingsgebied van Egipte was beperk tot die Gazastrook en 'n klein sak omring deur Israeliese magte by Al-Faluja. In Oktober en Desember 1948 het Israelitiese magte die Libanese gebied binnegedring en die Egiptiese Sinai -skiereiland binnegedring en die Egiptiese magte naby die stad Gaza omsingel. Die laaste militêre aktiwiteit het in Maart 1949 plaasgevind toe Israeliese magte die Negev -woestyn ingeneem het en die Rooi See bereik het. In 1949 onderteken Israel afsonderlike wapenstilstand met Egipte op 24 Februarie, Libanon op 23 Maart, Transjordanië op 3 April en Sirië op 20 Julie. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die vlug en uitsetting van die Palestynse Arabiere voortgegaan.

In die drie jaar na die oorlog immigreer ongeveer 700 000 Jode na Israel uit Europa en Arabiese lande, waarvan een derde weg is van hul woonlande in die Midde -Ooste. [19] [20] [21] Hierdie vlugtelinge is opgeneem in Israel in die One Million Plan. [22] [23] [24] [25]


Voorlopige uitslae van die 2005-2008 seisoene in Tel Kabri, Israel

Die Kabri Argeologiese Projek is in 2005 begin onder leiding van Assaf Yasur-Landau, nou van die Universiteit van Haifa, en Eric H. Cline van die George Washington Universiteit. Vier seisoene van opgrawing, opname en studie het tot dusver plaasgevind gedurende die somers van 2005-2008, met befondsing en toerusting wat ruimhartig verskaf is deur die Institute of Aegean Prehistory, die Institute of Archaeology aan die Universiteit van Tel Aviv, UC Santa Cruz, en Die George Washington Universiteit.

Gedurende die Middel -Bronstydperk het ca. 2000-1550 vC was Tel Kabri die middelpunt van 'n Kanaänitiese staat in die huidige westelike Galilea van Israel, vyf kilometer oos van die Middellandse See. Opgrawings wat deur Aharon Kempinski en Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier van 1986-1993 gedoen is, het die oorblyfsels van huishoudelike strukture, 'n massiewe erdewal en 'n groot gebou wat deur hulle as 'n paleis geïdentifiseer is, onthul op grond van parallelle met soortgelyke strukture wat by Alalakh in Noord-Sirië gevind is en elders, alles dateer uit die Middelbrons (MB) tydperk. Hulle dateer die paleis uit die MB II-tydperk en het geglo dat dit voorafgegaan word deur die oorblyfsels van 'n vorige goed geboude MB I-struktuur, wat deur hulle die 'protopaleis' genoem is.

Kaart van MB I-II-webwerwe

Binne die paleis is vloer- en muurskilderye in Egeïese styl ontdek, wat dateer uit die laaste deel van die MB II-periode. Sulke bewyse vir artistieke verbande tussen die kulture van die antieke Egeïese See en Kanaän is uniek in Israel. Dit is ook baie skaars elders, en dit bestaan ​​slegs buite die Egeïese See in Egipte in Tel el-Dab'a, die hoofstad van die Hyksos, en op die terreine Alalakh en Qatna in Sirië.

Aanvanklike magnetometer- en geleidingsopnames wat Makovski en Yasur-Landau in 2003 gedoen het, het aangedui dat die helfte van die MB II-paleis onopgegrawe bly. Hierdie omstandighede skep 'n baie gunstige situasie waarin ons 'n moontlike Kanaänitiese paleis en 'n proto-paleis het wat direk bo-op mekaar gebou is, sonder dat daar 'n beduidende latere oorblyfsel hierbo is. Dit bied 'n seldsame geleentheid, uniek in Israel, om twee sleutelvrae in die studie van die wêreldstelsel van die Bronstydperk in die oostelike Middellandse See te ondersoek.

Die eerste stel vrae het betrekking op die evolusie van sosiale kompleksiteit in die Middel -Bronstydperk en die rol van eksogene versus endogene faktore in die opkoms van die Kanaänitiese heerskappy. Het die ontwikkeling van die paleiskultuur 'n lang en stadige evolusie gehad wat deur die grootste deel van die MB I gestrek het, of was dit 'n vinnige proses, geïnspireer deur Siries-Mesopotamiese tradisies? Voorts sou 'n kontinuum van paleistiese strukture wat op mekaar staan, ons in staat stel om aspekte van heerskappy te ondersoek wat nie voorheen in die suidelike Levant van die Middel -Bronstydperk ondersoek is nie, soos die rol van fees en ikonografie in die onderhandeling en instandhouding van politieke mag, spesifiek by Tel Kabri.

'N Tweede stel vrae hou verband met die aard van die Egeïese interaksies met die webwerf. Niemeier het getoon dat die Kabri-muurfresko's tot die miniatuurstyl behoort, met direkte parallelle met die vooruitbarsting, LM IA Santorini. Die absolute chronologie van die Kabri -fresco's kan dus 'n belangrike anker bied wat oos en wes verbind, sowel as moontlike insigte oor die absolute chronologie van die Santorini -uitbarsting. Terselfdertyd wou ons die meganisme van kulturele oordrag tussen wes en oos ondersoek wat uitloop op die Kabri -fresco's. Was dit 'n eenmalige gebeurtenis, of was dit die gevolg van meer langdurige kontak met die Egeïese wêreld?

Streekstudie

Ons streeksstudie van 2006 en 2007 oor die westelike deel van die boonste Galilea, die gebied van die koninkryk Kabri, het interessante insigte gelewer in die proses van die opkoms en ondergang van hierdie staat. Gedurende hierdie seisoene het die opnamespan 28 Middel -Bronstydperke in die omgewing van Kabri besoek en hul grootte akkuraat aangeteken met behulp van GPS, volgens die grense van elke terrein volgens die oppervlakteverspreiding van MB II -erdewerk. 'N Ontleding van ongepubliseerde erdewerk in die IAA -stoorkamers, versamel deur dr. Rafi Frankel en ander tydens vier dekades se besoeke aan die terreine, het die nedersettingsgeskiedenis van die streek tydens die MB I, MB II en die Laat Bronstydperk verskaf.

In die voorlopige verslag van ons bevindings, gepubliseer in die Tydskrif vir Veldargeologie, 1 het ons verskeie aanvanklike waarnemings oor nedersettingspatrone in die westelike Galilea gedurende die MB -tydperk aangebied, insluitend die volgende:

Gedurende die MB I -periode het die nedersettingslandskap meestal dorpe ingesluit, waarvan sommige in valleie naby die landbougrond geleë was. Deur die grootste deel van hierdie tydperk was Acco blykbaar die enigste versterkte stad in die omgewing.

Tydens die MB I-II-oorgang dui die versterking van beide Kabri en 'n paar sekondêre terreine op die vinnige verstedeliking en die skepping van 'n drieledige nedersettingshiërargie: die middelpunt van die staat, die sekondêre versterkte sentrums en kleiner onbevestigde heuwels. Die klein, landelike nedersettings van die MB I gaan nie voort in MB II nie. Die verskynsel is die opvallendste in die gebied noord van Nahal Khziv, met baie verlate plekke in hierdie gebied. Die post-MB-nedersettingslandskap op die gebied van Kabri bevat slegs terreine op 'n heuwel, met 'n paar nuutgestigte terreine.

Gedurende die MB II -periode bereik Kabri sy hoogtepunt. Dit kan gesien word in die laaste twee fases van die MB II-paleis op die terrein, wat albei uit hierdie periode dateer, insluitend die fase toe die gebou versier is met fresco's in die Egeïese styl. Cypriotische aardewerk word steeds ingevoer in Kabri, sowel as op die meeste ander plekke in die omgewing, met die belangrikste uitsondering van die hooglandterreine om een ​​of ander rede. Na die vernietiging van Tel Kabri aan die einde van die MB II -tydperk, het die handel met Ciprus steeds deur baie van dieselfde hawens en ankerplekke voortgegaan. Die streeksvakuum is gedeeltelik gevul deur 'n toename in die politieke mag van Acco, maar ook deur 'n voortsetting van die bewoonbaarheid van groot terreine op 'n heuwel.

