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Koningin Charlotte - Geskiedenis

Koningin Charlotte - Geskiedenis


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Koningin Charlotte

(Sip: t. 400; 1. 116 '; b.26'; dph. 11 '; cpl. 126; a. 14 24-pdr. Motor.,
2 lang 9 stuks.)

Koningin Charlotte, 'n sloep met 'n skip wat in 1807 by Malden (nou Arnherstberg), Kanada, gebou is vir die Kanadese Provinoial Marine, is gevang deur Commodore Perry in die Slag van Lake Erie 10 September 1813 en deur die Amerikaanse vloot aangekoop. Koningin Charlotte is tydens die verlowing sleg opgeknap en na Put-in-Bay geneem en tot 1825 verkoop aan George Brown van Erie, Pa, wat haar grootgemaak en as handelsskip ingerig het.


Was hierdie Brittanje se eerste swart koningin?

Q ueen Charlotte is byna twee eeue gelede oorlede, maar word steeds gevier in haar Amerikaanse stad. As u van die lughawe in Noord -Carolina af ry, kan u die monumentale bronsbeeld van die vrou wat na bewering die eerste swart koningin van Brittanje was, nie misloop nie, dramaties agteroor gebuig asof dit deur 'n straalmotor geblaas word. In die middestad is daar nog 'n prominente beeld van koningin Charlotte, waarin sy met twee honde loop asof sy 'n wandeling in Amerika van die 21ste eeu wil maak.

Straat na straat is na haar vernoem, en Charlotte self geniet die bynaam die koninginstad - alhoewel die Amerikaanse onafhanklikheidsoorlog kort nadat die stad ter ere van haar vernoem is, uitgebreek het, wat haar die koningin van die vyand gemaak het. En die kunsgalery van die stad, die Muntmuseum, het 'n weelderige portret van 1762 van Charlotte deur die Skotse portretskilder Allan Ramsay, wat die koningin van Engeland in koninklike klere van 17 jaar wys, die jaar nadat sy met George III getroud is.

Charlotte is geïntrigeerd deur sy naamgenoot. Sommige Charlotteans vind haar selfs liefdevol. 'Ons dink dat u koningin op baie vlakke met ons praat', sê Cheryl Palmer, direkteur van onderwys by die Mint -museum. "As 'n vrou, 'n immigrant, 'n persoon wat moontlik voorvaders in Afrika gehad het, 'n plantkundige, 'n koningin wat slawerny gekant het - praat sy met Amerikaners, veral in 'n stad in die suide, soos Charlotte wat probeer om homself te herdefinieer."

Tog het Charlotte (1744-1818) baie minder resonansie in die land waar sy eintlik koningin was. As sy enigsins hier bekend is, kom dit uit haar uitbeelding in die toneelstuk van Alan Bennett as die vrou van die "mal" koning George III. Ons het vergeet of miskien nooit geweet dat sy Kew Gardens gestig het, dat sy 15 kinders gebaar het nie (waarvan 13 tot volwassenheid oorleef het) en dat sy 'n beskermheer van die kunste was wat Mozart moontlik in opdrag gehad het.

Hier is Charlotte 'n vrou wat nie so baie geïnteresseerd was as wat sy gereeld verdoem is nie. In die opening van Charles Dickens se A Tale of Two Cities word sy in die tweede paragraaf afgemaak: "Daar was 'n koning met 'n groot kakebeen en 'n koningin met 'n effense gesig op die troon van Engeland." Historikus John H Plumb beskryf haar as 'eenvoudig en ongewens'. Selfs haar dokter, baron Christian Friedrich Stockmar, het na bewering die bejaarde koningin beskryf as 'klein en krom, met 'n ware mulatto -gesig'.

'Sy was beroemd lelik', sê Desmond Shawe-Taylor, landmeter van die foto's van die koningin. '' N Hofmeester het eenkeer laat in die lewe van Charlotte gesê: 'Die lelikheid van haar majesteit het heeltemal verdwyn.' Daar was nogal 'n miaow faktor by die hof. "

Charlotte se naam is gegee aan deurpaaie in die hele Georgiese Groot -Brittanje - veral Charlotte Square in die New Town van Edinburgh - maar haar gebrek aan resonansie en glans in die gedagtes van Londenaars word gekenmerk deur die feit dat daar 'n klein plein in Bloomsbury is wat Queen's Square genoem word. In die middel is 'n beeld van 'n koningin. Gedurende 'n groot deel van die 19de eeu was die beeld van koningin Anne afgebeeld, en die plein was gevolglik bekend as Queen Anne's Square. Eers later is besef dat die beeld in werklikheid Charlotte en die plein wat Queen Square genoem is, uitgebeeld het.

Wag, sê jy dalk. Het Brittanje 'n swart koningin gehad? Het ek iets gemis? Helen Mirren het seker Charlotte gespeel in die film The Madness of King George en sy was, laas toe ek gelyk het, wit? Tog is die teorie dat koningin Charlotte moontlik swart was, al is dit sketsmatig, nogtans 'n geldwins.

As u koningin Charlotte van Mecklenburg-Strelitz gaan google, sal u vinnig 'n historikus met die naam Mario de Valdes y Cocom teëkom. Hy voer aan dat haar kenmerke, soos gesien in koninklike portrette, opvallend Afrika was, en beweer dat dit deur talle tydgenote opgemerk is. Hy beweer dat die koningin, hoewel dit Duits was, direk afstammelinge was van 'n swart tak van die Portugese koninklike familie, verwant aan Margarita de Castro e Souza, 'n Portugese edelvrou uit die 15de eeu wat nege geslagte verwyder is, waarvan sy afkoms sy oorsprong het in die heerser van die 13de eeu Alfonso III en sy minnaar Madragana, wat volgens Valdes 'n Moor was en dus 'n swart Afrikaner.

Dit is 'n wonderlike 'wat as' van die geskiedenis. 'As sy swart was', sê die historikus Kate Williams, 'bring dit baie belangrike voorstelle oor nie net ons koninklike familie nie, maar ook dié van die grootste deel van Europa, aangesien die afstammelinge van koningin Victoria versprei is oor die meeste koninklike gesinne van Europa en As ons Charlotte as swart beskou, dan is koningin Victoria en ons hele koninklike familie, teenoor prins Harry, ook swart. 'n baie interessante konsep. "

Dit gesê, Williams en baie ander historici is baie skepties oor Valdes se teorie. Hulle voer aan dat die generasie -afstand tussen Charlotte en haar vermeende Afrika -voorouer so groot is dat die voorstel belaglik kan word. Verder sê hulle dat selfs die bewyse dat Madragana swart was, dun is.

Maar Valdes stel voor dat die manier waarop koningin Charlotte uitgebeeld word in Ramsay se portret uit 1762 - wat die Amerikaanse kunstenaar Ken Aptekar nou as vertrekpunt gebruik vir 'n nuwe kunsprojek genaamd Charlotte's Charlotte - die siening ondersteun dat sy Afrikaanse voorouers gehad het.

