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ROSWELL SABINE RIPLEY, CSA - Geskiedenis

ROSWELL SABINE RIPLEY, CSA - Geskiedenis


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ALGEMEEN ROSWELL SABINE RIPLEY, CSA
VITALE STATISTIEK
GEBORE: 1823 in Worthington, OH.
STERF: 1887 in New York, NY.
Veldtogte: Fort Sumpter, Skiereiland, Mechanicsville, Malvern Hill,
Gaines 'Mill, en Antietam.
HOOGSTE PUNT BEHALTE: Brigadier Generaal
BIOGRAFIE
Roswell Sabine Ripley is gebore in Worthington, Ohio, op 14 Maart 1823. Sy pa was 'n kaptein in die oorlog van 1812, en sy oom was Union Brig. Genl James W. Ripley. Roswell Ripley studeer in 1843 aan West Point en dien in die artillerie. Hy het in die Meksikaanse oorlog geveg en later 'n geskiedenis van die twee dele van die oorlog getiteld "The War with Mexico" (1849) geskryf. Hy is aangestel vir die personeel van genl Zachary Taylor en genl Gideon Pillow, en is twee keer kort vir galanterie. Ripley het ook teen Seminoles in Florida geveg. Hy trou in 1852 met 'n vrou uit Charleston en bedank die volgende jaar uit die weermag om sy vrou se boedels te vestig. Hy het 'n belangstelling in die Suid -Carolina -burgermag ontwikkel en het in 1860 'n groot vakbond geword. In 1861 het hy troepe by Fort Moultrie en Fort Sumter gelei. Op 15 Augustus 1861 het hy die departement van Suid -Carolina vir 'n paar maande gelei tot brigadier -generaal. Ripley het in Junie 1862 by die weermag van Noord -Virginia aangesluit en deur die Skiereiland -veldtog geveg. Nadat hy groot verliese op Mechanicsville en Malvern Hill gely het, is hy gekritiseer vir swak leierskap by Gaines 'Mill. Tydens Lee se inval in Maryland het Ripley nie goed gevaar nie en is drie dae later in Antietam gewond. Hy is teruggeroep na Suid -Carolina, waar hy die eerste artilleriedistrik beveel het, waarna hy in Maart 1865 in Noord -Carolina gedien het. Na die burgeroorlog het Ripley 'n sakeman geword, 'n tyd lank in Londen gewoon en oor die oorlog geskryf. Hy sterf op 29 Maart 1887 in New York, New York.

Brigadier -generaal Roswell Sabin Ripley, CSA

Roswell S. Ripley is op 14 Maart 1823 in Worthington gebore en studeer aan die Militêre Akademie van die Verenigde State in 1843. Gedurende 1846 tot 1848 dien hy by die Amerikaanse artillerie tydens die Mexikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog. Gedrag. ” In 1853, terwyl hy in Suid -Carolina gestasioneer was, bedank Ripley sy kommissie in die Amerikaanse weermag, en na afstigting bied hy sy diens aan die Konfederasie aan. Op 12 April 1861 het Ripley se artillerie by Fort Moultrie Fort Sumter gebombardeer wat die burgeroorlog begin het. Later was hy bevelvoerder oor 'n infanterie -brigade in Robert E. Lee se leër van Noord -Virginia totdat hy in die slag by Antietam in 1862 in die keel gewond is. Ripley keer terug na Charleston en verdedig die hawe en die stad teen aanvalle deur die Unie -magte. Hy word beskryf as 'Charleston's Gallant Defender' en is op 29 Maart 1887 oorlede en begrawe in die Magnolia Cemetery in Charleston.

2004 opgerig deur The Sons of Confederate Veterans, die United Daughters of the Confederacy en The Ohio Historical Society. (Merkernommer 81-25.)

Onderwerpe en reekse. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplyste gelys: Oorlog, Mexikaans-Amerikaanse en stieroorlog, Amerikaanse burger. Daarbenewens het

Ligging. Merker is permanent verwyder. Dit was geleë naby 40 & deg 5.175 ′ N, 83 & deg 1.104 ′ W. Marker was in Worthington, Ohio, in Franklin County. Marker was in High Street (VS 23) suid van New England Avenue, aan die regterkant toe hy suidwaarts gereis het. Raak vir kaart. Marker was by of naby hierdie posadres: 623 N High St, Columbus OH 43085, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne loopafstand van hierdie ligging. Vrymesselaarsmuseum van Worthington (binne 'n skreeuafstand van hierdie merker) James Kilbourne / Worthington Hotel (ongeveer 600 voet weg, gemeet in 'n direkte lyn) Worthington Historic District (ongeveer 700 voet weg) Veterans Fountain (ongeveer 700 voet weg) Saint John's Church of Worthington en dele aangrensend / kerk en begraafplaas (ongeveer 0,2 myl weg) The Bicentennial Oak (ongeveer 0,2 myl weg) Eclectic Medical College (ongeveer ½ kilometer ver) Die stigting van Worthington / Worthington, 'n beplande gemeenskap (ongeveer ½ kilometer weg) ). Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in Worthington.

Klik hier vir 'n ander merker wat verband hou met hierdie merker. (Brig. Genl. R. S. Ripley se monument en grafmerker)

Sien ook. . .
1. Brigadier -generaal Roswell S. Ripley Monument. (Op 13 Augustus 2007 ingedien deur Craig Swain van Leesburg, Virginia.)
2. Biografiese opstel oor genl Ripley. (Op 13 Augustus 2007 ingedien deur Craig Swain van Leesburg, Virginia.)
3. Die historiese merker van die Konfederale generaal is in Worthington verwyder. Die historiese merker buite die voormalige huis van 'n Konfederale generaal in Worthington is verwyder in afwagting van betogings. (Voorgelê op 21 Desember 2017 deur Kevin W. van Stafford, Virginia.)

Bykomende kommentaar.
1. Die Ripleys. 'N Huis verdeel
Soos op die merker aangedui, het Roswell Sabin Ripley in die Burgeroorlog in die Konfederale Weermag gedien. Sy oom, James Wolfe Ripley, aan die ander kant het die leër van die Unie gedien. Trouens, terwyl Roswell bekend gestaan ​​het as die verdediger van Charleston, SC, het sy ouer oom tydens die vernietigingskrisis van 1832-33 (wat byna die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog was, ongeveer 30 jaar) bevel gegee oor die federale magte in Charleston. voor die werklike gebeurtenis). James Ripley, wat te oud was vir velddiens, het die grootste deel van die oorlog gedien as opperhoof, verantwoordelik vir artillerie- en dopproduksie. Sy aandrang op die vervaardiging van geweerkanonne, enige geweerkanon, in die vroeë dele van die oorlog het verseker dat die federale magte


Konfederale Ohioan Roswell Ripley, die immer-onwrikbare

Een gedeelte van my nuwe boek, Burgeroorlog Ohioans, bevat Ohio -inwoners wat geveg het vir en/of die Konfederasie verdedig het. Onder die bekendste van laasgenoemde was die politikus van Ohio, Clement Vallandigham.

Onder die meer bekende Ohioane in die Konfederale weermag was generaal Roswell Ripley. As u oor hom lees, kan u die indruk kry dat hy 'n kwessie van byvoeging deur aftrekking van die Unie -poging was.

Een biograaf het oor hom geskryf, en#8220 “Generaal Roswell Ripley kon met niemand oor die weg kom nie. Selfs nie Robert E. Lee nie. Byna vier jaar lank het Roswell Sabine Ripley die krans en drie sterre van 'n konfederale hoofoffisier gedra, ondanks 'n onmiskenbare Yankee volgens enige definisie. Hy pas amper nie die beeld van die dapper suidelike offisier wat edel die "Lost Cause" verdedig nie, en selfs 'n afkeer van Robert E. Lee uitspreek ... Roswell Ripley het probleme ondervind met vroue, drank en smalende kollegas in skrikwekkende getalle en 'n rekord agtergelaat. wat gekenmerk kan word as 'Op sy beste gemeng', maar 'Altyd kleurvol'.