Oor die algemeen het ons streeksstudie gesuggereer dat die opkoms van die staat Kabri nie 'n geleidelike evolusie was nie, maar eerder 'n vinnige en afgeknipte trajek gevolg het na 'n regionale hegemonie, wat die politiesheid van Acco tydelik vervang en verduister het. Dit het toe aan die einde van die Middel -Bronstydperk vinnig in die vergetelheid geraak.

Bo -aansig van opgrawingsgebiede by Tel Kabri

Opgrawings

Tydens ons aanvanklike ondersoekseisoen by Tel Kabri in 2005, was ons opgrawings beperk, hoofsaaklik bedoel om die resultate van die geofisiese opname van 2003 oor die grootte van die paleis te toets. Drie verskillende gebiede is opgegrawe om die omvang van die paleis vas te stel en 'n veldstrategie vir die toekoms te bepaal. Dit het ingesluit:

Gebied D Wes: die gebied van die moontlike troonkamer, naby die vindplek van die fresco's en die vermeende noordelike sluitmuur van die paleis

Gebied D Suid: in die gebied van die vermoedelike suidelike hof van die paleis

Gebied D Noord: buite die paleis, volgens Kempinski se rekonstruksie, wat nou tussen die avokadobome lê.

In gebied D-Wes was die muur wat deur die vorige graafmachines geïdentifiseer is as die noordelike buitemuur van die MB-paleis eintlik 'n Bisantynse terras, waaronder 'n vier meter dikte intern muur van die paleis gevind is. Dit is duidelik dat die paleis na die noorde en weste in hierdie gebied voortgaan.

In gebied D -Noord het ons gevind dat die gipsvloere van die paleis verder na die ooste lê, onder die avokadobome. Dit dui aan dat die MB II -paleis nie net ook in hierdie rigting voortgaan nie, maar dat dit, net soos die geofisiese opname voorgestel het, aansienlik groter is as wat die vorige graafmachines oorspronklik beraam het. Dit beslaan ten minste 3000-4000 vierkante meter, eerder as 2000 vierkante meter, en strek verder na die noorde, ooste en weste as wat voorheen gedink is. Ons het ook in hierdie gebied 'n moontlike installasie van verwerking of olyfolie gevind. Ons hoop om meer besonderhede wat verband hou met hierdie funksie te onthul wanneer ons volgende seisoen na die omgewing terugkeer.

In gebiede D Noord en D Suid is vernietigingsafsettings, insluitend herstelbare plaaslike erdewerk, verbrande organiese materiaal en ingevoerde Cypriotiese aardewerk, ontdek. In D -Suid is daar ook bewyse vir metaalbewerking, insluitend 'n fragment van 'n smeltkroes, 'n paar slakke, klein stukkies bronsvel en 'n klein goue lunette.

By die werk in gebied D suid

Gedurende die vierde seisoen, in 2008, is beperkte opgrawings in die MB-paleis in Kabri gedoen, voordat 'n volskaalse veldtog begin is wat vir die komende somer geskeduleer is (sien http://digkabri.wordpress.com/) en wat gaan deur 2012.

Die opgrawings van 2008 is ontwerp om 'n voorlopige begrip van die geskiedenis van die paleis te verkry, van die eerste stigting tot die uiteindelike vernietiging daarvan, wat suksesvol bereik is. Ons het ook ongeveer 45 stukke muurpleisters gevind, waarvan sommige blykbaar geverf is, asook bykomende bewyse vir rooi verf op een van die gipsvloere in die paleis.

MB Palace en Ceremonial Hall 611 aan die einde van die 2005 -seisoen

Ons opgrawings is gekonsentreer in D West, die gebied aan die oostelike rand van die MB II -paleis, net noordwes van die groot seremoniële saal 611 wat tydens Kempinski en Niemeier se vroeëre opgrawings blootgestel is. Om insig te kry in die stratigrafiese volgorde van die paleis, het ons twee belangrikste opgrawingsgebiede, oos en noordwes van Ceremonial Hall 611, oopgemaak.

Die westelike deel bevat kamer 740, die kamer direk noord van 611, sowel as die lang en smal drempel 698, in wie se ingang die fragmente van miniatuurskildery vroeg in die negentigerjare deur Kempinski en Niemeier teruggevind is. In die gebied ten noorde van kamer 740, onmiddellik aan die ander kant van 'n massiewe vier meter dik muur, het ons 'n aansienlike moddersteen en gips ingegrawe wat tot die uiteindelike vernietiging van die MB II-paleis behoort.

Aangesien hierdie ineenstorting in twee dele, boonste en onderste, deur 'n gipslyn geskei was, is dit moontlik dat dit tot die tweede en die eerste verdieping behoort. In hierdie ineenstorting het ons ten minste 45 fragmente van hoë kwaliteit muurpleister gevind, waarvan sommige blykbaar geverf is, soos hierbo genoem.

Een van die fragmente het ook 'n string indruk op die oppervlak, in ooreenstemming met die Egeïese fresco-verftegnieke. Aangesien hierdie ineenstorting duidelik na die noorde en ooste voortduur, buite die grense van die opgrawingsgebied van 2008, is ons optimisties dat ons in die volgende seisoen meer geverfde muurgipsfragmente sal herwin wanneer ons na hierdie gebied uitbrei.

Direk onder hierdie vlak van ineenstorting het ons 'n dik laag puin gevind in die vorm van 'n groot hoeveelheid platliggende erdebakke wat op mekaar gestapel is en 'n laag van ongeveer 30 cm vorm. in diepte. Die erdewerk, wat blykbaar deur die ineenstorting vergruis is, bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik uit opbergkanne wat uit die MB II -periode gedateer is. Binne hierdie pottebakkery is verskeie fragmente van ingevoerde ware gevind, waaronder 'n nekfragment van 'n Cypriotische wit geverfde kruik of beker en twee moontlike invoer uit die Egeïese See. Die ontleding van hierdie erdewerk sal 'n meer akkurate datering moontlik maak vir die finale vernietiging van die paleis.

Ons opgrawings in 2005 en 2008 het egter ook voorgestel dat die datum vir die Egeïese skilderye in die paleis heroorweeg moet word. Die fragmente muurskildery is deur Kempinski en Niemeier gevind in en langs drempel 698, geleë tussen saal 611 en kamer 740, waar dit as verpakkingsmateriaal hergebruik is. Hierdie vul is ingestel nadat die asblokke van die drumpel -ortostate in saal 611 verwyder is.

Niemeier het voorgestel dat die fragmente van die muurskildery gebruik word om die leemte te vul wat veroorsaak is deur die verwydering van die ortostate uit saal 611 tydens 'n 'plakkersfase' wat dateer uit die verlating van die paleis. Ons glo egter dat die neerslag van die fresco -fragmente nie die plunderaars was nie, maar eerder tydens 'n groot opknappingsprojek binne die lewe van die paleis.

Ons het ontdek dat die mure van kamer 740, miskien geïdentifiseer as die troonkamer, op 'n sekere tydstip aansienlik verdik is, wat die oppervlakte van die kamer effektief gehalveer het en dat dit ongetwyfeld die gebruik daarvan verander het. Dit het 'n buitengewoon diep drumpel tot stand gebring, wat nie anders as elders in die paleis geplavei was met aslarostostate nie, maar eerder doelbewus gevul was met die gevalle fresco -fragmente.

In dieselfde tyd, soos reeds opgemerk deur Kempinski en ander, is twee nuwe mure gebou, wat die groot kamer na die NO van saal 611 in twee kleiner kamers gesny het en sodoende ook die gebruik daarvan verander het. Die drumpel tussen hulle was, net soos 698, ook nie geplavei met ortostate nie. Ons glo dat hierdie drastiese opknappings aan kamers 740, 607 en 667 verband hou met 'n verandering in die gebruik van saal 611.