Valdes skryf: "Daar word van kunstenaars van daardie tydperk verwag om ongewenste kenmerke in die gesig van 'n onderwerp af te speel, te versag of selfs uit te wis. [Maar] Sir Allan Ramsay was die kunstenaar wat verantwoordelik was vir die meerderheid van die skilderye van die koningin en sy voorstellings van haar was die beslisste Afrikaner van al haar portrette. "

Valdes se voorstel is dat Ramsay 'n kampvegter teen slawerny was wat geen 'Afrika-kenmerke' sou onderdruk het nie, maar dit miskien om politieke redes sou beklemtoon het. 'Ek kan dit nie eerlik sien nie,' sê Shawe-Taylor. "Ons het 'n weergawe van dieselfde portret. Ek kyk redelik gereeld daarna en het nooit by my opgekom dat sy Afrikaanse kenmerke van enige aard het nie. Dit klink asof die afkoms daar is en dit is nie onmoontlik dat dit in haar kenmerke weerspieël word nie. , maar ek kan dit nie sien nie. ”

Is dit moontlik dat ander portretiste van koningin Charlotte haar Afrikaanse kenmerke saggies kon trap? "Dit maak baie meer sin. Dit is heel moontlik. Die ding met Ramsay is dat hy, anders as Reynolds en Gainsborough, wat baie onnauwkeurig was in hul portrette, 'n baie akkurate voorstelling van sy onderdane was, sodat as sy effens meer Afrikaans lyk sy portrette as ander, dit kan wees omdat sy beter uitgebeeld is. Hoe kan jy dit sien? Sy is dood! "

Shawe-Taylor sê dat 'n meer insiggewende bron van beelde van koningin Charlotte moontlik die vele karikature van haar in die British Museum kan wees. "Nie een van hulle wys haar as 'n Afrikaan nie, en jy sou vermoed dat hulle dit sou doen as sy duidelik van Afrika -afkoms was. Jy sou verwag dat hulle 'n velddag sou hê as sy dit was."

Trouens, Charlotte was moontlik nie ons eerste swart koningin nie: daar is 'n ander teorie wat daarop dui dat Philippa van Hainault (1314-69), die eggenote van Edward III en 'n vrou wat moontlik 'n Afrikaanse afkoms gehad het, die titel het.

Wat Valdes betref, blyk dit dat hy 'n onafhanklike historikus van die Afrika -diaspora is wat aangevoer het dat Peter Ustinov, Heather Locklear, die Medicis en die Vanderbilts 'n Afrikaanse afkoms het. Sy teorie oor Charlotte verskyn selfs op www.100greatblackbritons.com, waar sy saam met Mary Seacole, Shirley Bassey, Sir Trevor McDonald, Zadie Smith, Naomi Campbell en Baronness Scotland verskyn as een van ons groot Britte. Ondanks die feit dat Charlotte so ontvang het, het sy nog nie veel aandag gehad tydens die jaarlikse Black History -week in Brittanje nie.

Miskien moet sy meer kry. Die suggestie dat koningin Charlotte swart was, impliseer dat haar kleindogter (koningin Victoria) en haar agter-agter-agter-agterkleindogter (koningin Elizabeth II) Afrika-voorouers gehad het. Miskien word ons koningsgesin baie interessanter in plaas daarvan om net 'n saai klomp half ingeteelde wit styfies te wees. Miskien - en dit is net 'n teorie - sou die Windsors dit goed doen om hul Afrika -erfenis op te eis: dit kan 'n PR -staatsgreep wees, wat die bande van ons koningin se geliefde Gemenebest sal versterk.

Of sou ons koninklike familie bedreig word as daar gewys word dat hulle voorvaders in Afrika het? "Ek dink glad nie so nie. Daaraan sou geen skaamte geheg wees nie," sê die koningshistorikus Hugo Vickers. 'Die teorie beïndruk my nie, maar selfs as dit waar was, sou die hele ding in hierdie stadium so verdun gewees het dat dit nie minder kon saak maak vir ons koninklike familie nie. Dit sou beslis nie wys dat hulle aansienlik swart is nie. "

Wat fassinerend is aan die projek van Aptekar, is dat hy begin het met die fokusgroepbyeenkomste met mense van Charlotte om uit te vind wat die koningin en haar portret vir die burgers van die Amerikaanse stad beteken. "Ek het my leidrade ontneem uit die passievolle reaksies van individue wat ek gevra het om my te help verstaan ​​wat koningin Charlotte vir hulle verteenwoordig."

Die gevolglike reeks skilderye is 'n reeks riffs op die Ramsay -portret van Charlotte. In een daarvan wys 'n herbewerkte gedeelte van die portret die gesig van die koningin met die woorde "Black White Other". 'N Ander Aptekar -doek bevat 'n nog strakker close -up waarin die koningin se gesig bedek is met die woorde "Oh Yeah She Is".

Onder diegene wat die fokusgroepe van Aptekar bygewoon het, is die kongreslid Mel Watt, een van baie min Afro-Amerikaners in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en wat die 12de distrik van Noord-Carolina, wat Charlotte insluit, verteenwoordig. "In privaat gesprekke het Afro-Amerikaners altyd erkenning gevind aan 'n gevoel van trots in hierdie 'geheim'," sê Watt. 'Dit is wonderlik dat hierdie bespreking nou uit die kas na die openbare plekke van Charlotte kan kom, sodat ons almal dit kan erken en vier.'

Wat van die idee dat sy 'n immigrant was - 'n Duitse tiener wat aan die einde van die 18de eeu 'n nuwe lewe in Engeland moes maak?

'Ons was in daardie dae baie meer immigrantvriendelik as wat ons vriendelik was vir mense van kleur,' sê Watt. "Ons het almal besef dat ons almal van 'n ander plek af kom. Maar daar was altyd 'n gevoel van ontkenning, selfs uitstoot, oor swart wees. Om die geskiedenis bo -op die tafel te plaas, moet geleenthede bied vir uitdagende, genesende gesprekke."

Bepaal Valdes se teorie afdoende dat koningin Charlotte Afrikaanse voorouers gehad het? Amper nie. En as sy Afrikaanse voorouers het, sou dit beteken dat ons maklik kon aflei dat sy swart was? Dit hang seker af van hoe ons definieer wat swart is. In die VSA was daar vir baie dekades 'n baie belaglike 'een-druppel-reël', waardeur geen blanke persoon met 'n persentasie 'swart bloed' as werklik wit beskou word nie. Alhoewel dit net 'n historiese nuuskierigheid is, is dit onlangs op omstrede wyse deur die Afro-Amerikaanse advokaat Alton Maddox Jr., wat aangevoer het dat Barack Obama nie die eerste swart president sou wees nie.

In 'n era van beroemdhede met gemengde rasse, soos Tiger Woods en Mariah Carey, en in 'n tyd waarin gemengde wedrenne in die VSA, die Verenigde Koninkryk en ander rasse met verskillende rasse gemeng is, lyk hierdie reël absurd. Maar hoe bepaal ons Charlotte se etnisiteit sonder so 'n reël? As sy swart is, is ons nie almal nie?

Dit is opvallend dat respondente op Amerikaanse en Britse sensusvorms gevra word om hul eie ras te kies deur die blokkie te merk waarmee hulle die naaste identifiseer (hoewel daar probleme kan wees: sommige mense in Cornwall is kwaad dat die 2011 -sensusvorm nie laat hulle toe om hulself te definieer as Cornish, want slegs 37 000 het die blokkie in die 2001-sensus gemerk en die syfer is te klein geag om 'n aparte etniese groep te vorm). Ons sal nooit weet watter boks koningin Charlotte sou gemerk het nie, alhoewel ons 'n goeie raaiskoot kan neem. Maar miskien is dit in elk geval nie die belangrikste saak nie.

Vir die kongreslid Watt se vrou Eulada, saam met 'n paar ander Afro-Amerikaners in Charlotte, is die belangrikste kwessie wat die moontlikheid dat koningin Charlotte swart was, nou vir mense in die stad kan beteken. 'Ek glo die Afro-Amerikaanse Charlotteans was nog altyd trots op die erfenis van koningin Charlotte en erken dit met 'n glimlag en 'n knipoog,' sê sy. 'Baie van ons geniet nou 'n bietjie van' ek het jou gesê ', noudat die storie uit is.'

Maar is haar erfenis nie te skraps om gebruik te word om ou wonde te genees nie? "Hopelik sal die skets ander inspireer tot verdere navorsing en dokumentasie van ons ryk geskiedenis. Om meer te weet van 'n ou dooie koningin kan 'n rol speel in versoening."

En as 'n ou dooie koningin kan help om rassevertroue in 'n Amerikaanse stad te verbeter, kan sy miskien iets soortgelyks hier doen. Of sy dit sal doen, is egter baie minder seker.