Ripley, gebore naby Columbus, Ohio, studeer aan West Point in 1843. Nadat hy diens gedoen het om die Konfederale kusverdediging voor te berei, waartydens hy Lee ’ se vaardighede verheerlik het, het hy in die somer van 1862 by die Army of Northern Virginia aangesluit. Een van sy kollegas by destyds noem hy hom ''n liefdevolle man met 'n groot whiskydrinkende drank'. By Antietam, waar Ripley se manne gehelp het om die sentrum te verdedig, is die generaal beskuldig van lafhartigheid deur generaal D.H. Hill. Een kolonel het opgemerk dat "Ripley ongelukkig weens sy reputasie gewond is, nie noodlottig nie."

Daarna is hy teruggestuur na Charleston, waar hy weer beheer oor sy verdediging gehad het tot vroeg in 1865. Tydens sy ampstermyn het hy 'n verhoor ondergaan op aanklagte van dronkenskap aan diens, maar blykbaar is hy onskuldig bevind. In Maart 1865 is hy en sy afdeling gestuur om by Joe Johnston aan te sluit, net betyds om in die Slag van Bentonville verslaan te word.


-> Ripley, R. S. (Roswell Sabine), 1823-1887

Brigadier -generaal in die South Carolina State Militia, gebaseer in Charleston, SC

Uit die beskrywing van Papers, 1862. (Duke University Library). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 20115889

Generaal Roswell S. Ripley, 'n boorling van Ohio, studeer in 1843 aan die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie en dien in die Mexikaanse en Seminole -oorloë. Nadat hy die weermag verlaat het, vestig hy hom in Suid -Carolina, waar hy 'n sakeman was en ook aktief was in die staatsmilisie. Hy is in 1860 aangewys as majoor van Suid -Carolina. As luitenant -kolonel was hy bevelvoerder oor die opgeknapte forte, Moultrie en Sumter. In 1861 word hy aangestel as brigadier -generaal, C.S.A. Nadat hy by Pemberton in Suid -Carolina gedien het, was Ripley 'n brigade -bevelvoerder in die Army of Northern Virginia. Hy is gewond in Antietam en keer terug na Suid -Carolina as bevelvoerder van die 1st Artillery District. Na die val van Charleston, in 1864, het Ripley by die Army of the West in Bentonville aangesluit. Na Bentonville het hy die Verenigde State na Brittanje verlaat, waar hy 'n aantal jare gebly het. Ripley is in 1887 in New York oorlede.

Uit die beskrywing van Roswell S. Ripley -papier, 1862 [manuskrip]. (Universiteit van Oos -Carolina). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 39672680

RS Ripley het die twee bundelgeskiedenis geskryf The War with Mexico, gepubliseer in 1849. Hy het vir die eerste helfte van 1846 aan die Coast Survey gewerk, en daarna in die Mexikaanse oorlog gedien as tweede luitenant en later eerste luitenant, 2de artillerie, wat deelgeneem het aan die meeste gevegte van Monterey na Mexico City.

Uit die beskrywing van R. S. Ripley-vraestelle, 1846-1847. (Onbekend). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 702138337

Inheems in Ohio en inwoner van South Carolina R.S. Ripley was 'n welvarende sakeman van Suid-Carolina, en die gepubliseerde skrywer was 'n offisier in die Amerikaanse weermag tydens die Meksikaan-Amerikaanse oorlog wat tydens die burgeroorlog as brigadier-generaal in die weermag van die Konfederale State gedien het.

Uit die beskrywing van Roswell Sabine Ripley-vraestelle, 1861-1863. (Universiteit van Suid -Carolina). WorldCat -rekord -ID: 757825269


Brigadier -generaal Roswell S. Ripley Monument

Kom meer te wete oor kopiereg en toegangsbeperkings vir die gebruik van materiaal uit Worthington Memory.

Brigadier -generaal Roswell S. Ripley Monument is realia, met genre -monumente en gedenktekens. Die afmetings daarvan is 8 in. X. 10 in..

Die Brigadier -generaal Roswell S. Ripley -monument is in 1894 opgedra ter ere van die boorling van Worthington, Roswell Sabine Ripley. Dit woon op die Magnolia Cemetery in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, waar sy begraafplaas geleë is. Ripley is gebore in Worthington, Ohio, 14 Maart 1823. Sy gesin verhuis na die staat New York, toe hy in 1839 by die US Military Academy aansluit. Hy studeer aan West Point en studeer in 1843. vorder na luitenant tydens die Mexikaanse oorlog. Hy skryf 'n geskiedenis van die oorlog, getiteld Die oorlog met Mexiko (1849). Na die Mexikaanse Oorlog was hy betrokke by militêre optrede teen die Seminoles in Florida en verskeie garnisoenpligte in die suide. Hy trou in 1852 en bedank sy opdrag in 1853 om hom in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, te vestig. Hy bly aktief met die rang van majoor in die plaaslike Militia. Na die afstigting van South Carolina in 1860, word Ripley 'n luitenant -kolonel in die Army of South Carolina. Hy het 'n groot rol gespeel in die Konfederale bombardement van Fort Sumter op 12 April 1861 en is op 15 Augustus 1861 as Brigadier -generaal aangestel.

* "Roswell Sabine Ripley", "The Confederate General", Vol. 6, William C. Davis, redakteur, The National Historical Society, (1991)


Beelde met hoë resolusie is beskikbaar vir skole en biblioteke via 'n inskrywing op American History, 1493-1943. Kyk of u skool of biblioteek reeds 'n intekening het. Of klik hier vir meer inligting. U kan ook 'n pdf van die prentjie hier by ons bestel.

Gilder Lehrman-versameling #: GLC02459.24 Skrywer/skepper: Manigault, Arthur Middleton (1824-1886) Plek Geskryf: Georgetown, Suid-Carolina Tipe: Handtekeningbrief onderteken Datum: 6 November 1861 Paginasie: 1 bl. : dossier 20,1 x 32 cm.

Moontlik vir generaal William Wallace Harllee. Manigault, kolonel van die 10de Regiment, Suid -Carolina Infanterie, 1ste Militêre Distrik van Suid -Carolina, bevat afskrifte van bevele en instruksies van generaal Roswell Sabine Ripley (bevele is nie ingesluit nie). Skryf, & quot In ooreenstemming hiermee sou ek u versoek om as 'n versterking in so 'n kort tyd as moontlik een regiment, of soveel kompanies as wat 'n mag van 800 man sal gee, aan my te stuur. & quot

William Wallace Harllee was die president van Wilmington & Manchester Railroad, en stigter van die stad Florence, Suid -Carolina. Hy was 'n generaal in die Suid -Carolina -burgermag, lid van die Algemene Vergadering van Suid -Carolina en 'n ondertekenaar van die Ordinance of Session.

Kennisgewing oor kopiereg Die kopieregwetgewing van die Verenigde State (titel 17, kode van die Verenigde State) is van toepassing op die maak van fotostate of ander reproduksies van kopieregmateriaal. Onder sekere voorwaardes in die wet, is biblioteke en argiewe gemagtig om 'n fotokopie of ander reproduksie te verskaf. Een van hierdie spesifieke voorwaardes is dat die fotostaat of reproduksie nie "vir enige ander doel as privaatstudie, studiebeurse of navorsing" gebruik mag word nie. As 'n gebruiker 'n fotokopie of reproduksie versoek of later gebruik, vir doeleindes wat meer as 'billike gebruik' is, is die gebruiker aanspreeklik vir inbreuk op outeursreg. Hierdie instelling behou die reg voor om te weier om 'n kopiebevel te aanvaar indien die vervulling van die bevel na die oordeel 'n oortreding van die kopieregwet sou inhou.