Ons sou dus voorstel dat die opknappings ook gedurende dieselfde konstruksietydperk aan die Hall 611 gedoen is, wat gelei het tot die verwydering van die ortostate, gevolg deur die afsetting en hergebruik van die fresco -fragmente as verpakkingsmateriaal onder drempel 698 en binne 'n leemte die verwydering van die ortostate uit die binnemuur van Hall 611.

Gedurende die 2008 -seisoen, gedeeltelik om ons hipotese te toets, het ons die latere drumpel van kamer 740 sowel as die vloer daarvan afgesny en die vloer blootgestel uit die tydperk wat voorafgegaan het aan die uitgebreide opknappingsfase. Gelukkig is 'n groot pottebakkery gevind in 'n put wat in hierdie vloer gegrawe is en wat op die nuutste vloer verseël is, wat 'n datum vir die opknappingsaktiwiteit gegee het.

Laura D'Alessandro, hoof van die Conservation Lab by die Oriental Institute aan die Universiteit van Chicago, ondersoek gipsvloer in 2008

Die vermindering van die verwydering en die neerslag van die Kabri -fresco's lei tot 'n nuwe en vroeëre relatiewe chronologie vir die fresco's in Tel Kabri. Alhoewel baie ekstra werk nodig is om die absolute chronologie van die Kabri-fresco's vas te stel, sou ons voorgestelde redigering dit aansienlik vroeër maak as die Tel el-Dab'a Thutmoside-fresco's en miskien byna hedendaags met die Akrotiri-fresco's op Santorini, wat hierdie by Kabri so lyk baie na.

As ons nou na die oostelike deel van D -Wes verwys, het ons in 2008 met opgrawings in hierdie gebied begin om die vroeëre fases van die paleis te ondersoek. Hier sak ons ​​onder kamer 703, wat dateer uit die laaste fase van die paleis, want die vloer van hierdie kamer was al deur Kempinski gesny. Ons kon die hele beroepsgeskiedenis van die paleis suksesvol rekonstrueer, wat soos volg is.

Voor die bou van die paleis, was die gebied heel waarskynlik beset deur huishoudelike strukture, kompleet met binnemuurse begrafnisse, dateer uit die middelste deel van die MB I -periode. Kontakte met Ciprus het reeds in hierdie vroeë fase plaasgevind, soos aangedui deur skerpe Cypriotic Red on Black pottery. Hierdie kontakte met Ciprus het toe deur die geskiedenis van die paleis voortgeduur.

Die massiewe fondamente van muur 733 dui aan dat die vroegste paleis van 'n verstommende soliede konstruksie was, wat herinner aan die MB -vestings vir die hele tel. Die soliede konstruksie van hierdie muur, met klippe wat baie groter was as dié wat in die latere fases van die paleis gebruik is, bevestig Kempinski se hipotese dat 'n groot vroeëre struktuur onder die MB II -paleis lê. Maar eerder as om hierdie vroeëre struktuur 'n 'openbare gebou' of 'n 'proto-paleis' te noem, soos Kempinski gedoen het, sou ons nou voorstel dat dit in werklikheid bloot 'n vroeëre fase van die paleis self is. Die oorgang van MB I na MB II by Tel Kabri word nie gekenmerk deur die bou van 'n paleis, soos Kempinski gedink het nie, maar eerder deur aanpassings aan 'n reeds bestaande paleis, wat tydens MB I gebou is.

Trouens, dit lyk asof die paleis al 250 jaar bestaan ​​het en gedurende sy leeftyd 'n reeks opknappings ondergaan het, insluitend veranderinge in die interne plan, die herstel van vloere en veranderinge in die funksies van die kamers. Ons kan reeds die geskiedenis van individuele kamers skryf en die algehele geskiedenis van die paleis kan dateer vanaf die begin daarvan in MB I tot die vernietiging daarvan in MB II. 'N Algemene interne fase van die paleis sal egter moet wag totdat bykomende opgrawings uitgevoer is, wat die geskiedenis van elke spesifieke kamer en gebied verder blootlê.

Die zoo-argeologiese vondste uit hierdie gebied was buitengewoon ryk en sal ons in staat stel om verskille in kulinêre praktyke tussen die pre-paleistiese strukture en die verskillende fases van die paleis op te spoor. 'N Drein wat tydens die vroeë fase van die paleis geblokkeer is, het 'n baie goed bewaarde samestelling van bene opgelewer, wat die beendere van beeste, perde, skape en bokke insluit, asook die knypers van krappe. Dit is moontlik oorblyfsels van 'n feesmaal wat verband hou met die nuutste gebruik van die vroeë paleisfase.

Alex Cleveland vertoon sy handewerk

Gevolgtrekkings

Ten slotte het die eerste vier jaar van die argeologiese projek van Tel Kabri die aansienlike wetenskaplike potensiaal van langtermyn verkenning op die terrein getoon. Die kombinasie van die streeksstudie en die opgrawing van die paleis het reeds gelei tot 'n nuwe siening van die ontwikkeling van mag in die gebied gedurende die Middel -Bronstydperk.

In plaas van 'n stadige evolusie, sien ons 'n vinnige oorgang van 'n nie-stedelike nedersettingspatroon na 'n goed gevormde staat, met 'n versterkte stedelike sentrum in die middel. Die MB II-paleis van Kabri het nie ontstaan ​​uit 'n patrisiese huis of uit 'n 'protopaleis' nie, maar het eerder ontwikkel uit 'n voorheen bestaande en monumentale MB I-struktuur met formidabele mure van naby-siklopiese metselwerk. Hierdie fyn afstemming van ons begrip van die fases van die paleis het ook nuwe moontlikhede vir die interpretasie van die chronologie van die Egeïese skilderye in die MB II-paleis oopgemaak.

Uiteindelik kan die moontlike Egeïese erdebakkies wat ons ontdek het en wat uit die nuutste beroepsafsettings sowel as vroeëre kontekste by Tel Kabri kom, ook daarop dui dat die interaksies tussen die Egeïese gebied en die Die paleiselite van Tel Kabri het deur die geskiedenis van die paleis geduur en het nie net die inbedryfstelling van kuns in die Egeïese styl ingesluit nie, maar ook die invoer van keramiek van hoë gehalte en moontlik ook ander voorwerpe.

Toekomsplanne

Ons verwag om meer te wete te kom oor die paleis in die besonder en die terrein in sy geheel as ons terugkeer na ons volgende opgrawingsseisoen van die komende somer van 21 Junie tot 30 Julie 2009. Ons verwelkom navrae van almal wat as personeellid of vrywilliger. Belangstellendes moet eers ons webwerf (http://digkabri.wordpress.com/) raadpleeg.

1 A. Yasur-Landau, E.H. Cline en G.A. Pierce, "Middel van die Bronstydperk -vestigingspatrone in die Wes -Galilea, Israel," Tydskrif vir Veldargeologie 33/1 (2008) 59-83.

2 E.H. Cline en A. Yasur-Landau, "Poësie in beweging: Kanaänitiese heerskappy en Egeïese vertelling in Kabri," in EPOS: Heroorweging van die Griekse Epiese en Egeïese Bronstydperk Argeologie: 157-165, S.P. Morris en R. Laffineur, reds. Aegaeum 28. Luik: Université de Liège. 2007.

As ons rekonstruksie korrek is, behoort die oorspronklike geverfde vloer en die muurfresco nie bloot tot die fase nie daarna die opknapping van die paleis, soos Niemeier en Kempinski voorgestel het, maar dateer eerder 'n fase voor die opknapping. Ons stel voorlopig voor dat die "gebruik" -periode van die fresco's, dit wil sê die tyd toe die fresko's eintlik aan die muur geheg is en dien om die binnekant van die paleis te versier, was tydens die voor-opknappingsfase van die paleis, wat gedateer is na die middelste deel van die MB II -periode. Ons glo dat die muurskildery tydens die werklike opknapping afgebreek en hergebruik is as verpakkingsmateriaal onder drempel 698 en elders.