Koningin Charlotte: die eerste koninklike van Brittanje met afkoms van Afrika

Toe Meghan Markle in Mei vanjaar met prins Harry trou, word baie uit haar tweeledige erfenis gemaak.

Maar aan die einde van die 18de eeu was koningin Charlotte, die vrou van koning George III (1738-1820), moontlik die land se eerste veelrassige koninklike. Sy is die ouma van koningin Victoria en die oupagrootjie van die huidige koningin Elizabeth II.

Meghan Markle in Maart 2018. Foto deur Noord -Ierland Kantoor CC Deur 2.0

Sophia Charlotte, gebore op 19 Mei 1744, was die agtste kind van Charles Louis Frederick, die Prins van Mirow, Duitsland, en sy vrou, Elisabeth Albertina.

Alhoewel gebore in Duitsland en 'n prinses van Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was Charlotte direk afkomstig van 'n Afrikaanse tak van die Portugese koningshuis.

Haar koninklike onderdane het niks geweet van haar rasse -agtergrond nie. Dit is ontdek baie jare na haar dood deur skerp-oog kunshistorici.

Portret van die Britse koningin-gemalin Charlotte van Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Portretskilders van die koninklike familie het die Afrikaanse kenmerke van Charlotte tot groot ontsteltenis afgespeel. Sir Allan Ramsay het vermoedelik die mees akkurate voorstellings gelewer. Een veral wat die koningin in haar weelderige kroningskleed vertoon, is na die kolonies gestuur, 'n subtiele knik na die anti-slawernybeweging, wat in die beginfase was.

Hier is 'n paar ander feite oor hierdie buitengewoonste vrou se lewe:

Sy het vyftien kinders, waarvan dertien tot volwassenheid oorleef het. Die vierde oudste seun van die egpaar was Edward, hertog van Kent, wat later die vader van koningin Victoria was. Charlotte was ook die moeder van twee toekomstige Britse monarge, George IV en William IV.

Koningin Charlotte met haar twee oudste seuns, Johan Zoffany, 1765.

Indrukwekkend, maar die swangerskap vir 'n groot deel van haar huwelik het die koningin swaar gekry. 'Ek dink nie dat 'n gevangene vuriger vir sy vryheid sou wens as om van my las ontslae te raak en die einde van my veldtog te sien nie. Ek sou bly wees as ek geweet het dat dit die laaste keer was, ”skryf sy in 1780 oor haar swangerskap met haar 14de kind, prins Alfred, volgens Janice Hadlow The Strangest Family: The Private Lives of George III, Queen Charlotte, and the Hanoverians.

Portret van koning George III en koningin Charlotte van die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Sy was die eerste koningin wat in die Buckingham -paleis gewoon het (soort van). St James Palace was die amptelike woning van die koninklike egpaar, maar die koning het 'n eiendom in die omgewing, Buckingham House (in die 19de eeu uitgebrei tot Buckingham -paleis), gekoop as 'n privaat toevlugsoord vir sy vrou.

Die koningin was so lief vir die koshuis, dat sy die meeste van haar tyd daar begin deurbring het, en dit het bekend geword as 'The Queen's House'.

Sy was 'n goeie vriend van koningin Marie Antoinette. Charlotte was 'n dekade ouer as die tragiese koningin van Frankryk, maar tog het hulle 'n vriendskap gesluit oor 'n gedeelde liefde vir musiek en kunste. Alhoewel die twee my eintlik nooit was nie, het hulle gereeld gekorrespondeer.

Marie Antoinette in 'n hofrok.

Marie Antoinette vertrou aan Charlotte tydens die aanvang van die Franse Revolusie, wat woonstelle vir die Franse koninklike familie voorberei het. Helaas, dit het nooit gebeur nie.

Sy kuier saam met Mozart. Die Duitse komponis Johann Christian Bach, seun van Johann Sebastian Bach, het haar as 'n vriend beskou, en sy het hom gehelp om die posisie van staatsmusikant te beklee, wat voorheen deur George Frideric Handel beklee is.

Mozart c. 1780, detail uit portret van Johann Nepomuk della Croce.

In 1764 het 'n agtjarige Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart saam met sy gesin in Groot-Brittanje aangekom as deel van hul groot toer deur Europa. Later sou Mozart sy Opus 3 -stuk aan die koningin opdra.

Sy het die Kersboom aan Brittanje voorgestel. Charlotte het die eerste immergroen in haar huis in 1800, versier met soetkoek, amandels, vrugte en speelgoed.

Verligte kersboom in die nag.

Ontdekkers, soos kaptein James Cook, sou die koningin - iets van 'n amateur -plantkundige - nuwe plantsoorte bring, wat sy in haar tuine vertoon en uitgebrei het. Een so 'n vonds, die Suid -Afrikaanse blom, die Paradysvoël, is ter ere van haar Strelitzia reginae genoem.

8 Woorde wat u nooit die koninklike familie sal hoor sê nie

Sy was 'n sagte aanraking. Die koningin stig kinderhuise en word in 1809 die beskermheer van die General Lying-in Hospital in Londen, een van die eerste kraamhospitale in Groot-Brittanje. ('Inlê' was 'n slengterm vir bevalling, destyds, terwyl 'algemeen' beteken dat alle sake aanvaar word.)

Koningin Charlotte in die ateljee van Allan Ramsay, olie op doek, (1762).

Charlotte sal geld verskaf om te verhoed dat die hospitaal sluit. As 'n bewys van hul waardering, sou dit die Queen Charlotte ’s en Chelsea-hospitaal hernoem word, en is dit nou een van die mees gerespekteerde kraamhospitale in Londen.

Sy het 'n disfunksionele gesin gehad. In 1765 word koning George geestelik siek. (Daar word nou geglo dat hy aan porfyri ly, 'n oorerflike afwyking wat voortspruit uit die opbou van sekere chemikalieë in die brein, maar die oorsaak van sy siekte was toe nog onbekend.)

Koning George III in kroningsklere

Daar was 'n konflik tussen die koningin en hul seun, die prins van Wallis, oor wie die regentskap moet aanvaar indien die koning ongeskik verklaar sou word. Nadat George in 1811 tot permanente waansin neergedaal het, is die prins as regent verklaar.

Charlotte het intussen haar man se wettige voog geword, wat haar onder baie spanning geplaas het. Sy het depressief geword en 'n taamlike humeur ontwikkel - wat albei tot gereelde meningsverskille met haar kinders gelei het.

Koningin Charlotte en die prins van Wallis sou in 1791 met mekaar versoen word, en toe sy in 1818 sterf, sit sy in 'n leunstoel op die platteland van die gesin, haar oudste seun was daar langs haar en hou haar hand vas.

Koningin Charlotte is begrawe in die St George ’s Chapel, Windsor Castle - gepas genoeg, presies die plek waar prins Harry en sy bruid Meghan Markle getroud is. Sy was die tweede opvolger in die Britse geskiedenis, na die huidige hertog van Edinburgh.

Sy plaas die "Charlotte" in Charlotte, Noord -Carolina. Trouens, daar is plekke regoor die wêreld ter ere van haar vernoem - van Queen Charlotte Sound in Nieu -Seeland, tot Queen Charlotte Bay in Wes -Falkland, tot Charlottesville, Virginia.

Selfs Rutgers, die State University of New Jersey, is oorspronklik as Charlotte College geoktrooieer na Charlotte, hoewel dit in 1825 herdoop is na Henry Rutgers, 'n held in die Revolusionêre Oorlog.

Barbara Stepko is 'n vryskutredakteur en skrywer in New Jersey wat bygedra het tot die tydskrif AARP en die Wall Street Journal.