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Ons versameling: 170 Central Park West New York, NY 10024 Geleë op die onderste vlak van die New-York Historical Society


Roswell Sabine Ripley (1823-1887)

Roswell Sabine Ripley, 'n boorling van Ohio, is gebore te Worthington in Franklin County, 14 Maart 1823, en is op twintigjarige ouderdom aan die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie gegradueer. Hy was sewende in 'n klas van nege en dertig. Hy is twee keer kortgemaak vir dapperheid in die Mexikaanse oorlog, waarvan hy 'n geskiedenis van twee volumes geskryf het kort na die sluiting daarvan. Ripley, wat 'n broerskind was van generaal James W. Ripley, hoof van die ordonnansie van die Amerikaanse leër van 1861 tot met sy aftrede in 1863, trou in 1852 in die Middleton -gesin van Charleston, Suid -Carolina. Die jaar daarna bedank hy sy leërkommissie om daar sake te doen. In 1860 beset hy as luitenant -kolonel van die staatsmagte Fort Moultrie na die ontruiming daarvan deur majoor Robert Anderson, en ook Fort Sumter, na sy val in April 1861. Op 15 Augustus 1861 word hy aangestel as brigadier -generaal in die Konfederale diens. was in bevel van Suid -Carolina tot sy verligting die volgende jaar deur generaal Pemberton. Ripley was 'n bekwame en bekwame veldoffisier, maar vir ewig in stryd met beide sy meerdere en ondergeskiktes, waaronder generaals Cooper, Beauregard en Pemberton, toe hy in die departementele bevel was. Hy het 'n brigade in D. H. Hill se afdeling gekry, en het gedurende die sewe dae geveg en is ernstig gewond in Sharpsburg. Weer in diens in Suid -Carolina gedurende 1863 en 1864, is hy in die lente van 1865 by generaal J. E. Johnston se weermag beveel en het hy daarby aangesluit op die dag van die slag van Bentonville. By die beëindiging van die vyandelikhede het generaal Ripley na Engeland gegaan en 'n vervaardigingsonderneming aangegaan, wat gou misluk het. Daarna was sy woning in Charleston, maar hy het 'n groot deel van sy tyd in New York City deurgebring, waar hy op 29 Maart 1887 oorlede is. Hy word begrawe in Charleston.

Verw: generaals in grys, lewens van die konfederale bevelvoerders deur Ezra J. Warner. Gedruk deur Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge en Londen.


ROSWELL SABINE RIPLEY, CSA - Geskiedenis

[GESKIEDENisse]. RIPLEY, Roswell Sabine. Die oorlog met Mexiko. New York: Harper & amp Brothers, Publishers, Cliff Street 82, 1849. 2 vol. Deel I: [xi-xiii] xiv-xxii, [2] [25] 26-524 pp., 4 kaarte. Vol. II: [i-iii] iv-vii [1, leeg], [9] 10-650, [1] 2-14 (advertensies) pp., 10 kaarte. Totaal: 14 kaarte litografeer deur Sarony & Major met groot gevegte (insluitend Slag van Palo Alto, Slag van Resaca de la Palma, Monterrey, Beleg van Veracruz, Roete van Veracruz na Mexiko, Vallei van Mexiko, Storming van Chapultepec). 8vo (24,3 x 16 cm), oorspronklike bruin doek met blinde stempels met stekels met vergulde letters. Ligte rakverweer, vryf en vervaag. Intern goed, vol. 2 gedeeltelik onoopgemaak. Uit die biblioteek van Lucien Edgar Wood van Minneapolis met sy ink rubberstempel op verskeie plekke en sy potloodtekening in vol. 1. 'n Pragtige kopie.

Eerste uitgawe. Connor & Faulk 23: & ldquo Die vroegste belangrike geskiedenis van die oorlog en lank die enigste deeglike geskiedenis. Dit is verbasend gedetailleerd en akkuraat inaggenome die vroeë datum. Ripley poog nie om die skuld of skuld op enige van die twee lande aan te bring nie. [Hy] was meer geïnteresseerd in die militêre verbintenisse, maar. [bespreek] die gevolge van beide Amerikaanse en Mexikaanse binnelandse politiek op die loop van die oorlog. & rdquo Garrett & Goodwin, bl. 44. Haferkorn, p. 17. Howes R311. Raines, p. 174: & ldquo As militêre geskiedenis is dit nog nie uitgeblink nie. Skaars en hoog op prys gestel. & Rdquo Sabin 71530. Tutorow 3232.

Die litografiese kaarte en planne is uitstekend en toon troepebewegings, regimente en allerhande militêre detail. Bevat baie oor strategiese operasies van die oorlog, en baie daarvan is uit die eerste hand versamel.

Die skrywer (1823-1877), 'n boorling van Ohio, dien as 'n artillerie-offisier in die Mexiko-Amerikaanse oorlog en dien in die burgeroorlog, waarin hy vir die Suide veg.


Secessionville

Slag van Secessionville Herdenkingstoespraak deur Gene Kizer, Jr. op die gevegsterrein by Fort Lamar Heritage Preserve op James Island in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, 15 Junie 2019. Dit was 'n gedenkdiens ter ere van die 157ste herdenking van die briljante Konfederale oorwinning van 16 Junie , 1862. Die Slag van Secessionville was 'n uiters belangrike stryd, want as die Konfederate verloor het, sou Charleston vroeg reeds verlore gegaan het en die hoop op suidelike onafhanklikheid vinnig geëindig het. Toe die geveg om 04:30 begin, was dit 500 konfederate in Tower Battery teen 7,000 Yankees. Die gevegte het twee uur lank voortgeduur en twee keer bloedige hand-aan-hand-gevegte op die borstwering ingesluit. Daar was ongeveer 700 slagoffers van die unie en 200 konfederate. Na hierdie geveg het die Yankees James Island verlaat en by hul geweerbote in die Stonorivier vasgesteek. Die volgende jaar was daar natuurlik bloedige gevegte op Morris Island by Battery Wagner, nog 'n Konfederale oorwinning. Luitenant -kolonel Thomas M. Wagner, vir wie Battery Wagner vernoem is, was die derde bevelvoerder in die Slag van Secessionville nadat kolonel Thomas G. Lamar en luitenant -kolonel P. C. Gaillard gewond is. — Rekeninge van die stryd self is gedetailleerd en opwindend, so ek het deelnemers en primêre bronne uitgebrei aangehaal, terwyl ek dit in 'n betekenisvolle volgorde geplaas het. Ek het uit hierdie teks gepraat, sodat dit nie 'n voetnoot is nie, maar die bronne is almal daar.

Dit is 'n geweldige eer om op hierdie heilige grond te staan ​​en vanoggend met u te praat terwyl ons een van die belangrikste veldslae van die oorlog tussen die state herdenk: die Slag van Secessionville.

Daar was nie so baie immigrasie na die suide in die antebellum dae nie. Die Konfederate van 1861 was grootliks dieselfde bloed as die patriotte wat in 1776 teen die Britte geveg het.

Hulle het dieselfde sterk gevoelens oor vryheid en selfbestuur.

Die uitdrukking van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring kom inderdaad uit die verklaring van onafhanklikheid wat die meeste aangehaal is van die afstigtingsdebat in die suide gedurende die jaar wat tot die afstigting van Suid -Carolina gelei het:

Regerings word onder mense ingestel, wat hul regverdige bevoegdhede verkry uit die toestemming van die regeerders, dat wanneer 'n regeringsvorm vernietigend vir hierdie doel is, dit die reg van die mense is om dit te verander of af te schaf en 'n nuwe regering in te stellen die grondslag daarvan op sodanige beginsels en die organisering van sy bevoegdhede in so 'n vorm dat dit waarskynlik die veiligheid en geluk daarvan sal bewerkstellig.