Ons het reeds 'n paar van die meer noemenswaardige prestasies in die EPOS konferensie volume wat in 2007 verskyn het, insluitend verdere besprekings van die data wat pas aangebied is.


VERWANTE ARTIKELS

Dit kom soos Israel gesê het die militante het sedert Maandag meer as 1 050 vuurpyle afgevuur en vyf burgerlikes, waaronder 'n Arabies-Israeliese meisie, in die stad Lod doodgemaak.

Ongeveer 200 van die vuurpyle het kortgekom en binne -in Gaza geland en baie daarvan beseer, terwyl die oorgrote meerderheid deur die Iron Dome -stelsel onderskep is.

In Tel Aviv het 'n bloedbad verskyn gisteraand toe 'n bus deur vlamme verswelg is nadat hy deur 'n vuurpyl getref is. Verder langs die straat brand ander voertuie ook.

Die vlamme uit die bus spring in die lug op terwyl ontploffings uit die voertuig gehoor kan word terwyl swart rook die lug binnestroom.

Sirene blaas uit nabygeleë motors wat deur die ontploffing geruk is, en wrakstukke van nabygeleë geboue is oor die grond gestrooi.

Daniel Laufer, wat die video op Twitter geplaas het, het gesê vier mense is beseer in die ontploffing, waaronder 'n vyfjarige.

Die beeldmateriaal het verskyn te midde van die ergste gevegte tussen Israel en Hamas sedert die Gaza -oorlog in 2014, wat meer as 2 000 mense dood gelaat het.

Die vlamme van die bus spring op (regs) in die lug, terwyl ontploffings uit die voertuig gehoor kan word terwyl swart rook die lug binnestroom. Sirene blaas uit nabygeleë motors wat deur die ontploffing geruk is, en wrakstukke van nabygeleë geboue is oor die grond gestrooi (links)

Meer as honderd Hamas -vuurpyle is gisteraand op Tel Avi gelanseer nadat 'n toringblok in Gaza wat vermoedelik 'n Hamas -hoofkwartier is, deur 'n Israeliese lugaanval vernietig is.

In 'n verdere video kan 'n vuurpyl deur die lug in Holon hoor sweef - en na 'n deurdringende sekonde van stilte het 'n ontploffing aan die einde van die straat uitgebars en 'n gebou blyk te tref.

Inwoners wat buite 'n restaurant gestaan ​​het, het paniekerig geraak en weggehardloop terwyl een man ontsteld lyk terwyl hy geskok sy hande na sy kop lig.

Daar kan gesien word hoe vuur die naghemel verlig terwyl geskokte omstanders na die vuur begin hardloop terwyl ander begin skree terwyl hulle na die verwoesting kyk.

In 'n verdere video kan 'n vuurpyl deur die lug in Holon hoor sweef - en na 'n deurdringende sekonde van stilte het 'n ontploffing aan die einde van die straat (links) uitgebars en dit lyk asof dit 'n gebou tref. Daar kan gesien word hoe vuur die naghemel verlig terwyl geskokte omstanders na die vuur begin hardloop (regs) terwyl ander begin skree terwyl hulle na die verwoesting kyk

In 'n ander video kan 'n nadraai van 'n Hamas -vuurpyl wat in Holon afgevuur is, gesien word met voertuie aan die brand terwyl swart rook die lug vul.

Terwyl die kamera oor die toneel van verwoesting strek, lyk die hele straat vol brandende voertuie.

Vreeslike inwoners in Tel Aviv het gisteraand in hul huise of onder skuilings weggekruip toe hulle gebombardeer is met tientalle vuurpyle wat deur militante van Hamas afgevuur is.

Video wys hoe mense op die trap van hul woonstelgebou moet staan ​​omdat hulle nie 'n trap het nie.

Daar kan sirenes gehoor word, want elke paar sekondes kan 'n groot knal gehoor word, wat dui op die oomblik dat 'n vuurpyl deur die Iron Dome -verdedigingstelsel neergeskiet word.

Vuurpyle is Maandag die eerste keer afgevuur toe Hamas 'n dreigement uitgevoer het om Israel aan te val, tensy dit veiligheidsmagte uit die Al-Aqsa-moskee in Jerusalem onttrek het na dae van botsings met Palestynse betogers daar.

Sedertdien sê Hamas dat hy meer as 1 000 vuurpyle op Israel afgevuur het terwyl die bombardement vandag voortduur - terwyl Israel tientalle raketaanvalle op sy eie uitgevoer het.

Minstens 48 Palestyne, waaronder 14 kinders en drie vroue, is volgens die ministerie van gesondheid met honderde gewondes dood in die stakings tot dusver.

Ses Israeli's, waaronder drie vroue en 'n kind, is dood met vuurpyle met nog tientalle seer.

Ook oornag het oproer binne Israel self ontstaan ​​as Israeliese Arabiere, veral in die stad Lod.

Swaar botsings het tussen die polisie en Arabiere ontstaan ​​ná die begrafnis van 'n Arabiese man wat die vorige aand vermoor is, die verdagte 'n Joodse gewapende man.

Israeliese media het berig dat die skare met die polisie baklei en 'n sinagoge en ongeveer 30 voertuie aan die brand gesteek het.

Israeliese mans dra Torah -rolle uit 'n sinagoge in die stad Lod wat gisteraand te midde van oproer aan die brand gesteek is. Netanyahu het die sentrale stad Woensdag persoonlik besoek om 'n noodtoestand af te kondig

Toe, in die vroeë oggendure van Woensdag, het 'n vuurpyl wat uit Gaza afgevuur is, in Lod geland en 'n Israeliese Arabiese man en sy dogter doodgemaak-plaaslik geïdentifiseer as die 16-jarige Nadin Awad.

Haar neef, Ahmad Ismail, het aan die openbare uitsaaier Kan gesê dat hy naby Nadin was toe sy saam met haar pa Khalil Awad (52) vermoor is.

'Ek was tuis, ons het die geraas van die vuurpyl gehoor. Dit het so vinnig gebeur. Selfs al wou ons êrens heen hardloop, het ons nie 'n kluis nie, 'het Ismail aan Kan gesê.

As gevolg van die gevegte is Woensdag gesien hoe twee mans Torah-boekrolle uit die verbrande sinagoge deur die swartgemaakte en puin besaai tuin maak.

In verdere videomateriaal van Woensdag af kan vuurpyle gesien word wat deur Gaza uit Gaza gelanseer is, oor die stad Ashkelon in die suide vlieg.

Swart rook woel nadat 'n reeks Israeliese lugaanvalle vroeg Woensdag op Khan Yunis in die suidelike Gazastrook geteiken het. Volgens militêre kenners dui die rookplooie aan wat toeneem dat die Israeli's bunkerbusterbomme ontplooi en op ondergrondse infrastruktuur fokus

Israeli artillery fires shells at the Gaza border on Wednesday after the defence chief vowed to bring 'total, long-term quiet' to the Gaza Strip

A fire rages at an oil refinery in the southern town of Ashkelon which has been heavily targeted by hundreds of Hamas rockets fired since Monday

In retaliation for the hundreds of of missiles fired at its cities, Israel launched massive bombardments.

Hamas confirmed that several of its top commanders were killed in air strikes on the Gaza Strop today.

Israel has vowed to bring 'total, long-term quiet' to the region despite growing international alarm at the numbers of civilian casualties being sustained in its barrages on densely populated areas.

Hamas said the commander of its Gaza City Brigade, Bassem Issa, was among those 'martyred' in the strikes.

Hamas militants and their allies have fired more than 1,000 missiles at Israel, though many have been shot down by the Iron Dome defence system, while others have landed inside Gaza. The Israeli towns of Ashdod, Ashkelon and Yehud have been struck, as well as the most populous city, Tel Aviv. In the Gaza Strip, the Israeli Air Force has targeted suspected Hamas strongholds in Gaza City as well as the southern settlements Rafah and Khan Yunis

Shin Bet, Israel's internal security agency, named another three slain Hamas officers: Jamaa Tahla, responsible for the improved accuracy of the group's rockets Jamal Zabeda, chief of 'special projects' in the munitions department and Hazzem Hatib, head engineer in the munitions wing.