Geskiedenis van Queens

Lank voor ons Queens University was, was ons die Charlotte Female Institute. Dit was 1857, die jaar van ons stigting in die sentrum van Charlotte. Sedertdien het baie verander: ons skool is nou mede-redakteur. Ons bied meestersgrade aan. En ons is in Myers Park, net drie kilometer van ons oorspronklike ligging af. Sedertdien het Charlotte ook om ons verander: dit het een van die land se vinnigste groeiende, florerende stedelike sentrums geword.

Alhoewel ons gegroei het, bied ons steeds 'n intieme kampus aan waar 'n hoë-kaliber fakulteit noue mentorverhoudings met studente het. Namate ons die akademiese aanbod uitbrei, gaan ons voort met ons tradisie van 'n ontwikkelende kurrikula wat elke klas bemagtig om te floreer. Ons omhels ons toenemend uiteenlopende studentegroep en handhaaf 'n hegte gemeenskap wat ons as koninklikes verenig.

Naamsontwikkeling, missie en studenteliggaam

Queens het begin as die Charlotte Female Institute (1857-1891). Toe word ons die kweekskool vir meisies (1891-1896), daarna Presbyterian Female College (1896-1912). In 1912 word ons Queens College en verhuis na ons pragtige Myers Park -kampus.

In 1930 het Queens deur 'n samesmelting met Chicora College met die Presbiteriaanse Sinode van Suid -Carolina verbind. Met hierdie vennootskap het ons Chicora se leuse aangeneem: Nie ministrari en ministrare (Nie om bedien te word nie, maar om te dien). Alhoewel die skole nie meer gelyk is nie, gaan die leuse voort by Queens. U sien die diensgees in die optrede van studente, fakulteite, personeel en alumni wat hierdie leuse uitleef en dit ons institusionele missie maak.

In die veertigerjare het ons ons reis begin om mans toe te laat. Dit het kort na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog begin toe mans dit kon bywoon, maar nie op die kampus woon nie. Toe, in 1948, het Queens 'n mede-redakteurskollege geopen. In 1987 was die proses voltooi: ons het ten volle medewerking verleen, mans opgeneem en hulle toegelaat om op die kampus te woon.

In 2002, na byna 'n halfeeu van groei en verandering, het ons geword wat ons vandag is: Queens University of Charlotte.

Kolleges en skole

Alhoewel ons kurrikulum voortdurend ontwikkel en verseker dat ons studente die nuutste vaardighede het, is dit gebaseer op 'n sterk liberale kunste -benadering. Die resultaat is 'n opvoeding wat vernuwend, maar tog tydloos is.

Gedurende die afgelope vyf-en-twintig jaar het ons ons kundigheid en aanbod uitgebrei om die volgende generasie leiers op te voed. In 1993 het ons die McColl School of Business gestig om by die oorspronklike voorgraadse program, bekend as die College of Arts and Sciences, aan te sluit. In 2004 het ons die verpleegprogram saamgevoeg met die program van die Presbyterian Hospital om die Presbyterian School of Nursing te stig. In 2007 het die Kuratorium die oprigting van die Wayland H. Cato, Jr. School of Education goedgekeur. In 2008 het ons die School of Communication geopen, later die James L. Knight School of Communication genoem. In 2010 het ons voldoen aan die groeiende vraag na opsies op die gebied van gesondheidsorg deur die oprigting van die Andrew Blair College of Health.

Van Brick and Ivy tot die skerm

Queens het sy eerste aanlyngraad in 2008 geloods - die Bachelor of Science in Nursing vir bestaande RN's, bekend as die RN tot BSN. Vyf jaar later het ons verskeie meestersgrade aanlyn bekendgestel, waaronder die Master of Arts in Communication, die Master of Science in Nursing, die Master of Arts in Educational Leadership en die aanlyn MBA.

'N Tradisie om vorentoe te kyk

In die afgelope anderhalf eeu het ons 'n gevoel van opsetlike balans versigtig gekweek. Queens is waar die groot stad die klein skool ontmoet. Waar selfontdekking plaasvind te midde van onbaatsugtige diens. Waar ons leerplanne ontwikkel om die nuutste vaardighede aan te leer terwyl ons ons tydlose kern van liberale kunste respekteer. Ons het 'n unieke leeromgewing geskep wat studente nie vra om tussen hierdie ideale en belangstellings te kies nie. Ons nooi hulle uit om albei te wees, meer te wees - en sodoende hul eie stempel in ons geskiedenis te plaas.


Het koningin Charlotte 'n Afrikaanse afkoms gehad?

Eis

Gradering

Maar ander historici is meer skepties. Kate Williams het aan The Guardian gesê dat die idee dat Charlotte 'n Afrikaanse afkoms het, 'interessante' implikasies vir baie koninklike gesinne in Europa inhou, wat daarop dui dat so 'n bewering beteken dat haar afstammelinge as swart geklassifiseer kan word, insluitend die huidige Britse koninklike familie. Maar volgens haar en baie historici was die generasie -afstand tussen Charlotte en haar moontlike Afrika -voorouer so groot dat dit die voorstel 'belaglik' gemaak het. Hulle het ook gesê dat daar min bewyse is dat Madragana Afrikaans is.

Ania Loomba, professor in letterkunde aan die Universiteit van Pennsylvania, wat ook geskiedenis van ras en kolonialisme aanbied, het aangevoer dat as 'n persoon as 'n Moor of 'blackamoor' beskryf word, dit nie noodwendig beteken dat hulle swart is nie. 'Die woord' blackamoor 'in Shakespeare se tyd beteken Moslem. Dit beteken nie noodwendig Swart nie, ”het sy gesê. "Moors kan wit uit Noord -Afrika wees."

Lisa Hilton, 'n skrywer van geskiedenisboeke en historiese fiksie, het 'n soortgelyke argument gehad: 'Ons het geen idee hoe Mandragana gelyk het nie. Sy het moontlik Berber-, Spaanse, Arabiese of inderdaad Afrikaanse kenmerke gehad, maar sy kon net so blonde hare en blou oë gehad het, soos na die val van die Romeinse rykstamme uit Noord -Europa, waaronder Oos -Duitsland en Skandinawië, die Moorse koninkryke binnegeval het. Boonop sou die 500 jaar tussen Mandragana en Charlotte daarop dui dat enige Afrikaanse bloedlyn aansienlik verdun sou wees. ”

Interessant genoeg, in 1999, nadat daar oor Valdes se navorsing in The London Sunday Times en The Boston Globe berig is, het Buckingham Palace op die eis gereageer. Hulle het Charlotte se moontlike afkoms nie bevestig of ontken nie: 'Dit word al jare lank gerugte. Dit is 'n kwessie van geskiedenis, en eerlikwaar het ons baie belangriker dinge om oor te praat. "

Aangesien historici so wyd verskil oor die vraag of Charlotte die eerste gemengde rassekoningin in Britse koninklikes was, beskou ons hierdie bewering as 'Onbewese'.


Was koningin Charlotte Engeland se eerste swart koningin?

Tensy u onder 'n rots geleef het, is u deeglik daarvan bewus dat prins Harry pas met 'n Amerikaner getroud is wat haar historiese wortels na Afrika kan herlei.

Dit kan vir die Britse koninklikes 'n behoorlike opskudding lyk, maar in werklikheid is Meghan waarskynlik NIE die eerste lid van die koninklike familie wat 'n Afrikaanse afkoms het nie.

Koningin Charlotte, die vrou van koning George III (die koning Amerika het die groot effek aan u gegee), wat die koning 15 kinders gebaar het, is vermoedelik van Afrika -afkoms.

Daar word vermoed dat Charlotte direk afstam van 'n swart tak van die Portugese koninklike familie: Alfonso III en sy byvrou, 'n swart Moor.

Foto: Wikipedia

So wie was koningin Charlotte?

Charlotte was die agtste kind van die Prins van Mirow, Duitsland, Charles Louis Frederick, en sy vrou, Elisabeth Albertina van Saxe-Hildburghausen.