Die land was in daardie dae nie gesentraliseer nie. Elke staat was soewerein en onafhanklik, net soos die lande in Europa. Koning George III het ingestem tot die Verdrag van Parys, 3 September 1783, waarin ELKE Amerikaanse staat gelys is en hulle dan almal AANHANKLIK verklaar het om vrye, soewereine en onafhanklike state te wees ….

Geen staat het ooit sy soewereiniteit ingetrek of sy onafhanklikheid prysgegee nie.

Drie state het trouens AANGEEI, voordat hulle by die nuwe Unie sou aansluit, dat hulle daarvan kon afskei as dit in hulle oë tirannies word. Die state was New York, Rhode Island en Virginia.

Omdat al die state as gelykes tot die Unie toegelaat is, het die aanvaarding van die afskeidingsreg wat deur New York, Rhode Island en Virginia vereis is, ook aan die ander state die reg gegee.

Môre, 16 Junie 2019, is dit die 157e herdenking van die Slag van Secessionville wat op 16 Junie 1862, veertien maande in die oorlog, op hierdie heilige grond begin het. As hierdie geveg verlore was, sou Charleston verlore gewees het, dan gou die oorlog.

Charleston was 'n GROOT simbool vir beide kante.

Charleston is die plek waar die Konfederasie begin het toe Suid -Caroliniërs op 20 Desember 1860 in 'n plegtige byeenkoms van die mense hier vergader en eenparig, 169 teen 0, gestem het om van die Unie af te skei.

Charleston is waar die oorlog 16 weke later, op 12 April 1861, begin het nadat Abraham Lincoln geweier het om sy troepe uit soewereine grond in Suid -Carolina te verwyder.

In plaas daarvan het hy vir die Suidlanders gelieg en belowe om die garnisoen van Fort Sumter te verwyder terwyl hy dit in die geheim versterk het.

Hy het skepe met 26 gewere en ongeveer 1400 mans gestuur om Fort Pickens in Pensacola te versterk en 200 soldate by Fort Sumter te land met 'n jaar se voorraad.

Hy het goed geweet dat die oorlog sou begin.

Toe majoor Anderson, bevelvoerder van die vakbond in Fort Sumter, 'n kennisgewing ontvang dat hy weer voorsien en moontlik versterk sal word, antwoord Anderson op 8 April met 'n brief wat gedeeltelik lui:

“. . . 'n Beweging wat nou gemaak word wanneer die Suide verkeerdelik ingelig is dat niks so gepoog sal word nie, sou die rampspoedigste resultate in ons land oplewer. . . . Ons sal daarna streef om ons plig na te kom, alhoewel ek eerlik sê dat my hart nie in die oorlog is wat ek sien moet begin word nie.

Majoor Anderson SIEN dat die oorlog so begin word deur Abraham Lincoln.

Die belangrikheid van die besit van Charleston kan nie oorbeklemtoon word nie.

Genl Robert E. Lee het aan genl. Pemberton geskryf en gesê: “ Die verlies van Charleston sou ons feitlik heeltemal afskakel van kommunikasie met die res van die wêreld en die enigste kanaal sluit waardeur ons kan verwag om voorraad uit die buiteland te kry, nou amper ons enigste afhanklikheid. ”

Genl Lee het bygevoeg dat daar straat vir straat en huis vir huis teen Charleston gestry moet word, solank ons ​​'n voetjie het om op te staan. ”

In 'n resolusie word dieselfde gesê:

Dit is opgelos dat die goewerneur en die uitvoerende raad in 'n mening saamstem met die mense van Suid -Carolina, vergader in die konvensie, dat Charleston teen elke koste van lewe of eiendom verdedig moet word, en dat hulle in hul doelbewuste oordeel 'n afkeuring van die vyand met die hele stad in puin na 'n ontruiming of oorgawe op enige manier. ”

Die Noorde wou Charleston net so vernietig as wat ons haar wou beskerm.

Horace Greeley ’s New York Tribune op 9 Junie 1862, 'n week voor die Slag van Secessionville, gesê:

‘Doom ’ hang oor die goddelose Charleston. Daardie adder se nes en broeiplek van rebellie word hierdie keer belê deur Union Arms, miskien reeds in ons hande. As daar 'n stad is wat holocaustiese infamie verdien, is dit Charleston. . . .

Dit is dieselfde Horace Greeley wat geglo het in die reg van afskeiding en dit trots verklaar het — ons dwalende susters laat gaan totdat hy besef dat dit sy geld sou beïnvloed. Toe wou hy oorlog hê, net soos die hele Noorde.

Suidelike afskeiding het die begin van 'n ekonomiese ineenstorting in die Noorde veroorsaak. Hulle het nie besef dat hul ekonomie grootliks gebaseer is op die vervaardiging van die suide en die versending van suidelike katoen nie. Katoen alleen was 60% van die Amerikaanse uitvoer in 1860.

Die grootste deel van die rykdom en mag van die noorde was afhanklik van die suide. Tienduisende miljoene dollars het jaarliks ​​uit die suide en die noorde gevloei weens tariewe, premies, subsidies en monopolieë vir besighede in die noorde.

Suidlanders het die meeste belasting betaal, maar verregaande word driekwart van die belastinggeld in die noorde bestee.

Die senator van Georgia, Robert Toombs, noem dit 'n suigpomp wat rykdom uit die suide suig en dit in die noorde neersit, en dit bestaan ​​uit:

Omvang en beskerming vir elke belang en elke strewe in die noorde, ten minste ten minste vyftig miljoen per jaar, behalwe die uitgawes van ten minste sestig miljoene uit elke sewentig van die openbare uitgawes onder HULLEom sodoende die skatkis 'n voortdurende bemestingsstroom vir hulle en hul bedryf te maak, en 'n afzuigpomp om ons stof weg te gooi en ons land op te vaar.

Henry L. Benning, een van genl Lee ’ se bekwaamste brigadier -generaals en na wie Fort Benning, Georgia genoem is, het gesê $85,000,000, 'n groot som in daardie dae, was die hoeveelheid wat voortdurend deur Robert Toombs se suigpomp vloei.

Die voormalige Benning het ook gesê:

Die noorde wat afgesny is van suidelike katoen, rys, tabak en ander suidelike produkte, sou driekwart van haar handel verloor, en 'n baie groot deel van haar vervaardiging. En sodoende sou die groot fonteine ​​van finansies baie laag sak. . . . Sou die Noorde in so 'n toestand soos dit oorlog teen die Suide verklaar?

Sonder die noorde was die suide in 'n goeie toestand met 100% beheer oor die mees gevraagde goedere op die planeet: katoen.

Sonder die Suide was die Noorde dood. En hulle begin paniekerig raak.

Die Daily Chicago Times skryf op 10 Desember 1860, 'n week voor die afstigtingskonvensie in South Carolina sou belê:

In 'n enkele slag moet ons buitelandse handel verminder word tot minder as die helfte van wat dit nou is. Ons kusgewyse handel sou in ander hande oorgaan. Die helfte van ons versending sou ledig by ons kaaie lê. [As] Ons moet ons handel met die Suide verloor, met al sy IMMENSE WINSTE. Ons fabrieke sou in puin lê. Laat die Suide die vryhandelstelsel aanneem, en hierdie resultate sal waarskynlik volg. Ons moet van die mark verdryf word, en miljoene van ons mense sal verplig wees om hul werk te verlaat. (Klem bygevoeg.)

Die vakbond -demokraat van Manchester (N.H.) skryf op 19 Februarie 1861, een dag na die inhuldiging van Jefferson Davis:

In die vervaardigingsafdelings het ons nou die byna eksklusiewe aanbod van 10 000 000 mense. Kan hierdie mark afgesny word, en voel ons dit nie? Ons meulens loop nou, hoekom? Omdat hulle katoen het. . . .Maar hulle sal nie lank duur nie. Ons hoor by goeie gesag dat sommige van hulle binne sestig dae sal stop. ”

Sestig dae vanaf 19 Februarie is dit aan die begin van die oorlog. Die oorlog het 52 dae vanaf die hoofartikel begin.