'The army will continue to attack to bring a total, long-term quiet. Only when we reach that goal will we be able to speak about a truce,' Defence Minister Benny Gantz said today from the southern town of Ashkelon where two Israeli women were killed by Hamas rockets on Tuesday.

The United Nations has warned the two sides they risk a 'full-scale war' if there is not an urgent ceasefire.

'Stop the fire immediately. We're escalating towards a full-scale war. Leaders on all sides have to take the responsibility of de-escalation,' Tor Wennesland UN Special Envoy to the Middle East tweeted.

Just after daybreak, the Israeli Air Force unleashed dozens of strikes within the course of a few minutes with what appeared to be bunker buster bombs targeting underground Hamas infrastructure.


Haifa U: Flourishing Canaanite Palatial Site Suddenly Abandoned 3,700 Years Ago – Now We Know Why

A team of Israeli and American researchers funded by the National Geographic Society and the Israel Science Foundation have uncovered new evidence that an earthquake may have caused the destruction and abandonment of a flourishing Canaanite palatial site about 3,700 years ago.

The group made the discovery at the 75-acre site of Tel Kabri in Israel, which contains the ruins of a Canaanite palace and city that dates back to approximately 1900-1700 B.C. The excavations, located on land belonging to Kibbutz Kabri in the western Galilee, are co-directed by Dr. Assaf Yasur-Landau, a professor of Mediterranean archaeology at the University of Haifa, and Dr. Eric H. Cline, a professor of classics and anthropology at the George Washington University.

Overhead of Orthostat Bldg with trench through it at right. / Haifa University Spokesperson’s Office

“We wondered for several years what had caused the sudden destruction and abandonment of the palace and the site, after centuries of flourishing occupation,” Yasur-Landau said. “A few seasons ago, we began to uncover a trench which runs through part of the palace, but initial indications suggested that it was modern, perhaps dug within the past few decades or a century or two at most. But then, in 2019, we opened up a new area and found that the trench continued for at least thirty meters, with an entire section of a wall that had fallen into it in antiquity, and with other walls and floors tipping into it on either side.”

According to Dr. Michael Lazar, lead author on the study, recognizing past earthquakes can be extremely challenging in the archaeological record, especially at sites where there isn’t much stone masonry and degradable construction materials like sun-dried mudbricks and wattle-and-daub were used instead. At Kabri, however, the team found both stone foundations for the bottom part of the walls and mudbrick superstructures above.

“Our studies show the importance of combining macro- and micro-archaeological methods for the identification of ancient earthquakes,” he said. “We also needed to evaluate alternative scenarios, including climatic, environmental, and economic collapse, as well as warfare, before we were confident in proposing a seismic event scenario.”

The researchers could see areas where the plaster floors appeared warped, walls had tilted or been displaced, and mudbricks from the walls and ceilings had collapsed into the rooms, in some cases rapidly burying dozens of large jars.

“It really looks like the earth simply opened up and everything on either side of it fell in,” Cline said. “It’s unlikely that the destruction was caused by violent human activity because there are no visible signs of fire, no weapons such as arrows that would indicate a battle, nor any unburied bodies related to combat. We could also see some unexpected things in other rooms of the palace, including in and around the wine cellar that we excavated a few years ago.”

Wine cellar room emptied with wave visible in far wall. / Haifa University Spokesperson’s Office

In 2013, the team discovered forty jars within a single storage room of the palace during an expedition also sponsored by the National Geographic Society. An organic residue analysis conducted on the jars indicated that they had held wine it was described at the time as the oldest and largest wine cellar yet discovered in the Near East. Since then, the team has found four more such storage rooms and at least seventy more jars, all buried in the collapse of the building.

“The floor deposits imply a rapid collapse rather than a slow accumulation of degraded mudbricks from standing walls or ceilings of an abandoned structure,” Ruth Shahack-Gross,a professor of geoarchaeology at the University of Haifa and a co-author on the paper said. “The rapid collapse, and the quick burial, combined with the geological setting of Tel Kabri, raises the possibility that one or more earthquakes could have destroyed the walls and the roof of the palace without setting it on fire.”

Wall fallen into trench at the palace’s site. / Haifa University Spokesperson’s Office

The investigators are hopeful that their methodological approach can be applied at other archaeological sites, where it can serve to test and/or strengthen cases of possible earthquake damage and destruction.

Roey Nickelsberg, a graduate student at the University of Haifa, was also a member of the research team.

The National Geographic Society, the Israel Science Foundation, GWU, the University of Haifa, and private donations provided funding for the research.


Inhoud

Egyptian rule Edit

The Egyptian troops of Ibrahim Pasha captured the city of Jaffa and its environs following a battle with the forces of the Ottoman Empire in 1832. Though Egyptian rule over this area continued only until 1840, Egyptian Muslims settled in and around Jaffa, founding the village of Sakhanat Abu Kabir, saam met Sakhanat al-Muzariyya, onder andere. [1] [2] An eastern suburb of Jaffa, many of the Egyptians who populated it came from the village of Tall al Kabir (or Tel Abu Kabir), and named it for their hometown. [1] [3]

Ottoman period Edit

An Ottoman village list of about 1870 described Saknet Abu Kebir as a "Beduin camp", with 136 houses and a population of 440, though the population count included men only. [4] [5]

In The Survey of Western Palestine (1881), its name is recorded as Sâknet Abu Kebîr and it is translated as, "The settlement of Abu Kebir p.n. (great father)." [6] Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, the French archaeologist, visited in 1873-1874, searching for the site of the ancient Jewish cemetery of Joppa (Jaffa). He describes "Saknet Abu K'bir" as a hamlet, and relates walking through the "extensive gardens that close in Jaffa on every side" to reach it. [7] He notes that during the heavy winter rains, the gardens between Jaffa and Saknet Abu Kabir became a small marshy lake that was known as al-Bassa by the locals. Noting that this name is commonly used throughout Syria for seasonal ponds of this nature and recalling that the bissah of the Hebrew Bible also means pond, he suggests that the similarity in the Arabic and Hebrew indicates a borrowing from even earlier linguistic traditions. [8]

Under an entry entitled The Jewish necropolis of Joppa, Clermont-Ganneau relates that after inquiring with the local fellahin (peasants) in Abu Kabir, he was led "a few yards further on" from the hamlet, "in the middle of some poorly tilled gardens," where building stone was quarried by the villagers. Laid bare by their activities were, "sepulchral chambers hollowed out in the calcareous tufa." He notes that similar graves were said to found in the lands between Abu Kabir to as far as Mikveh Israel and the Catholic cemetery. Other fellahin told him of finds between Saknet Abu Kabir and Saknet al-'Abid, and still others told of artifacts that they had retrieved from them. One artifact was brought to him which he purchased: a small marble titulus with a four-line Greek inscription and a seven-branched candlestick (or menorah). Clermont-Ganneau identified this as Helleno-Jewish funeral epigraphy, ascribing it to Hezekiah, and writes that it, "settled once and for all the nature of the burial ground I had just discovered." [7] In a letter published by the Palestine Exploration Fund, he expressed his hope to return noting, "We must at least find two or three more inscriptions of the same kind coming from the same neighbourhood." [9] Locating the tombs within a circle called, "Ardh (or Jebel) Dhabitha," he notes the area extends over, "the great gardens outside Jaffa, bounded by a little hamlet called Abou K'bir* (Abu Kebir), and by the well of Aboa Nabbout (Abu Nabbut)." [9]

The Jewish necropolis was looted mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Dating the site is a challenge due to the lack of objects found in situ, but estimates are that the tombs were used between the 3rd and 5th centuries AD. Most of the necropolis is now in the area of the Russian Orthodox Saint Peter's Church compound. [10]

According to Mark LeVine, the Biluim pioneers set up a commune among the orange and lemon groves of the Abu Kabir neighborhood between 1882 and 1884. [11] The house used by the commune members is now located in the Neve Ofer neighborhood of Tel Aviv.