Daar word vermoed dat Charlotte direk afstam van 'n swart tak van die Portugese koninklike familie: Alfonso III en sy byvrou, 'n swart Moor.

In die 13de eeu verower Alfonso 'n klein dorpie met die naam Faro van die More af en hy eis die goewerneur & rsquos -dogter as paramour. Hy het drie kinders by haar gehad.

Charlotte was direk afstammelinge van hierdie swart tak van die Portugese koninklike familie, verwant aan Margarita de Castro e Souza, 'n Portugese edelvrou uit die 15de eeu wat nege geslagte verwyder is, van wie se afkoms sy spoor van die heerser Alfonso III uit die 13de eeu. (Sjoe! Het jy dit?)

Foto: Wikipedia

Charlotte trou op 8 September 1761 met George III van Engeland. Die troue het plaasgevind in die Chapel Royal in St James & rsquos Palace, in Londen. Sy was 17 jaar oud en het die koningin van Engeland en Ierland geword.

Die koninklike egpaar het vyftien kinders, van wie dertien tot volwassenheid oorleef het. Hulle vierde oudste seun was Edward Augustus, hertog van Kent, wat later die vader van koningin Victoria was (so ja, dit beteken dat die koninklike familie van Charlotte vandag afstammelinge is.)

Kenmerke van koningin Charlotte en rsquos, soos opgeteken deur haar tydgenote, het haar 'n onmiskenbare Afrikaanse voorkoms gegee, maar tog het Charlotte en rsquos Afrikaanse kenmerke deur die kunstenaars wat haar gedurende hierdie tyd uitgebeeld het, 'n afslag gemaak. Daar was egter een skilder, sir Allan Ramsay, wat die werklike kenmerke van die koningin en rsquos nie weggesteek het nie, en teen slawerny was.

Foto: Wikipedia

Intelligent en deernisvol

Koningin Charlotte was 'n geleerde karakter. Op grond van navorsing oor haar briewe, meen historici dat sy nie net goed gelees is nie, maar ook belangstelling in kuns en kultuur het. Boonop bied Charlotte ondersteuning aan Johann Christian Bach, wat haar ook geleer het. Om die nalatenskap van hul verhouding voort te sit, het Charlotte in die jare na sy dood vrygewigheid aan sy vrou gebied.

En dit is nie alles nie. Op haar versoek het 'n baie jong Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart sy Opus 3 aan haar opgedra.

Koningin Charlotte was ook 'n amateur -plantkundige. Sy het gehelp om Kew Gardens (en ander) 'n blomplant bekend as die Strelitzia Reginae uit Suid -Afrika te bring. Sy het ook die Charlotte Maternity -hospitaal in Londen gestig, 'n liefdadigheidsorganisasie wat die oudste kraamsorginstelling in Engeland is.

Koningin Charlotte sterf op 17 November 1818 in Surrey, by Dutch House, wat nou Kew Palace is. Sy is oorlede in die teenwoordigheid van haar seun, die Prins Regent. Sy word begrawe in die St George & rsquos -kapel, Windsor. Koningin Charlotte is die oupagrootjie van koningin Elizabeth II. Sy is ook in Amerika vereer, en Charlotte, Noord -Carolina, is na haar vernoem.

Reguit Meghan Markle, jy het 'n paar GROOT skoene om te vul.

Kanttekening: die koninklike huishouding self, ten tyde van die kroning van koningin Elizabeth II, verwys na beide haar Asiatiese en Afrikaanse bloedlyne in 'n apologia wat dit gepubliseer het ter verdediging van haar posisie as hoof van die Statebond.

'N Weeklikse nuusbrief vir History Buffs soos jy. Een keer 'n week. Net cool dinge.


Wat 'Bridgerton' reggekry het oor koningin Charlotte

Daar word algemeen geglo dat sy die eerste koninklike koningskap van Brittanje is.

U het dit seker al uitgevind Bridgerton is nie juis gebaseer op 'n ware verhaal nie. Strykkwartette het (ongelukkig) in die 1800's nie "dankie, volgende" by formele balle gespeel nie, en jong dames van destyds sou nie gewaag het om terug te keer op hul gesinsplanne vir hulle nie. Daar is ook die feit dat die Netflix -reeks gebaseer is op 'n reeks romansromans van Julia Quinn, wat die proses beskryf het om die wêreld van die Bridgerton -gesin self te bou.

Tog is daar genoeg wat die periode drama regkry oor die Georgiese era van die vroeë 1800's (grootliks te danke aan Quinn se sterk nagevorsde wêreldbou en historiese konsultant Hannah Greig se bydraes tot die TV-aanpassing). Die sosiale seisoen en die 'huweliksmark' was baie werklik, net soos die gebrek aan seksopvoeding in die Regency-era en die geboorte van anonieme skinderrubrieke en skandaalblaaie. Nog 'n histories akkurate nuusbrief? Bridgertonse uitbeelding van koningin Charlotte, wat eintlik nie in die reeks van Quinn opgeneem is nie. Hier is alles wat u moet weet oor die fassinerende egte vrou van koning George III.

Koningin Charlotte was moontlik eintlik swart.

Baie historici glo dat die koninklike, gebore Sophia Charlotte van Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1744, inderdaad afkomstig was van Afrikaanse afkoms. Bewerings dat koningin Charlotte van gemengde ras was, is aanvanklik aangevuur deur die historikus Joel Augustus Rogers, wat in die veertigerjare geskryf het Seks en ras, Deel 1 that portraits and contemporary descriptions of Charlotte "clearly [show] a Negro strain."

More recently, a Frontline investigation by historian Mario de Valdes y Cocom traced Charlotte's ancestry via six separate lines back to Margarita de Castro e Souza, a 15th-century noblewoman whose own lineage leads back to Madragana, a mistress of King Afonso III of Portugal who many historians believe to have been a Moor of Northern African descent.

For the record, after the Frontline series was published in 1999, a spokesperson for the royal family&mdashthat is, Charlotte's great-great-great-great-granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II&mdashreportedly told the Boston Globe of Queen Charlotte's potential mixed-race heritage, "This has been rumored for years and years. It is a matter of history, and frankly, we've got far more important things to talk about."

Charlotte's rumored background influenced the casting of Bridgerton.

Bridgerton showrunner Chris Van Dusen has shared that he was largely influenced by this version of Queen Charlotte's history while seeking out actors to bring the lords and ladies of the series to life.

"It's something that really resonated with me, because it made me wonder what could that have really looked like. And what would have happened? What could she have done? Could the queen have elevated other people of color in society and granted them titles and lands and dukedoms?" Van Dusen told Collider. "That's really how our Simon Bassett, our Duke of Hastings, came to be. We get to explore it in a really interesting way. And it goes to the idea of what the show does is&mdashwe're marrying history and fantasy in a really exciting, fascinating way."

Queen Charlotte and King George III's marriage was truly a love match.

George and Charlotte were married within six hours of their first meeting in 1761, and though that may seem indicative of a union formed more for international strategy than for love, theirs is believed to have been one of the most successful and loving royal marriages up to that point. They welcomed 15 children together and doted upon each other throughout several decades of marriage, as evidenced by Charlotte's signing her letters to her husband as his "very affectionate wife and friend." They also are said to have shared a love of music, and often joined the royal band in playing the harpsichord and flute.

The pair remained married for nearly 60 years. Toward the end, as depicted in Bridgerton, Charlotte was deeply affected by King George's mental and physical illnesses. Though they lived separately during this time, Charlotte remained devoted to her husband, writing in one letter, "Our separation must be & really is equally painful to us both." Charlotte died in 1818, barely a year before her husband.

The queen actually oversaw the goings-on of London society.

Queen Charlotte was indeed very involved in the Ton's social scene. In fact, the first known debutante ball was hosted in her honor, with King George establishing the annual Queen Charlotte's Ball in 1780 to commemorate his wife's birthday.