Die Vakbond -demokraat aangegaan:

As mense besef dat die Unie permanent ontbind is, sal eiendom in 'n enkele jaar die helfte verswak. ¾ Ons bevolking sal afneem met die afname in sake, en sake sal in geometriese vordering van sleg tot erger gaan ¾ tot ons almal sal in geheel ondergang oorweldig word.

Die Morrill -tarief het dinge vererger. Dit is op 2 Maart 1861 aangeneem, net voordat Lincoln ingehuldig is, en dit het die koste van toegang tot die Noorde 37 tot 50% hoër gemaak as toegang tot die Suide, dus wou niemand met die Noorde sake doen nie. Die noordelike skeepvaartbedryf het oornag na die suide verskuif, waar die noordelike skeepskapteine ​​na hul vragte gegaan het. Tien dae nadat die MorRILL -tarief deur die Noordelike Kongres aangeneem is, Die New York Evening Post geskryf:

[A] laat spoorwegyster by Savannah ingevoer word met die lae belasting van tien persent. nie 'n greintjie meer nie sou in New York ingevoer word:. . . die spoorweë sou vanaf die suidelike hawens voorsien word. . . . Laat katoengoed, wolstowwe, laat die verskillende vervaardigings van yster en staal vry by Galveston,. . . by die groot hawe by die monding van die Mississippi,. . . by Mobile,. . . by Savannah. . . en in Charleston, en hulle sou onmiddellik die riviere opgestuur word en op die spoorweë na die verste dele van die Unie vervoer word. . . . die bronne wat ons tesourie verskaf, sal opgedroog word, en ons het GEEN GELDE om die regering aan te hou nie. . . die nasie sal bankrot raak voordat die volgende mielieoes ryp is.

Stel jou die berekening voor in die gedagtes van Abraham Lincoln, president van die Noorde, toe sy streek in duie stort. Hy kon geen uitweg sien nie. Hy het geweet dat die Suide die gewildste goedere op die planeet beheer, katoen, en hy WEET dat die Suide styf was met Engeland en wou strenger wees. Hy het geweet dat sodra Suid -Afrikaners handels- en militêre alliansies met Groot -Brittanje en ander Europese lande voltooi het, die Noorde sou NIE die Suide kon klop nie. As gevolg van katoen sou die Suide sy eie goedere industrialiseer en versend en na oorheersing in Noord -Amerika styg en vrylik met die wêreld handel dryf. Hulle wou altyd vryhandel hê en het beskermende tariewe ongrondwetlik gemaak.

As u die oorweldigende hulpbronne van die Noorde met die Suide vergelyk: die Noorde het VIER KEER gehad, het die blanke bevolking van die Suide, miskien 200 keer of meer as die vervaardiging. Daar was nie 'n enkele fabriek in die Suide wat mariene enjins kon bou nie, maar daar was 19 in die noorde. Die Noorde het 'n uitgebreide spoorwegstelsel, 'n funksionerende regering met toegang tot onbeperkte immigrasie waarmee die leërs van die Unie, 'n leër, 'n vloot, 'n handelsvloot, verhoudings met al die regerings van die wêreld, 'n stewige finansiële stelsel kan voed. . .

Lincoln was 'n man van 40 voet lank, gewapen tot op die tande met moderne wapens, en staan ​​voor 'n man van vyf voet lank met 'n muskiet.

Lincoln wou natuurlik veg. Hy kon nie WAG om te veg nie. Daarom het hy nie sy troepe uit Fort Sumter onttrek nie. Daarom het hy troepe by Fort Pickens in Pensacola geland ure voordat Fort Sumter gebombardeer is. Daarom het hy in die eerste plek sy vyandige versterkingsmissie na Charleston gestuur.

Sommige in die Noordelike pers was dit eens. Die Providence (R.I.) Daily Post het op 13 April 1861 geskryf toe Fort Sumter gebombardeer is, en ons gaan 'n burgeroorlog hê. . . omdat Abraham Lincoln beter van 'n partytjie hou as van sy land. . . . Meneer Lincoln het 'n geleentheid gesien om 'n burgeroorlog te begin sonder om in die karakter van 'n aggressor te verskyn. ”

Beide kante het besef dat James Island die sleutel was om Charleston in te neem, en ondanks probleme hier en daar, asook ernstige tekorte aan alles, was die verdediging van Charleston BRILJANT. Die Konfederate se verdedigers, van wie baie inheemse Charlestonians was, was vreesloos en het die terrein geken.

'N Lid van die 1st South Carolina Regiment wat in Charleston in aksie was, BAO Norris, van Graham Texas, het in die tydskrif Confederate Veteran, Desember 1907, oor Charleston gesê:

Ek dink ek het reg as ek verklaar dat dit die enigste beleërde plek was wat nie toegegee het vir die magte wat dit beleër nie. Dit was sterker en makliker om enige aanval af te weer op die dag dat dit ontruim is as ooit tevore. ”

Brigadier -generaal Roswell Sabine Ripley het 'n goeie artikel geskryf met die titel “Charleston and its Defenses. ” in 1885. Ripley het baie werk verrig.

Elke benadering tot Charleston moes in ag geneem word. Ripley het gesê dat die verdedigingslinies strek vanaf die binnelandse kanaal oorkant die gemeente Christ Church [Mt. Pleasant], oor die gemeente na die Wandorivier oorkant Charleston Neck en vanaf die regteroewer van die Ashleyrivier, deur die St. Andrew's parochie, na die Stono en aan die oewer van die rivier en oor James Island tot by die kanale op sy ooste, naby Secessionville. ”

Omdat Charleston deur die Britte in die Revolusionêre Oorlog uit die nekgebied geneem is, skryf Ripley “it was vasbeslote om die laan effektief te sluit. 'N Sterk versterkingslyn is tegelyk oor die skiereiland van rivier tot rivier gebou. Dit was bedoel om 'n kanaal van die Cooper na die Ashley te sny, ongeveer twee myl voor dit, met volledige versterkings. In case of attack the timber in front could be readily felled to cover the approaches with abattis, while the whole system could be flanked by fire from gunboats in either one or the other river. The interior line was finished in a few weeks.”

Ripley writes “a strong cremalliere line [JAGGED] was constructed across James Island from a point on Wappoo Cut . . . to the vicinity of Secessionville.” This was done January to February, 1862. Fort Pemberton was on the end by Wappoo Cut, and Tower Battery was on the opposite end by Secessionville. Both were in advance of the regular Confederate line by almost a mile.

If you look at a Google map of the Secessionville peninsula, it is shaped somewhat like an oblong hourglass and the part where the Confederates built Tower Battery is the absolute narrowest part across the peninsula.

Ripley said “At this time Colonel L. M. Hatch was stationed with his regiment at Secessionville. His especial duty was to watch the creeks and interior water-approaches. He conceived the idea of fortifying the neck of the latter peninsula, . . . his suggestions were approved, and with the labor of his regiment he constructed the priest-cap work across the neck with flanking arrangements, built a strong bridge to connect the northern end of the peninsula [Secessionville] with the main island, and erected an observatory which commanded an extensive view of the approaches to Charleston from the south-east. It proved very fortunate that this work was early accomplished.”

The priest-cap design was two redans, side by side, so, together, they looked like the letter M. That design allowed troops inside to shoot an enfilading fire on anybody attacking the front. The whole front was approximately 125 yards across.

The footbridge was well over a half mile long and extended from old Secessionville to the main Confederate lines and it was capable of men AND horses so Tower Battery could be reinforced.

The tower was 75 feet high and a lookout with field glasses could see all over James Island including all the Yankee positions at the mouth of the Stono by Folly Beach.