British Mandate period Edit

During the 1921 Jaffa Riots, the violence reached Abu Kabir. The Jewish Yitzker family owned a dairy farm on the outskirts of the neighborhood, in which they rented out rooms. At the time of the riots, Yosef Haim Brenner, one of the pioneers of modern Hebrew literature was living at the site. On May 2, 1921, despite warnings Yitzker and Brenner refused to leave the farm and were murdered, along with Yitzker's teenaged son, his son-in-law and two other renters. [12]

As Jaffa expanded during the 1920s and 1930s, Abu Kabir was incorporated within the municipal boundaries of Jaffa but retained much of its agricultural character. [13] It consisted of a main built-up part bordering the Jewish sector of Jaffa from the south, and several small concentrations of houses within the surrounding citrus groves. [13]

In the wake of violence on the border between Jaffa and Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv's leaders suggested annexing the Jewish neighborhoods of Jaffa to Tel Aviv. They proposed that the whole of Manshiyya, including Hassan Bey Mosque, as well as large parts of the Abu Kabir neighborhood, be transferred to the borders of the new Jewish city and state." [14]

On August 23, 1944, the British Criminal Investigation Department (CID) barracks at Jaffa, and police stations at Abu Kabir and Neve Shaanan were raided for arms by the Irgun. [15]

1947–1948 war Edit

In 1947, Abu Kabir was situated at the entrance to Tel Aviv on the main road to Jerusalem. [16] [17] On 30 November 1947, the day after the UN voted on the Partition Plan, an Arab mob in Abu Kabir attacked a car with Jewish passengers, killing all three. Jewish retaliatory strikes followed. On 2 December the Haganah's Kiryati Brigade blew up an Arab house in Abu Kabir, and the IZL torched several buildings four days later, killing at least two persons. [18]

During Operation Lamed Hey (Hebrew for "35"), named for the 35 casualties of an attack on the Convoy of 35, Abu Kabir was raided to "cleanse it of the forces acting there." [19] On the night of 12–13 February 1948, the Haganah struck simultaneously at Abu Kabir, Jibalia, Tel a-Rish and the village of Yazur. At Abu Kabir, 13 Arabs were killed, including the Mukhtar, and 22 injured.

According to the Palestine Post, on 16 February 1948 the Haganah repulsed an Arab attack on Tel Aviv from Abu Kabir. [20]

A second major attack on Abu Kabir was launched on 13 March, the objective of which was, "the destruction of the Abu Kabir neighborhood". By this time the neighborhood was mostly abandoned by its inhabitants and was guarded by a few dozen militiamen. Sappers blew up a number of houses and this was the first attack in which Yishuv-produced Davidka mortars were used to shell the neighborhood. Inaccurate and very loud, the mortars had a demoralizing effect claimed to have reached "as far as Gaza". [18]

A month after Abu Kabir was conquered, David Ben-Gurion told the Israeli Provisional Government that Jaffa's Arab population should not be allowed to return: "If there will be [an] Abu Kebir again - this would be impossible. The world needs to understand we are 700,000 against 27 million, one against forty . It won't be acceptable to us for Abu Kebir to be Arab again." [17]

Walid Khalidi writes that the Haganah completed the demolition of Abu Kabir by March 31. [21] On April 19, 1948, The Palestine Post reported that "In the Abu Kebir area, the Haganah dispersed Arabs who tried to erect an emplacement facing the Aka factory in Givat Herzl. Two Arabs were shot as they approached the Maccabi Quarter." [22]

State of Israel Edit

After 1948, Abu Kabir was renamed Giv'at Herzl, [1] although the Arabic name, Abu Kabir, is still used by the now largely Hebrew-speaking population. [23] [24] The Tel Aviv Municipality offered Prof. Heinrich Mendelssohn, Director of the Biological-Pedagogical Institute, the option of moving the Institute to Abu Kabir, and it was moved into a structure originally planned as a hospital. [25] Haim Levanon, Deputy Mayor of Tel Aviv in the early 1950s and mayor from 1953–59 energetically campaigned for the founding of a university in Tel Aviv. The idea was realized on August 16, 1953, when the Municipal Council of Tel Aviv-Yafo decided to transform the Biological-Pedagogical Institute into the Academic Institute of Natural Sciences, under the leadership of Prof. Mendelssohn, which would "form the core of a future university." The Abu Kabir campus in southern Tel Aviv had 24 students in its first year.

In 1954, the Academic Institute of Jewish Studies was established in Abu Kabir. A university library was also founded, new study tracks were opened, a teaching staff was formed, laboratories and classrooms were built, and an administration established for the campus. [26] [27] The L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine, locally known as the Abu Kabir Forensic Institute, was established that year.

In 1956, the Academic Institutes were officially upgraded into the new "University of Tel Aviv". The Zoological Gardens became part of the University. The Zoological and Botanical Gardens were moved to the Ramat Aviv campus in 1981. The Nature Gardens still host the original facilities. The gardens at Abu Kabir are recommended in an Israeli guide to Tel Aviv as a destination for nature lovers. [28] In the tour book Israel en die Palestynse gebiede (1998), "the former village of Abu Kabir" is described as being located in a green space to the east of Jaffa. [29]

Salvage excavations were undertaken by Israeli archaeologists in the burial complex at "Saknat Abu Kabir" in 1991. [30]

The Tel Aviv Detention Center, known as the Abu Kabir Prison is also in the area. [31] [32]

Israeli media reported in January 2011 that the part or all of the area in south Tel Aviv known as Abu Kabir, the hill or neighborhood, was given a new name, Tabitha, by the Tel Aviv municipality's naming committee. [33] [34]

In Ephraim Kishon's satirical short story, "The Economics of Babysitting" (1989), the main character, a male babysitter, speaks of the beauty of strolling through Tel Aviv at night, and one of the places he mentions as being especially beautiful, is the "Abu Kabir Plain." [35]


Inhoud

According to local legend, the village was named for a local religious figure, al-Shaykh Muwannis, whose maqam was in the village. [7]

Ottoman era Edit

During the Ottoman era, Pierre Jacotin named the village Dahr on his map from 1799. [8]

Al-Shaykh Muwannis was noted in December 1821, as being "located on a hill surrounded by muddy land that was flooded with water despite the moderate winter". [9] In 1856 the village was named Sheikh Muennis on the map of Southern Palestine that Heinrich Kiepert published that year. [10]

In 1870, Victor Guérin noted about al-Shaykh Muwannis: "It contains four hundred inhabitants and is divided into several quarters, each under the jurisdiction of a particular sheikh. On the outskirts one can note some gardens where succulent watermelons grow, with hardly any horticultural care." [11] In 1882, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) noted "ruins of a house near the kubbeh", [12] while Al-Shaykh Muwannis was described as an ordinary adobe village. [13] Most of the villagers were members of the Abu Kishk tribe. [14]

The village population was 315 in 1879. [15]

British Mandate era Edit

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Shaik Muannes had a population of 664 residents, all Muslims. [16] This had increased in the 1931 census when Esh Sheikh Muwannis had 1154 inhabitants, still all Muslims, in 273 houses. [17]

In the 1920s, the government of the British mandate attempted to gain title to lands lying to the west of Al-Shaykh Muwannis and extending to the coast of the Mediterranean Sea on the grounds that it was "waste and uncultivated." [18] According to the authors of a book on the Israeli-Arab conflict, the Arabs of the Jaffa-Tel Aviv region "understood the implications of the Zionist-cum-British discourses of development generally and their implementation through town planning schemes." [19] In 1937, the Arabic daily al Ja'miah al-Islamiyya commented on British plans to build a bypass road for Tel Aviv residents on what they claimed were village lands: [20] "[I]n reality the plan in the Town Planning Commission now including Sheikh Muwannis is not really a 'plan', but rather a plan to take the land out of the hands of its owners." [19]