Van Dusen, too, noted just how crucial a part of London society the queen was. "Adding Queen Charlotte afforded us an opportunity to see what true excess and decadence looked like at the time. She brings real import to the world as we get to be in some amazing spaces with her&mdashfrom Buckingham Home to St. Regis Palace," he told ET Online. "Not to mention, she was definitely very much a part of the social scene during Regency times, so having her with us was important from a historical perspective as well."

Queen Charlotte was believed to be addicted to snuff.

In Bridgerton, Charlotte, played by Golda Rosheuvel, is often shown demanding snuff from her footservants. Snuff is a form of dried, ground tobacco and, yes, Queen Charlotte is believed to have been addicted to it. Charlotte is said to have kept an entire room at Windsor Castle full of nothing but snuff and, due to her addiction, was nicknamed "Snuffy Charlotte."


The real story of Bridgerton’s Queen Charlotte: from glittering courts to tragic decline

Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz arrived in Britain as a teenager to marry King George III, and theirs would become a marriage of deep affection and domesticity, with celebrated Georgians flocking to their court. Yet hers was also a life increasingly blighted by tragedy. Following Golda Rosheuvel’s star turn as the queen consort in Netflix drama Bridgerton, Catherine Curzon shares more…

This competition is now closed

Published: January 20, 2021 at 10:29 am

Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and King George III were married for almost six decades. Following their arranged marriage, no Georgian royals were more devoted to one another, but theirs was a love story that turned into a tragedy.

Charlotte was born to the Duke and Duchess of Mecklenburg at the Palace of Mirow, in the small principality of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (now part of Germany), in 1744. Her education was mediocre, and though she learned how to manage a household, she was kept distant from the politics of royal life. Only when her brother succeeded to the dukedom on their father’s death did 12-year-old Charlotte enter court life, but Mecklenburg’s powerplays were nothing compared to the sharkpool of Georgian England.

Charlotte’s future was decided in 1760, when the 22-year-old George III succeeded his grandfather on the English throne. This unassuming, diligent bachelor needed a queen – and an heir – as a matter of urgency. Eager to ensure the line of succession, politicians included Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz on a shortlist of eligible and suitable Protestant ladies. She was reported to have no political ambitions and to be in all regards perfectly pleasant and ‘sweet-tempered’, which was exactly what George was looking for. He chose her to be his bride, thrusting the sheltered teenager into the spotlight. Charlotte was about to become queen of a land she had never visited, alongside a man whom she had never met.

The wedding of Princess Charlotte and George III

After a proxy wedding ceremony in Mecklenburg, Charlotte arrived at Harwich on the south coast of England in September 1761. Vast crowds lined the route to St James’s Palace, eager to glimpse the new queen, and by the time she arrived in London on 8 September, she was shaking with nerves. She reportedly stumbled from her carriage towards the waiting king but, as she went to throw herself at George’s feet in supplication, he caught her. It was a promising start.

That evening was a whirlwind. After dining with the royal family, Charlotte barely had time to rest before she changed into her bridal gown (a dress she would wear again two weeks later for her coronation). But at her wedding she struggled with the acres of fabric and piles of jewels seasickness on the voyage to England had caused Charlotte to lose so much weight that the gown constantly slipped from her shoulders under the weight of its priceless adornments. On her finger she wore a far simpler piece of jewellery: a diamond ring inscribed with the date, which George had given her on arrival. It was to remain Charlotte’s most precious treasure for the rest of her life.

England was charmed by its young king and queen straight away. The couple quickly settled into a steady domestic routine more akin to the upper middle classes than royalty. Charlotte spent hours studying English every day, with George encouraging her efforts, and the couple entertained courtiers by giving intimate musical concerts. Best of all for King George, when he warned Charlotte that she must never meddle in politics and must be on the lookout for glory-seekers, she was happy to obey. Unlike her mother-in-law and the late Queen Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II, Charlotte had no interest in running the country.

It was the issue of family that most dominated Queen Charlotte’s life as consort the royal couple took the matter of their heir and spare very seriously indeed. Over the next 22 years (between 1762–83) Charlotte gave birth to 15 children, including their eldest son, the future George IV. All but two of her children lived to adulthood. The youngsters spent hours every day with their parents, whether playing rambunctious games with the king or being quizzed on the content of their daily lessons by the queen, who oversaw their education. Though Charlotte would remain deeply involved in her children’s lives as they grew older, she was not always welcome.

Was Queen Charlotte addicted to snuff?

Many viewers of Regency drama Bridgerton have been struck by a short scene in which Queen Charlotte snorts a substance during a meeting at her court. This is snuff, a finely-ground smokeless tobacco inhaled through the nostrils the queen was so fond of it that she earned the nickname ‘Snuffy Charlotte’.

By the 1700s snuff was considered a luxury product and mark of refinement, and Queen Charlotte had an entire room at Windsor Castle dedicated to her snuff collection.

Inside Queen Charlotte’s court

At Queen Charlotte’s court, protocol was everything. She loved tradition and clung to it rigidly, insisting that her female courtiers wear increasingly outdated court dress, and that the rules of her Drawing Rooms be observed at all times. Although the king and queen were young, they soon developed a reputation for stuffiness. But behind the scenes things couldn’t have been more different. At home Charlotte strove to recreate her loving childhood and oversaw the creation of gardens, cottages and even exotic menageries, turning her palaces, including those at Windsor and Kew, into centres of family life as well as ceremony. Entry to her inner circle (which included novelist Frances Burney and other intellectual women of the day) wasn’t won easily, but she treated her most trusted ladies-in-waiting as old friends, creating devoted bonds that lasted for decades. Queen Charlotte’s private circle was always one of domesticity, rather than politics.

Despite their dislike of show, Charlotte and George’s court glittered. The most celebrated Georgians flocked to see them and amid the rustle of silk court dresses and the flash of the most fashionable jewellery, courtiers sought to make a splash. Whether at St James’s or Buckingham House, the king and queen performed weekly musical concerts and gave entertainments, whilst official levées were held twice a week, with a third day added later. On Thursdays and Sundays, the king and queen received courtiers at Drawing Rooms, where they showed off their family. On one such occasion Charlotte dressed her infant sons in their robes of state and her little daughter in a Roman toga and had them host the Drawing Room instead. Though loyal courtiers professed to be charmed, caricaturists savaged the event. Charlotte would never repeat her playful experiment.

Queen Charlotte’s heritage

Not only was Charlotte an unpolitical queen, but it has been suggested that she may also have been England’s first (and so far, only) queen of African heritage. Historian Mario De Valdes y Cocom claims that he can trace Charlotte’s genealogy back through nine generations to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, a 15th-century Portuguese noblewoman, whom he posits was black. He notes that Charlotte’s doctors occasionally used racially pejorative terms to describe her features, illustrating his claims with portraits in which her skin tone is notably darker than that usually seen in 18th-century portraiture.

Valdes’s research has been disputed by some historians, who argue that the nine generations that divide Margarita and Charlotte render such connections moot. Some also suggest that Valdes has misinterpreted the historical evidence regarding Margarita’s ethnicity, which has implications for his theories regarding Charlotte’s heritage too. Nevertheless, it’s a subject that will no doubt continue to fascinate. Charlotte was recently played by Golda Rosheuvel, a Guyanese-British actress, in Regency drama Bridgerton.

Queen Charlotte and the decline of George III

The happy status quo of the royal marriage was violently shaken in 1788, when George experienced his first bout of mental illness. Sleepless and often violent, he made lurid accusations of adultery against Charlotte and lascivious comments about her attendants. Charlotte’s ladies-in-waiting watched in horror as their queen stopped eating and slept only a few hours a night. She tore at her hair, which began to grey prematurely, and paced back and forth for hours on end, desperately wondering what would become of her. For the first time she locked her bedroom door against the king and kept her youngest children in her chambers at night, afraid for their safety after George physically assaulted his adult son, the Prince of Wales. With court physicians apparently powerless to help, a desperate Charlotte called in the doctor Francis Willis, who had been credited with curing the madness of a courtier. It was a fateful decision.