Johnson Hagood, in his memoirs, added that Tower Battery “was further strengthened by a small flanking battery across the northern creek or marsh, afterwards called Battery Reed, in honor of the gallant Captain Sam J. Reed.” Reed was killed in the Battle of Secessionville. Battery Reed was extremely beneficial, laying down enfilading fire from a mile away on Yankees attacking the front of Tower Battery.

Hagood said “Fort Pemberton was in fighting condition. But four guns were mounted [initially] at Secessionville a bomb-proof shelter, and a powder magazine had been there constructed. The parapet was unfinished in front of the guns—indeed, its profile was so slight that after the battle of the 16th June Colonel Hagood rode his horse into the ditch and over the parapet from the exterior approach.”

Milby Burton in Siege of Charleston writes:

“On June 2, 1862, General Pemberton wired Jefferson Davis that there were 20 vessels in the Stono Inlet. . . . [O]ther Union troops stationed on Edisto Island were ferried across to Seabrook’s Island and marched across Johns Island to Legareville, from which point they were transported across to James Island for the assault on Charleston.”

Pemberton was short of ammunition. He told Brig. Gen. States Rights Gist “not to waste ammunition.”

He also told Brigadier General Mercer in Savannah to have “ALL of your command ready to move at the shortest notice.”

“On June 8, Pemberton informed W. J. Magrath, president of the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, that ‘the enemy in large force is preparing to attack Charleston—Probably through James and John’s Island,’ and requested Magrath have several trains ready to move at a moment’s notice for or with troops.'”

On June 9, writes Confederate Gen. Samuel Jones in his book, The Siege of Charleston, Union General Wright’s division crossed the Stono “and took position on Mr. Thomas Grimble’s plantation, two miles above Union General Stephens’ command. The Confederates immediately opened fire of solid shot and shell, which fell into, around, and over General Wright’s camp and among the gunboats in the Stono. General Stephens’ camp was also under fire. This at once convinced General Benham [the Union commanding officer] that the main camps and landings were untenable while exposed to the Confederate fire, and as there was not dry land enough on the island above high water for a secure camp out of range of the Confederate guns, it seemed evident that he would be obliged to abandon the island, the key to Charleston,— or silence the advanced Confederate batteries.”

“On June 10, Pemberton ordered the Confederate lines to advance in order to establish a battery of heavy guns on the edge of Grimball’s plantation with a view to driving the gunboats from the immediate area and making landing hazardous. Colonel Hagood started advancing with the First South Carolina and a battalion of the Fourth Louisiana on the right flank, and Colonel Williams with the Forty-seventh Georgia on the left flank. Williams ran into the Union forces in the thick woods. The Georgians made ‘a gallant advance and fought with great vigor, but their lines being disorganized, advanced in squad strength where they were repulsed and badly cut up.'” They lost 60 to 70 men. (Burton, Hagood)

On June 14, Emma Holmes in her diary wrote “Skirmishes of almost daily occurrences on James Island.”

Also on June 14, Gen. Evans assumed command on James Island and inspected the lines.

On “June 15, General Pemberton wrote Governor Pickens that he had on James Island only 6,500 effective men.” Yankees thought 12,000.

There was much skirmishing. They knew something was about to happen.

Sunrise on Monday, June 16, 1862, was 5:14 a.m. The time structure was different in those days and an hour earlier than today.

Milby Burton writes: “In spite of feverish activity, this breastwork was incomplete at the time of the attack. Col. Thomas G. Lamar, who was in command, had pushed his men to the point of exhaustion. Finally, at 3 a.m. on the morning of June 16, he allowed his worn-out men to sleep. . . . They were barely asleep when they were awakened by an assault by a brigade of Union troops. . . . Since there was little time to give the alarm, Lamar rushed to one of the big guns, already loaded with grape, and pulled the lanyard. The roar of the gun aroused the troops, and the grape tore into the oncoming ranks” and the Battle of Secessionville was on.

Here’s how Col. Lamar described it:

“On the morning of June 16 about 4 o’clock my pickets were driven in and reported to me that the enemy were advancing in force. . . . I immediately dispatched a courier to Lieutenant Colonels Gaillard and Smith, ordering them to move up their battalions at once. . . . I then proceeded to my batteries. . . . When I arrived . . . I found the enemy to be within 700 yards in line of battle and advancing on me at the double quick.” That’s when the Columbiad was fired, and soon all the guns were firing.

“By 2 a.m. on June 16 the Federal troops had been ‘falling in’ into two columns. The first or assaulting group consisted of the Second Division, composed of six regiments with some engineers, cavalry, and artillery, under the command of Brigadier General Stevens this group comprised about 3500 men. Another column, comprised of the First Division, consisting of about 3100 troops, was formed on the left of the Second under the command of Brigadier General Wright. The assaulting group was to advance in silence and make the attack at ‘first light’ with the bayonet the First Division was to protect the Second from a flank attack by the Confederate troops. The large number of Federal troops should have been more than sufficient to surprise and crush a garrison of 500 men.”

“Confederate troops rushed to the aid of Colonel Lamar’s defenders as they were aroused. The first to reach him was the Pee Dee Battalion under the command of Lt. Col. A. D. Smith. Next, from its encampment nearby, came the Charleston Battalion, commanded by Lt. Col. P. C. Gaillard. Finally those of the assaulting troops who had reached the parapet were either killed or repulsed. The Eighth Michigan fell back and re-formed with the aid of the Second Brigade they charged under fire for 1000 yards, assaulted the works, and again gained a foothold. After more fierce hand-to-hand fighting, they were again pushed back.”

Here is the Yankee perspective by Confederate Gen. Samuel Jones in his book:

“The enemy were known to be busily at work night and day, strengthening their positions, and it had been reported to General Benham some days before that from the masthead of a naval vessel in the Stono several long trains of cars loaded with troops had been seen pouring into Charleston over the road which Colonel Christ’s expedition had failed to break”

Colonel Christ’s expedition, that he is referring to, was an attack on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad, a critical part of coastal defenses. Whichever city needed troops, the other was to send them on the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. It’s defenses were put in place by Gen. Robert E. Lee who had his headquarters along the railroad line at Coosawhatchie, SC, half way between Charleston and Savannah, from November, 1861, to March, 1862, when he was in charge down here. There were numerous attacks by Union troops to break the railroad but they were always defeated by tenacious Confederates.

“About four o’clock on a dark cloudy morning Stephens’ whole command was in motion and, pressing forward rapidly and in silence, surprised the Confederate picket in the house they occupied, captured two or three of the men and, debouching through the advanced hedge, advancing at double-quick time, deployed, or attempted to deploy, into line of battle, the Seventh Connecticut, the center regiment, following close on the Eighth Michigan, to form on its left. It seems that the mistake, or blunder, had been made of attempting to charge with brigade front over a space scarcely wide enough for a regiment in line. While the regiments of the leading brigade were forming forward into line in double-quick time, a storm of grape and canister from the Confederate guns crashed through the center of the line and continued tearing through the ranks with great rapidity, severing the line, one part crowding toward the right, the other to the left.”

“Still, the regiment moved rapidly on, preserving their order and leaving the ground in their rear strewn with their dead and wounded, and did not stop until they gained the parapet and delivered their fire upon the enemy in his works. But they were unable to contend against such great odds, and, being entirely unsupported for a considerable time, they fell back slowly, contesting every inch of ground . . . .”.

“When within two or three hundred yards of the Confederate works the Seventh Connecticut ‘came obliquely upon an unforeseen ditch and morass,’ crowding and doubling up the regiment toward the center. At this moment a terrific fire of grape and musketry swept through the ranks. ‘The line was inevitably broken,’ says Colonel Hawley, ‘and though the men stood bravely to their work the line could not be reformed until the colors were brought into the open field.”