There were two schools in the village, a boys' school built in 1932 and a girls' school built in 1943. 266 students were registered in these schools in 1945. [7] The villagers worked in agriculture, particularly citrus cultivation. In the 1945 statistics, 3,749 dunums were used for growing citrus and bananas, and 7,165 dunums of village land was used for cereals. 66 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, irrigation water was drawn from al-Awja river and a large number of artesian wells. [7] [21] 41 dunams of village lands were classified as built-up areas. [22]

In 1946, three Arab villagers raped a Jewish girl. In the midst of the court proceedings, members of the Haganah shot and wounded one of the attackers, and kidnapped and castrated another. [14] In 1947, in the wake of growing hostility in the days leading up to the war, some of the villagers began to leave. Most stayed, as village notables had secured Haganah protection in exchange for keeping the peace and preventing Arab Liberation Army (ALA) irregulars from the using the village to attack Yishuv forces. [14]

Before the 1948 war, the population of al-Shaykh Muwannis was 2,000. [7]

In 1948, the population was largely made up of fellaheen who enjoyed friendly relations with Jews, despite occasional tension. [14] While occasional shots were fired from the village toward Jewish residential areas in January and February 1948, there were no casualties, and the Abu Kishk abided by their promise to keep out ALA irregulars. The emissary of the ALA was informed by the Abu Kishk that "the Arabs of the area will cooperate with the Jews against any outside force that tries to enter." [14]

Some intelligence reports, which were never corroborated, suggested that in early 1948 the village, which overlooked both the Sde Dov Airport and the Reading Power Station, was being infiltrated by heavily-armed Arab irregulars. [23] On 7 March, the Haganah's Alexandroni Brigade imposed a 'quarantine' on the village by closing off all access roads to it and two smaller satellite villages of Jalil al Shamaliyya and Jalil al Qibliya and may even have occupied houses on the edge of village. [14] The underground Stern Gang (LHI) maintained one of its encampments in the village, [24] and, five days later, on 12 March, militants from either the Irgun or Lehi groups kidnapped five village notables. [23] [25] The Jewish Intelligence Services noted that

"many of the villagers . began fleeing following the abduction of the notables of Sheikh Muwannis. The Arab learned that it was not enough to reach an agreement with the Haganah and that there were 'other Jews' of whom to beware, and possibly to be aware of more than the Haganah, which had not control over them." [25]

The villagers then protested that Jewish forces in the area were subjecting them to intimidation, looting and shooting at them randomly. [23] Though the notables were turned over to the Haganah on the 23 March and returned to Shaykh Muwannis, most of the villagers there and in other villages north of the Yarkon River continued to leave, as their confidence had been "mortally undermined". [14] Tawfiq Abu Kishk threw a large parting 'banquet' for the remaining villagers and their Jewish friends on the 28 March 1948. [14] After their departure, the village lands were promptly allocated for Jewish use by the Yishuv leaders, [14] and were ultimately incorporated into the municipality of Tel Aviv. [18]

In the days following, the Abu Kishk leaders attributed their abandonment of the village to: "a) the [Haganah] roadblocks . b) the [Haganah] limitations on movement by foot, c) the theft [by Jews?] of vehicles, and d) the last kidnapping of Sheikh Muwannis men by the LHI." The villagers of Shaykh Muwannis became refugees, with the majority taking up residence in Qalqilya and Tulkarem. [14]

According to the Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, the village's remaining structures in 1992 consisted of several houses occupied by Jewish families and the wall of a house. [7] Soon after the war, it was used to accommodate members of the new Israeli Air Force and men from Mahal units. It was initially repopulated, from 1949 onwards, by Jews from North Africa, called "Moroccans" by other Jews in the area, and much of its land, as the North African Jews were relocated, was taken over for the development of Tel Aviv University, [26] and the former home of the village sheikh, known as the 'Green House', serves as the University's faculty club. [5] [27]

In a right of return march organized by the Israeli group Zochrot on Nakba Day in 2004, participants called upon the Tel Aviv municipality to name six streets in the city after Palestinian villages that had existed there until 1948, among them, Al-Shaykh Muwannis. [28]


Beagle

“When Gregor van der Berg and his team tapped into a natural gas reserve on Mars in 2057, the world collectively scrambled to find the source of this unexpected find. Over the next two decades, the International Martian Research Station was established and manned in the Hypanis Vallis region. It wasn’t long before IMRS unearthed fossilized microbial life. The discovery of extinct extraterrestrials precipitated a renewed interest in the search for life outside the Solar System.

“Six space agencies and two private companies cooperated to send out high-velocity interstellar probes to twelve nearby terrestrial planets, each one a promising candidate for life. Three of the Beagle probes, as they were called, went silent before reaching their destinations. Each of the remaining nine zoomed past their assigned planets, furiously gathering data all the while. As the 21 st century came to a close, the first messages from the Barnard system reached Earth.

“The discoveries were astounding! The first satellite images from Barnard’s fourth planet revealed oceans and continents, dusted red-violet with flourishing plant life. The atmosphere was toxic to humans but rich in gasses common to Earth. The planet’s natural features, along with its tidally locked state, engendered an array of familiar biomes: tundra, rainforest, desert, and prairie among them, along with a few that didn’t fit the profile of any know biomes. Strong currents in the air and the seas moderated the climate and, most importantly, prevented the atmosphere from freezing on the dark side. The planet was given the proper name Ilion after the ancient city of Troy. In keeping with the ancient civilization theme, the other planets became Avaris, Tel Kabri, Ur, Vaishali, Heracleion Yingchang, Pompeii, and Cahokia.”

– Excerpt from The Other Red Planet: A history of the Odyssey program by Raya Andiyar-Mistry, Sergei Dotsenko,, and Johan R. Boscaro

Planeet
Probe
Size (Earth radii)
Mass (Earth masses)
Surface gravity (g)

Tel Kabri
Beagle 1
0.5 r(E)
0.2 m(E)
0.8 g
Beagle 1 vanished shortly before the flyby but managed to capture several blurry photos of Tel Kabri and collect some preliminary data. Tel Kabri is tantalizingly Earthlike though much smaller, and many theorize that the probe was shot down.

Ur
Beagle 8
0.6 r(E)
0.3 m(E)
1.6 g
Little was known about Ur at the time the probes were disseminated. As exoplanet detection technologies improved, it became clear that Ur had experienced a runaway greenhouse effect and was uninhabitable. Oblivious, Beagle 8 soldiered on.

Cahokia
Beagle 3
0.8 r(E)
0.9 m(E)
1.4 g
Beagle 3 reached its target only to find that Cahokia was little more than a rock. The team’s astrobiologists were disappointed. The astrogeologists were not. The probes were programmed to position themselves between the planet and its star, but Beagle 3 suffered an anomaly that forced it to veer off course.

Avaris
Beagle 11
1.0 r(E)
0.9 m(E)
0.9 g
Probes 11 and 12 journeyed together to Barnard’s Star, where two promising planets had been detected. Beagle 11 split off from its sister and changed course to fly past Avaris, which turned out to be a dud.

Vaishali
Beagle 6
1.0 r(E)
1.1 m(E)
1.1 g
Avaris was not the only Earth-sized planet to fail to pan out. Vaishali, like Ilion, is tidally locked and rimmed with ice. The ice, however, is not made of water but frozen gasses, and the planet is much too cold to support life.

Aarde
For comparison

Ilion
Beagle 12
1.3 r(E)
2.0 m(E)
1.2 g
As one of the last to reach its destination, Beagle 12 was under a good deal of pressure to find life. And find life, it did. The probes were outfitted with instruments sensitive to biosignatures, but Beagle 12 didn’t need these. Ilion’s biosphere was out in the open, visible to the naked eye from Beagle 12’s (very short-lived) vantage point.

Pompeii
Beagle 4
1.4 r(E)
2.7 m(E)
1.4 g
Beagle 4 was the only probe to successfully sample its planet’s atmosphere. Pompeii’s air is thick with volcanic gasses and the world was deemed habitable to extremophilic life, though no biological activity was confirmed.