Willis’s treatment of the king has been well documented, but Charlotte was suffering too. George was her best friend and without him, her nerves frayed to breaking. With the king straightjacketed at Kew, Charlotte was dragged into parliamentary arguments over who should rule as Regent during his illness. Her resistance to the appointment of the dissolute Prince of Wales led to an estrangement between mother and son that would last for years. Once an unpolitical queen, she suddenly found herself the target of accusations that “the Queen is really King”.

Though George experienced a recovery, his illness left a permanent blot on the marriage. Once placid and loving, Charlotte’s demeanour had been forever changed. She began to suffer from depression and developed a furious temper, often directed against the daughters. At the merest hint of George becoming unwell she moved into a locked bedroom and declined any opportunity to see him without another person present. Yet she still protected and loved the king as much as she ever had. When his final mental breakdown occurred in 1810, and the Prince of Wales came to power as Prince Regent in 1811 at the head of a glittering, glamorous court, Queen Charlotte became her husband’s devoted guardian. Yet she never visited him alone again.

The wide-eyed bride of years earlier was gone, worn down by decades of trauma. Charlotte had grown hard, forcing all but one of her six daughters to remain at home to act as her unwilling companions and coming to rely on only a few very close confidantes. She was left distraught by visits to George, who railed at her for having appointed the unyielding Dr Willis, spitting that he loved her dogs more than he had ever loved her.

For the last decade of his life the king was secluded at Windsor, where Charlotte oversaw his care and watched him fade away until he no longer recognised her. The queen’s last public appearance was in London in April 1818, after which she was set on travelling to Windsor to join her spouse. Instead ill health confined her to Kew. Robbed of the ability to walk, Charlotte could merely lay in bed and gaze out at her beloved gardens.

On 17 November 1818, as the Prince Regent and her children gathered around her, Queen Charlotte died. Only now did she make her longed-for journey to Windsor, where she was interred in St George’s Chapel. She was reunited with her beloved husband little more than a year later, when George III was laid to rest beside her.

Catherine Curzon is the author of Queens of Georgian Britain (Pen and Sword Books, 2017). Curzon also runs an 18th-century themed website: Madame Gilflurt’s Guide to Life.

Listen: Hannah Greig, historian and etiquette advisor to new Netflix show Bridgerton, joins us to talk about the historical detail that can be found in the drama – and the inspirations behind it, on this episode of the HistoryExtra podcast:


From balls to Bridgerton: a brief history of debutantes and the social season

Featuring ball gowns, eligible bachelors and a chance to meet royalty – the world of the debutante certainly seems like a glamourous one. But what was life really like for these young women chosen to be presented to society? Carolyn Harris explores…

This competition is now closed

Published: February 19, 2021 at 5:39 pm

On 17 July 1958, Sandra Seagram, the last debutante presented to the royal family at Buckingham Palace, curtseyed to the Queen Mother and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Queen Elizabeth II was unwell and unable to attend the historic ceremony. Seagram was a 20-year-old Canadian and a great-granddaughter of Joseph Emm Seagram, the founder of the Seagram Whiskey distillery in Waterloo, Ontario, which became the largest owner of alcoholic beverage lines in the world. The Canadian Press reported that Seagram, whose mother and grandmother had also been presented at court, was one of “forty Canadian debutantes presented along with some 200 other Commonwealth girls”.

In March of that same year, Fiona MacCarthy was one of 1,400 debutantes presented in groups of four or five hundred to the queen and Prince Philip. In her memoir, Last Curtsey: The End of the Debutantes, MacCarthy wrote: “Impossible to be there and not be conscious of the long line of our predecessors, going back to the late eighteenth-century ingénues led in by their powder-haired aristocratic mothers to curtsey to Queen Charlotte at her birthday feast.” The Scottish debutantes made their curtsey to the monarch at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh on 3 July 1958.

The tradition of the social season lasted nearly 180 years, officially lasting from the reign of George III to the current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. During this time, young women from wealthy or well-connected families made their formal debut in society by curtseying to the monarch. After this formal presentation at court, the debutantes participated in the season, a series of social occasions where they might form lasting friendships with other elite young women and meet equally wealthy and well-connected husbands. A debutante was considered especially successful if she became engaged after a single season – but by the 20th century, most debutantes participated in at least two social seasons and pursued accomplishments and charity work before their eventual marriages.

What is a debutante and who could become one?

The term debutante or ‘deb’ (from the French debutante, meaning ‘female beginner’) is used to refer to a young woman (typically of an aristocratic or wealthy family background) who is of an age to be presented to society as part of a formal ‘debut’ (possibly at a debutante ball and as part of a season of social events). Ages of debutantes vary across history, but generally fall between 16 and 18 years of age.

What did debutantes wear?

MacCarthy recalled that: “Preparations for the Season had gone on for several months before the presentations.” Debutantes spent a few months in a finishing school prior to their presentation, learning a foreign language and perfecting their dancing, deportment and the all-important royal curtsey. A new wardrobe was essential. MacCarthy recalled that every debutante needed: “a minimum of six dance dresses, of which one must be white for the Queen Charlotte’s Ball in May. Two or three of the dresses needed to be long and relatively formal, for the grander balls in London the others could be short, for dances in the country. Debs also needed several day dresses in silk or chiffon, suitable for Ascot, Henley, the Fourth of June at Eton. Further necessities were shoes and gloves and handbags and especially hats…”

While a debutante might have a custom-made gown for her presentation at court and her own debutante ball, by the 1950s, debutantes and their mothers often selected the rest of their wardrobe at fashionable London department stores such as Harrods.

Once the season began, there were months of almost constant social functions such as luncheons, teas and debutante balls (the latter including the Queen Charlotte’s ball, named for the queen consort of George III, at which the guest of honour – usually a member of the royal family – cut a six-foot-tall cake). The dates of these events had to be chosen carefully to avoid conflicting with one another. When the London season came to an end in mid-summer, there would be country house parties and dances, and a Scottish season in the autumn. Not all debutantes participated in the entire season, and those visiting London from overseas might return home soon after the presentation at court. For young women who participated in the entire season, there would be nearly constant social events from March until October and opportunities to make new friends and meet potential husbands.

When was the first debutante ball?

The presentation of aristocratic young women to the monarch at the English court is a tradition that dates from at least the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603), who chose her ladies-in-waiting from prominent families. The structure of the social season that endured until 1958, however, emerged in the reign of King George III in response to the changing relationship between the royal family and society. The Georgian monarchs were the target of satirical press coverage that emphasised King George III’s and Queen Charlotte’s frugality, and the future King George IV’s extravagance. George III countered this bad press by creating the court circular to publicise the work of the royal family and becoming involved in more philanthropic work. In 1780, Queen Charlotte presided over the first Queen Charlotte’s Ball, which not only celebrated the queen’s birthday but raised money for the Queen Charlotte’s and Chelsea hospital, one of the oldest maternity hospitals in Europe.

As Kristen Richardson notes in The Season: A Social History of the Debutante, “King George III and Queen Charlotte expanded and nurtured a newly codified social season”. The debut of young women into elite society became closely associated with the philanthropic work of the royal family. A formal court presentation became the high point of a London social season of balls, parties and sporting events that lasted from Parliament’s Easter session break to adjournment and the start of grouse shooting season in the countryside in August.

Who could become a debutante?