There was much confusion, then the Yankees went forward and “marched by the flank through a dense brush on our left and followed the edge of the bushes, which formed one side of a marsh to within forty yards of the enemy’s work. Here our progress was interrupted by a large fallen tree, between which and the enemy’s work was an impassable marsh. On our right was an abattis of dense brush and on our left and front marsh. Here we lost many of the men who were killed and wounded in the regiment. Seeing that we could be of no possible use in this place with less than platoon front to retaliate by fire on the enemy, and this position being raked by the fire of the gun on the corner of the enemy’s work nearest the observatory, I ordered the regiment to retire, and it, too, found shelter behind the hedge.'”

“While the First Brigade was being thus cut up the Seventy-ninth Highlanders, leading the Second Brigade, was ordered by General Stephens to the right to assail the work a little to the right of the point from which the Eighth Michigan had been driven. Lieutenant Colonel Morrison led the right wing of his regiment to the parapet.”

“‘As I mounted the parapet,’ says the Lieutenant Colonel, ‘I received a wound in the head, which, though slight, stunned me for the time being but still I was able to retain command. With me, many mounted the works, but only to fall or to receive their wounds from the enemy posted in rifle-pits in rear of the fort. . . . From the ramparts I had a full view of their works. They were entrenched in a position well selected for defensive purposes and upon which our artillery seemed to have little effect, save driving them into their retreats, and in attempting to dislodge them we were met with a fierce and determined opposition, but with equal if not superior determination and courage were they met by our forces, and had I been supported could have carried their works, . . . for we virtually had it in our possession. After remaining in this position some considerable time and not being supported by the other regiments, I received orders to fall back, which I did in good order, leaving behind about forty killed or badly wounded, many of whom fell on the ramparts . . . “.

“While the two latter regiments were coming into line, Colonel Leasure, the Brigade Commander, with his staff, hastened forward to hurry up the left of the Seventy-ninth, intending to lead the assault in person. When about three hundred yards from the Confederate works, he reached the storm. He says: ‘We entered the range of a perfect storm of grape, canister, nails, broken glass, and pieces of chains, fired from three very large pieces on the fort, which completely swept every foot of ground within the range and either cut the men down or drove them to the shelter of the ravine on the left. I now turned to look after and lead up the One Hundredth Pennsylvania Regiment and found its center just entering the fatal line of fire which completely cut it in two, and the right under Major Lecky obliqued to the right and advanced to support the right of the Seventy-ninth New York, and many of the men reached the foot of the embankment and some succeeded in mounting it . . .”.

Across the creek on the right side of Tower Battery if facing forward “The Third New Hampshire and Third Rhode Island were pushed well to the front. The Third New Hampshire approached to within forty years of the Confederate works and opened fire. Colonel Jackson, commanding the regiment, reports that he found no artillery on that part of the Confederate works and that he could easily have gone into the fort.”

“‘IF,’ he adds, ‘I could have crossed a stream between me and the earthworks about twenty yards in width with apparently four or five feet of water, and the mud very soft the men therefore could not cross. The enemy soon opened on me from a battery about two hundred yards in our rear, throwing grape in to the ranks, from which we suffered severely. In a short time they opened fire with rifles and infantry. At the same time a battery about a mile north of us opened on us with shot and shell.'”

I just want to say, you can’t cross a saltwater creek that is five feet deep and full of pluff mud and assault a fort unless you have a heck of a lot of time to wade across, as we all know. This proves the brilliance of Confederate thinking and planning.

Gen. Samuel Smith goes on: “He seems to have been well enveloped in fire and the [Yankee] regiment suffered severely. He saw reinforcements passing into the Confederate works, which he was powerless to prevent. A section of Hamilton’s battery—regular artillery—succeeded in silencing the battery in the rear and a battalion of the Third Rhode Island penetrated the brushwood to dislodge the Confederate sharpshooters, but did not succeed. The assault was already essentially over and it was a mere waste of life and limb to keep these troops where they were. They were therefore withdrawn.”

Here’s what the Charleston Battalion had to say about it from Charlestonians in War:

“One hundred and twenty-five yards across the marsh that was protecting the Confederate right flank, the rattle of musketry was heard followed in a split second by a shower of bullets and booming artillery fire from an undetected Federal force. The exhausted men of the Charleston Battalion had just begun to relax after their fight when they were rudely jolted by this fire. These fresh Union troops, namely the Third New Hampshire Infantry and Third Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, were pouring a ‘continuous and deadly fire,’ witnesses reported. ‘Many of our men fell at the guns and along the line formed to the rearward of the battery on its right flank.’ These New Englanders had managed to reach a point behind the Confederate right flank where they could fire into the unprotected rear of the battery and resultantly the few remaining Confederate artillerists were compelled to abandon their guns and take cover while the infantry desperately returned the enemy fire.”

“Due to loss of blood from his neck wound, Lieutenant Colonel Lamar now passed command of the entire battery to Lieutenant Colonel Gaillard, who himself was soon severely wounded in the knee. Without hesitation, Gaillard moved some of his men down the bank of the marsh, where they stood opposite their foe and exchanged rifle shot for rifle shot in a slugging match of endurance. . . . The exhausted Charlestonians tore cartridges and rammed home round after round to the point of giving out, when on the field arrived reinforcements in the form of the Fourth Louisiana Battalion, . . . ” and “the Twenty-fourth South Carolina Infantry and Eutaw Battalion, who both rapidly advanced from their camps several miles to the battlefield to aid in the Union defeat.”

After Lieutenant Colonel Gaillard was wounded in the knee, he turned command over to Lt. Col. T. M. Wagner.

Gen. Samuel Jones continues:

“The assault which had resulted so disastrously, narrowly missed brilliant success. The works about Secessionville were occupied by two companies of the First (afterwards Second) South Carolina Artillery, and two battalions of infantry, the Charleston Battalion, Lieutenant Colonel Gaillard, and the Pee Dee Battalion, Lieutenant Colonel Smith commanding, in all, less than five hundred men. Colonel T. G. Lamar, of the South Carolina Artillery, commanded the post.”

“From the landing of the Federal force on the 2d to the morning of the 16th the Confederate troops had been subjected, day and night, to the most arduous duties. On the 15th there had been sharp skirmishing and the combined fire from the land and naval batteries had been unusually heavy. Notwithstanding the secrecy observed in the Federal camps, Colonel Lamar had observed enough to convince him that an attack would be made in the night of the 15th or early the following morning, and so reported to General Evans, commanding on the island, who ordered Colonel Johnson Hagood to reinforce Secessionville up to 2000 men, but the reinforcements had not arrived when the assault was made.”

“Colonel Lamar and his men had been busily at work all night of the 15th and until three o’clock in the morning constructing a new land battery and transferring guns to it from an old gunboat.”

“The aggregate Confederate loss was 204, nearly the whole of it falling on the troops who defended the Secessionville batteries. The struggle for the parapet had been especially stubborn and fierce. Muskets were clubbed and Lieutenant Campbell and Mr. Tennant, of the Charleston Battalion, in default of better weapons, seized handspikes and wielded them with effect.”

As soon as the result of the assault was made known to [Union] General Hunter, then at Hilton Head, he relieved General Benham from command and ordered him to Washington in arrest, charged with disobedience of orders and instructions in making the assault. General Wright, who succeeded General Benham in command, was ordered to abandon James Island, which was soon done, leisurely and in perfect order. The Federal troops returned to the points from which they had started on the expedition and the Confederates were left undisturbed to complete the strong lines of earthworks on James Island from Fort Johnson, on the harbor, to Pringle, on the Stono, which were never captured.

“Two things helped turn the battle in the battery’s favor.” One was “two small field guns at two different locations, one manned by Lieutenant Jeter, the other by Lt. Col. Ellison Capers” later known as Battery Reed whose purpose was to enfilade an enemy attack on the breastwork at Secessionville a mile away.” . . . . “Both men fired their guns with excellent effect into the Third New Hampshire and helped to hasten their withdrawal” as the hand-to-hand fighting had continued until the “assaulting troops were again repulsed.”