Yingchang
Beagle 10
1.6 r(E)
4.0 m(E)
1.6 g
The super-Earth Yingchang was a long shot, but since so little was known about it, it was voted to be included in the program. Yingchang turned out to be a rocky planet with a tenuous atmosphere, not the water world many expected.

Heracleion
Beagle 5
2.2 r(E)
8.9 m(E)
1.8 g
Heracleion was the water world everyone expected. Its mass and radius were measured from Earth, and from that information planetary scientists deduced that it must have an ocean – and a deep one at that. Beagle 5 gathered copious amounts of data but found no biosignatures.
__________________________________________________________________

The planets I made in Photoshop using various techniques, mostly spherizing textures and playing around with layer styles and gradients. The textures are sourced from NASA and my own photos of physical objects, including some of my dioramas. Some elements are hand painted, including, I believe, the entirety of Yingchang. I made that one a long time ago so I'm not a hundred percent sure.


Deel:

Archaeologists have unearthed in northern Israel what might be the world's oldest -- and largest -- wine cellar.

Researchers estimate the cellar is more than 3,000 years old, dating back to about 1,700 B.C. It was found inside an ancient ruined palace in the western Galilee region of Israel, in an area now used for growing banana and avocado trees.

Inside the ancient cellar, archaeologists found 40 large jars, each of which would have held 50 litres of strong, sweet wine. The 40 jars would have had a capacity of roughly 2,000 litres, meaning the cellar could have held the equivalent of nearly 3,000 bottles of wine.

Sadly, all the wine was long since gone, but many of the jars were almost perfectly intact.

"This is a hugely significant discovery -- it's a wine cellar that, to our knowledge, is largely unmatched in age and size," says Eric Cline, the chair of the Department of Classical and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at George Washington University.

Researchers working on the site in the ancient city of Tel Kabri say the palace was used for an extended time during the Middle Bronze Age and then abandoned for reasons that are still unknown and never re-occupied.

The team used carbon dating to determine the age of the jars that were found, a technique that finds the approximate age of artifacts by measuring the amount of carbon that has decayed.

Andrew Koh, assistant professor of classical studies at Brandeis University, analyzed the jar fragments using organic residue analysis and found traces of tartaric and syringic acid, both key components in wine. He also found compounds suggesting other ingredients that were popular in ancient wine-making were used, including honey, mint, cinnamon bark, juniper berries and resins.

The recipe is similar to medicinal wines used in ancient Egypt for 2,000 years.

Koh also analyzed the proportions of each diagnostic compound and discovered remarkable consistency between jars. He says that suggests that the winemakers followed a precise recipe and followed it to the letter.

"This wasn't moonshine that someone was brewing in their basement, eyeballing the measurements," Koh notes. "This wine's recipe was strictly followed in each and every jar."

The team's findings were presented Friday in Baltimore at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

Assaf Yasur-Landau, chair of the Department of Maritime Civilizations at the University of Haifa, says it's likely that important guests drank the wine.

"The wine cellar was located near a hall where banquets took place, a place where the Kabri elite and possibly foreign guests consumed goat meat and wine," he says.

The Tel Kabri site was first excavated in 1986, when archeologists discovered a building with a floor and wall frescoes painted in an Aegean manner.Excavation work has been ongoing at the site ever since.

As researchers excavated at the site this past summer, they uncovered a metre-long jar, later christened “Bessie.”

“We dug and dug, and all of a sudden, Bessie’s friends started appearing -- five, 10, 15, ultimately 40 jars packed in a 15-by-25-foot storage room,” Cline said in a statement.

In 2015, the dig team hopes to continue their dig work by following two doors leading out of the wine cellar, which they are likely to lead to additional storage rooms.

The excavation work is being funded by grants from National Geographic, the Israel Science Foundation (ISF), the Institute for Aegean Prehistory and several private donors.


Canaanite wine stash found in Galilee unearths ancient flavors

Ilan Ben Zion, a reporter at the Associated Press, is a former news editor at The Times of Israel. He holds a Masters degree in Diplomacy from Tel Aviv University and an Honors Bachelors degree from the University of Toronto in Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, Jewish Studies, and English.

The Canaanite kings of Tel Kabri drank plenty of wine, and for the first time archaeologists have hard evidence for it after unearthing a Bronze Age royal wine cellar at the northern Galilee site.

Kabri, a Middle Bronze Age city located a few miles east of the modern town of Nahariya, was excavated last year by a team headed by Dr. Assaf Yasur-Landau of University of Haifa, Dr. Eric H. Cline of George Washington University, and Dr. Andrew Koh of Brandeis University. During the dig, they found 40 narrow-necked, meter-tall, handleless jugs which date back over 3,600 years.

After conducting a residue analysis of the ceramics found last summer, they said in an article published Wednesday in PLOS ONE that the vessels contained wine.

“The presence of both tartaric and syringic acids in relative abundance as biomarkers indicates that all of these vessels originally held wine and that we may be confident in identifying this space as a wine storage room – that is to say, a wine cellar,” they wrote. A lack of syringic acid, a compound prevalent in red wine, in three of the jars may indicate the lords of the palace also held a stock of white, they postulate, “but it is difficult to say with certainty without further evidence.”

But the wine wasn’t a straight grape-to-barrel concoction. The analysis found that the ancients enhanced their vino with herbs and resins to help flavor and preserve it. Chemical traces suggest that the jar’s contents had herbal additives including “honey, storax resin, terebinth resin, cyperus, cedar oil, juniper, and perhaps even mint, myrtle, or cinnamon.”

At roughly 2,000 liters of wine, the researchers noted, the quantity found in the cellar suggests the stash was “directly related to consumption within the palace,” rather than for mass distribution.

“We may have here the private reserve of the ruler and his household. ”

Discovering an ancient palace’s storeroom filled with ancient wine jars was a “most unusual find,” Yasur-Landau told The Times of Israel.

“You do not usually find palaces, not to mention palaces that are as early as that, [with] rooms that are filled with very, very large ceramic storage jars,” Yasur-Landau, chair of the department of maritime civilization at the University of Haifa, said.

He said that there are at least two more storerooms adjoined to the one already excavated that remain to be unearthed in the 2015 season. They, too, might contain vessels for wine, or perhaps other commodities such as olive oil or wheat.

“On the other edge of the room there’s a massive entrance with double-doorways, which is likely leading to something important,” he said. Adjacent to the storeroom the excavators also found the remains of an elegantly decorated “banquet hall” with bright white plaster on the floor in which large quantities of meat — sheep and goats, and wild cattle (aurochs) — was consumed and other wine jars were found.

“It is very likely that in every celebration… wine was consumed and wine was also offered to the gods,” not dissimilar to ancient and modern Jewish ritual, he said.

The region of the western Galilee where Tel Kabri is situated was noted in antiquity for its wine production, as it remains today. Kibbutz Gesher Ziv, just west of the site, and Abirim, to its east, both possess vineyards and boutique wineries. Cultivars of the ancient grapes used to produce the Canaanite wine may still exist in the wild in northern Israel, meaning the ancient concoction could be recreated.

Professor Patrick McGovern of the University of Pennsylvania has teamed up with Dogfish Head Brewery to recreate ancient beers and ales. Yasur-Landau said he seeks to accomplish a similar undertaking and resurrect the Canaanite wine with appropriate scientific diligence.

“We are looking for the right winery to do it, but this will have to be a very serious archaeological experiment,” he said. “The aim is actually double, to re-enjoy the taste of the old wine, but second is to make an accurate reconstruction of the ancient taste.”

For wine aficionados hoping to try the blend should it be recreated, be warned: “The Canaanites were drinking wines that were very different from our wines,” he said. They would deteriorate with age, so they added flavors and natural preservatives to enhance them, lending them tastes unfamiliar to those with modern palates.

Nonetheless, when Canaanite lords threw a banquet in their palace and slaughtered a large animal in celebration, “I have no doubt that the people… were consuming very, very good wine.”

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