The social background of the debutantes presented at the British court slowly began to expand during the reign of Queen Victoria. An 1859 etiquette manual by James Hogg, The Habits of Good Society, stated that in addition to members of the aristocracy: “The wives and daughters of the clergy, of military and naval officers, of physicians and barristers can be presented. These are the aristocratic professions … The wives and daughters of merchants or men in business (excepting bankers), are not entitled to presentation. Nevertheless, though many ladies of this class were refused presentation early in this reign, it is certain many have since been presented, whether by accident, or by a system of making the Queen more accessible…”

The wealthiest American heiresses in the late 19th and early 20th centuries aspired to presentation at the British court, where they might meet landed aristocrats seeking wives with independent fortunes. Since only a woman who had been presented at court herself could recommend a debutante for presentation, aristocratic women with titles but few financial resources sometimes accepted payments from wealthy families on both sides of Atlantic to facilitate a debutante’s presentation at court – thereby expanding the number of young women presented.

While the social background of an acceptable debutante expanded, the rituals at court became increasingly formalised in the 19th century – as Fiona MacCarthy notes: “By 1837, when Queen Victoria ascended the throne, the term ‘debutante’ was in general use and young girls would be summoned to Queen Victoria’s drawing rooms, then held in St. James’ Palace, to make their entrée to society. The dress code was at this point the elaborate long white court dress with ten-foot train, mystical white veil, the ostrich feather headdress, elbow-length white gloves.”

Debutantes spent months practising their formal curtseys, left knee locked behind the right knee and slowly descending while facing forward without the slightest wobble.

Debutantes around the world

The practice of elite young women entering society through a formal debutante presentation soon spread around the world. In the wider British empire, debutantes were presented to the Viceroy, Governor, or, after the Dominions achieved self-government, the Governor General. In Canada, Governor Lord Elgin held a levee in Bytown (now Ottawa) in 1853 where debutantes were presented. As James Powell of the Ottawa historical society notes: “By the time of Confederation [in 1867], the presentation of debutantes to the Governor General was in full swing with ‘drawing rooms’ held in the Senate chamber on Parliament Hill.” In Australia, the Governor and later the Governor General presided over debutante presentations both in the capital and in more distant regions. Historian Berenice Wright wrote: “If that person [the Governor or Governor-General] visited an outlying area, they [the communities] would quite often rustle up a Debutante Ball.” In the wider British empire and Dominions, the dress code was more relaxed than at Buckingham Palace formal court dress was neither expected nor required.

The United States became independent from the British crown after the American Revolutionary Wars (1775–83), but it retained the tradition of debutante presentations. At George Washington’s presidential levees in Philadelphia and later in Washington DC, which attracted critical scrutiny because of their similarity to a royal court, debutantes were presented to the president and first lady. Debutante events continued to take place in Washington DC into the 20th century. The future first lady Eleanor Roosevelt found the experience of coming out into society uncomfortable, especially because she made her debut just a year after her beautiful and confident cousin, Alice Roosevelt, the daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt wrote: “I knew I was the first girl in my mother’s family who was not a belle, and… I was deeply ashamed.”

American debutante presentations were not restricted to political circles. Individual American cities, communities and organisations developed their own debutante traditions. High school proms began to take place in the 1920s and expanded in popularity after the Second World War. In High School Prom: Marketing, Morals and the American Teen, Ann Anderson notes: “Debutante balls signified wealth and class in a country that applauds the former and is decidedly uneasy about the latter… Prom is the democratic debutante ball.”

As the 20th century progressed, however, the presentation of debutantes at court appeared increasingly out of step with the changing times and the royal family had less interest in presiding over these ceremonies. King George V and Queen Mary dutifully accepted the curtsey of debutantes, only pausing the tradition in 1921 because of the Coal Strike, but in 1936, the new King Edward VIII did not have the patience for the multi-hour ceremony. As Anne de Courcy explains in Debs at War: How Wartime Changed Their Lives, 1939–1945: “Halfway through the presentations … the King got his aide to announce that the rest ‘could consider themselves presented’ and left to play golf with Wallis Simpson.” King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother) suspended presentations of debutantes at court during the Second World War. The Queen Charlotte’s Ball continued to take place throughout the war but by 1944, the attendees had to bring their own food and drink because of food shortages and rationing.

Even before the food shortages brought about by war, some of the debutantes themselves began to critique the discomfort that came with presentations at court and the subsequent social season. The long hours of waiting to be presented without food or drink, and the requirement to leave outerwear in the waiting cars or carriages regardless of the weather, had the potential to turn the presentation into an ordeal for the debutantes and their families. Deborah Mitford critiqued her dance partners at the subsequent social events, writing: “I have never seen anything like the collection of young men, all completely chinless.” For the families of eligible young women, the social season was expensive at a time when many of the landed aristocracy were struggling to hold on to their country estates. The young women themselves had more opportunities as the 20th century progressed. There was press coverage of ‘bluestocking debs’ in the 1950s who planned to attend university after the social season rather than seek an early marriage.

When Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne in 1952, both the young queen and her husband Prince Philip took an interest in modernising the monarchy, supporting the televising of the coronation ceremony at Westminster Abbey in 1953. Public engagements and philanthropic initiatives brought members of the royal family into contact with people from a wide variety of social classes and these more accessible royal occasions meant the presentation of an exclusive group of young women from wealthy families at court appeared especially anachronistic. Prince Philip considered the Queen Charlotte’s Ball “bloody daft” and did not understand why presentations of debutantes should continue to be held at Buckingham Palace. The queen’s sister, Princess Margaret, had a different critique of debutante presentations at court, commenting that “we had to put a stop to it… every tart in London was getting in”. With the end of formal debutante presentations at court in 1958 and the final Queen Charlotte’s Ball in 1976, garden parties, which had existed since the reign of Queen Victoria, became increasingly significant as events where the royal family could engage with men and women from all walks of life.

The end of the presentation of debutantes at court in the United Kingdom hastened the end of formal ceremonies for debutantes elsewhere in the Commonwealth. In Canada, Vincent Massey, the first Canadian born Governor General, presided over the last formal presentation of debutantes, at a charity ball at the Chateau Laurier Hotel in Ottawa on 24 January 1958. In Australia, the debutante tradition developed into an inclusive rite of passage. The first Aboriginal debutante ball took place in 1968 when 16-year-old Pearl Anderson danced with Australian prime minister John Gorton. Modern Australian ‘deb balls’ traditionally take place in Year 11 of secondary school – but these events have been postponed in recent months because of the 2020–21 Covid-19 pandemic.

Do we still have debutante balls today?

In recent decades, there has been a revival of interest in the presentation of debutantes. Historical dramas including Downton Abbey en Bridgerton have depicted wealthy young women making their debut in society in the presence of members of the royal family. The Queen Charlotte’s Ball was revived in the 21st century by former debutante Jenny Hallam-Peel. In the absence of the monarch, the modern debutantes curtsey to the birthday cake itself and the event has been used to fundraise for a variety of charities.

Debutante balls continue to exist around the world and attract an international elite with an interest in networking and building future careers. Although the traditions associated with debutante presentations at court appear to belong to a bygone era, the idea of making a formal debut in society and marking a clear transition from childhood to adulthood continues to have appeal in the 21st century.

Dr Carolyn Harris is an instructor in history at the University of Toronto School of Continuing Studies and the author of three books: Magna Carta and Its Gifts to Canada Queenship and Revolution in Early Modern Europe: Henrietta Maria and Marie Antoinette en Raising Royalty: 1000 Years of Royal Parenting


Remembering the Past

Charlotte has a rich history steeped in the discovery of gold and the pride of Scots-Irish settlers. While many of the historic old buildings have made way to shining banks and other new structures, and their history is relegated to a small plaque, there are still fantastic ways to uncover the history of the city.

Whether you're a long-time resident or a newcomer to Charlotte, take the time to learn a little about the city you're in by visiting some of the amazing museums, like the Wells Fargo History Museum, or take the Liberty Walk tour, and discover 15 important sites in the evolution of the city.


Kyk die video: Koningin zoekt ambitieuze persoon om sleutelrol in koninklijk team te vervullen en met haar mee te (Februarie 2023).

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