Another major factor that turned the battle in the favor of the Confederates was that “Lt. Col. J. McEnery, commanding a battalion of Louisiana troops, had been aroused by Col. Hagood and sent to Secessionville. McEnery and his men, who were encamped some distance away, started toward the battery” and “advanced to Secessionville over the bridge, nearly a mile long, that extended from the opposite part of the island to the rear of the battery. They arrived on the run . . . and gave considerable assistance in repulsing the Third New Hampshire, which was pouring a deadly fire into the rear of the battery.”

Here is an account by a soldier IN that Louisiana battalion, H. J. Lea of Winnsboro, Louisiana, writing in Confederate Veteran, January, 1923:

“I was a member of Capt. J. W. Walker’s company, which enlisted and went out from Monroe, Louisiana March 2, 1862. We went to Savannah, Ga. and there were attached to and made part of the 4th Louisiana Battalion, commanded by Col. John McEnery.”

“At the break of day on the morning of the 16th, firing was heard up in the front of the fort, the alarm given, and the LONG ROLL BEAT, and the line was quickly formed with orders to march in double-quick time. The distance was as much as three-quarters of a mile or more to the fort. We went up the road along the west side of the line to the bridge, which was about two hundred yards long, crossed over, and turned to the east about four hundred yards to the fort. Just before the head of our line reached the fort, the Yankee regiment, having formed on the opposite side of Lighthouse Creek, at this point about one hundred yards distant, opened fire on us. We were ordered to halt, face to the right, and fire. This continued but a short time the storming party in front was crowding in, and we were ordered to face to the left and rush to the fort, where the Yankees were scrambling for the top of the parapets crowding forward in great numbers with a desperate determination to capture the fort. We arrived just at the critical moment a few minutes later would have been too late. They were repulsed, routed, and fled in the same quick time that they came, with the rifles and artillery playing on them to the extreme range.”

“It seemed that every man there in defense of the fort felt as though the whole responsibility of holding the fort rested on him, for it would have been impossible for any force of the same size to have done more. As soon as the storming party in front gave way and fled, the flanking party across the creek also fled hurriedly, for had they remained, even for a short time, they would have been cut off and captured or killed.”

“I remember a tower which stood at the south end of the fort . . . on which a guard was constantly on duty to observe the movements of the enemy. I was permitted to go upon one occasion, and the sentry kindly let me have the use of his glasses for a short time.”

“This battle was one of great importance, considering the effect it may have had on the Confederacy had we failed, for, as I remember it, this point was in reach of Charleston and the enemy, if successful, might have reversed our own guns and brought them to bear on that city.”

“General Lee’s army surrendered April 9, and General Johnston’s a few days later, and, other organizations rapidly following, the Confederate government merged into history. I have not been back since, but remain an unreconstructed Confederate.”

Another Confederate in the battle, R. De T. Lawrence of Marietta, Georgia, wrote in Confederate Veteran, November, 1922:

“Many years after, I met at the Confederate Home of Georgia, a Mr. Jordan, who had been in the engagement in the battery, and subsequently in a number of battles in Virginia, and he told me that the one at Secessionville was the closest and hardest fought of any.”

Warren Ripley writes in the Introduction of Siege Train:

“. . . just as the Southerners had discovered the power of the U.S. Navy at Port Royal, Fort Lamar taught the Yankees a valuable lesson — don’t tangle with the Confederate Army beyond protective range of the warships’ guns. These two principles were to color military thinking in the Charleston area for the remainder of the war.”

Mary Boykin Chesnut in her famous diary wrote:

“At Secessionville, we went to drive the Yankees out, and we were surprised ourselves. We lost one hundred, the Yankees four hundred. They lost more men than we had in the engagement. Fair shooting that! As they say in the West, ‘We whipped our weight in wildcats’ and some to spare. Henry King was killed. He died as a brave man would like to die. From all accounts, they say he had not found this world a bed of roses.”

Her numbers are wrong but her proportions are almost right!

“More talk of Secessionville. Dr. Tennent proved himself a crack shot. They handed him rifles, ready loaded, in rapid succession and at the point he aimed were found thirty dead men. Scotchmen in a regiment of Federals at Secessionville were madly intoxicated. They had poured out whiskey for them like water.”

“Total Union casualties, including killed, wounded, and missing, were almost 700 those of the Confederates came to slightly over 200. Most of the casualties occurred in an area about 125 yards wide immediately in front of the battery and on the battery itself.”

“Before the attack, the battery was known as the Tower Battery . . . After the battle, however, it was named Battery Lamar.”

“When the news of the repulse of the Federal forces reached Charleston, the citizens were elated, but when the casualty list arrived including the names of many Charlestonians, one commentator wrote: ‘a Gloom has been cast over our City by the death of many fine young men.'”

“After the valiant defense of the battery, the Confederate Congress passed the following resolution: ‘That the thanks of Congress are due and are hereby tendered to Colonel Thomas G. Lamar and the officers and men engaged in the gallant and successful defense of Secessionville against the greatly superior numbers of the enemy on the 16th day of June, 1862.'”

Gen. Ripley ended his article on the defenses of Charleston with these interesting facts:

“The works of defense around Charleston were continued throughout the war until its close . . . . With the exception of a spasmodic attempt to overwhelm Fort Sumter, and an abortive attack upon Battery Simkins and Fort Johnson, the siege of Charleston degenerated into a blockade, in which the Federal fleet was assisted by the Federal batteries on Morris Island, and a useless though annoying bombardment of the city of Charleston at long range.

“The work of the engineers went on, however, notably at Fort Sumter which the enemy endeavored to crush continually. It was WELL supplied at night, and the works of the interior retrenchment well and efficiently carried on under Captain John Johnson, an able engineer, so that it became almost impregnable against an assault, and its garrison lived under the terrific cannonade to which it was subjected in comparative comfort.”

In ending, I just want to say Charleston was never conquered militarily or surrendered. When Confederate forces were ordered to evacuate at the end of the war to continue the fight elsewhere, the city was turned over to the Union Army by an alderman.

Confederate soldier R. De T. Lawrence also said after the battle:

“The troops which had reinforced the command of General Gist on James Island were returned to their former stations on the coast and at Savannah, and the heroes of Secessionville were toasted on every hand.”

About Gene Kizer, Jr.

Gene Kizer, Jr. graduated magna cum laude from the College of Charleston in 2000 at middle age with History Departmental Honors, the Rebecca Motte American History Award, and the Outstanding Student Award for the History Department. He is author of Slavery Was Not the Cause of the War Between the States, The Irrefutable Argument. The Elements of Academic Success, How to Graduate Magna Cum Laude from College (or how to just graduate, PERIOD!) and Charleston, SC Short Stories, Book One: Six Tales of Courage, Love, the War Between the States, Satire, Ghosts and Horror from the Holy City. He is publisher at Charleston Athenaeum Press. Please visit his blog at www.CharlestonAthenaeumPress.com. He lives on James Island in Charleston where he is also broker-in-charge of Charleston Saltwater Realty (www.CharlestonSaltwaterRealty.com). More from Gene Kizer, Jr.


Postbellum [ edit ]

After the war, Ripley went abroad and resided in England for over twenty years. His wife and daughter had left him to return to Charleston. Γ] In the late 1880s, he returned to the United States and settled in New York City, where he died of a massive stroke. He was buried in Magnolia Cemetery in Charleston, South Carolina.

His uncle, James Wolfe Ripley, had led the Federal troops in Charleston Harbor during the Nullification Crisis, and was the Chief of Ordnance of the U.S. Army during the first half of the Civil War.


Kyk die video: Columbus Neighborhoods: Confederate General Roswell Ripley and Slave Robert Smalls (Oktober 2022).

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