Nuut

Plaasdiere

Plaasdiere


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Al die gesinne wat in Yalding woon, besit eie diere. Vee sluit osse, perde, koeie, varke, skape en hoenders in. Dit is 'n konstante probleem vir die boere om genoeg kos vir die diere te vind. Aan die einde van die herfs moet die dorpenaars besluit hoeveel diere hulle kan bekostig om gedurende die winter aan die lewe te bly.

Osse is die gewaardeerde diere wat die boere besit, aangesien dit gebruik word om die land te ploeg. Die meeste ploegspanne bestaan ​​uit tussen vier en agt osse. Aangesien dit ongewoon is dat dorpenaars meer as twee osse besit, is dit nodig dat hulle hul hulpbronne kombineer om hul grond doeltreffend te laat ploeg.

Sommige dorpenaars gebruik perde om te ploeg. As die toestand van die grond goed is, is perde vinniger as osse. Die meeste dorpenaars verkies egter om osse vir hierdie taak te gebruik. Osse is goedkoper om aan te hou as perde. Osse is ook meer bereid om in moeilike omstandighede te werk.

Varke is ook gewilde diere om te besit, aangesien hulle die vermoë het om vir hulself kos te vind. Hulle gunsteling kos is akkers van eikebome en neute van beukbome. Die dorpenaars moet Hugh de Audley pannage betaal voordat hy hul varke toelaat om die bos in te gaan om kos te soek.

Varke kan baie skade veroorsaak in hul soeke na kos. Yalding, soos die meeste dorpe in Engeland, het verordeninge wat bepaal dat alle varke 'n ysterring in hul neus moet plaas. Gilbert Payne is die varkkudde van Yalding. Hy maak die varke bymekaar en neem hulle in die bos in sodat hulle op eikels kan voed. By ander geleenthede neem hy hulle om op die afvalgrond te voed. Elke jaar gee die mense wat in Yalding woon hom 'n sent vir elke vark waarna hy omgesien het.

Varke kan twee werpsels per jaar produseer en elke werpsel kan ses of meer varkies uitmaak. Varke is gereed om in hul tweede jaar te eet. Die vleis wat deur varke geproduseer word, is belangrik vir die boere, aangesien die dier baie vet in hul dieet verskaf.

Koeie word vir hul melk gehou. Koeie is duur en kos in 1336 meer as nege. te koop. Die dorpenaars sukkel ook om genoeg hooi te vind sodat hulle gedurende die winter kan eet.

Die meeste gesinne kry hul melk by skaapwyfies wat ooie genoem word. By Is. 6d. ooie is redelik goedkoop om te koop en is baie makliker om in die winter te voer. Alhoewel 'n ooi slegs 'n tiende van die melk van 'n koei produseer, verskaf hulle ook wol vir klere en, indien nodig, vleis gedurende die wintermaande. Hulle mis help ook om die gewasse te laat groei.

In 1336 is daar vyf keer soveel skape as mense in Engeland. Die aanhou van skape skep wel ekstra werk vir dorpenaars. Skape doen baie skade as hulle daarin slaag om in die veld te kom om gewasse te verbou. Hulle moet dus bedags opgepas word en snags omhein word. Die skape moet ook beskerm word teen roofdiere soos wolwe.

1. Lees Diere in Yalding. Vul afdeling 4 en 5 van u gesinsinligtingkaart in.

2. Noem die mense in die dorp wat besit: (a) 'n bul; (b) twee of meer osse; (c) ten minste tien koeie; (d) meer as tagtig skape.

3. Verduidelik die voor- en nadele van die aanhou van skape.

5. Kyk na bron 1. Hoe help die varke by die varke om kos te vind?

6. Bestudeer bronne 2 en 3. (a) Gee drie moontlike redes waarom die man in bron 2 osse eerder as perde gebruik. (b) Beskryf die twee ploeë wat in hierdie prente gebruik word. Verduidelik hoe hierdie ploeë verskil. Waarom het plaaswerkers twee verskillende soorte ploeg gebruik?


Alles oor plase en skuurdiere

Plase is besighede wat diere grootmaak. Terwyl boere hul ondernemings bedryf, verbou hulle ook gereeld voedsel. Van die voedsel wat op plase verbou word, voed plaasdiere, en ander kos word van die plaas af gestuur om mense te voed. 'N Besoek aan 'n plaas kan behels dat jy baie verskillende diere ontmoet wat daar woon. U kan op die plase koeie, varke, hoenders, perde, skape, bokke, lamas en donkies sien. Diere soos perde kan ook help met werk op die plaas, hoewel boere die meeste van hierdie werk met masjiene op moderne plase doen.

'N Plaas kan koeie grootmaak vir melk of beesvleis. 'N Melkplaas hou gewoonlik baie koeie aan en melk hulle twee of drie keer per dag en versamel die melk om te verkoop. Boere voer koeie 'n spesiale mengsel van korrels wat hulle gesond sal hou en hulle baie melk kan produseer. 'N Koei kan daagliks tot 100 pond kos eet, en dit kan tot 50 liter water drink. Boere sorg goed vir hul koeie om hulle gesond te hou, en laat hulle dikwels bedags in weidings rondloop en as hulle nie gemelk word nie. Beeste wat vir beesvleis grootgemaak word, word nie gemelk nie. Boere sorg veral vir die beeste om hulle te laat groei tot groot, sterk diere. As die beeste tot 'n sekere grootte groei, stuur boere dit na 'n ander markfasiliteit. Koeie op 'n plaas slaap gewoonlik in skure.

Sommige boere maak varke groot. 'N Vroulike vark word 'n sog genoem, en 'n varkmannetjie kan 'n vark genoem word. Boere hou gewoonlik varke binne sodat hulle versigtig vir hulle kan sorg. 'N Gemiddelde vark kan tussen 600 en 900 pond weeg, maar sommige varke kan tot 1000 pond weeg. Varkboere sorg veral vir varke, voer hulle en gee hulle nat, sodat hulle groei en gesond bly. Sodra varke oud genoeg en groot genoeg is, verkoop 'n boer dit en hulle verlaat die plaas.


Virtueel | Plaasdiere

Hele jaar aangebied: As u 'n plaas in 1900 besoek het, is die kans goed dat u 'n paar hoenders, perde en moontlik selfs skape in die skuurtuin sou vind. Namate die dae korter word en die blare kleur, word die diere en die boere gereed vir die winter. Kom besoek ons ​​diere feitlik en leer hoe die boer seker maak dat daar aan die basiese behoeftes van die diere voldoen word en hoe die diere by die seisoene aanpas. Studente sal verstaan ​​dat diere belangrike werk op die plaas het en leer hoe lede van die plaasfamilie, insluitend kinders, die werk om diere te versorg, deel. Doen dan 'n paar eksperimente tuis in die klaskamer, om cool dinge te ontdek wat eiers kan doen. (Behalwe dat dit natuurlik heerlik is!)

Virtuele uitstappies bied prettige praktiese aktiwiteite wat ontwerp is om u studente verloof te maak. Elke program sluit in:

  • Opwarmingsvrae of aktiwiteite voor die veldrit, om studente oor die onderwerp te laat dink
  • 30-40 minute aanlynles gelei deur ons natuurkundiges, met boeiende inligting en leiding om die studente voor te berei op hul praktiese aktiwiteite
  • Praktiese aktiwiteite wat studente in die buitelug by hul huis of skool kan verken
  • Vrae na afloop van die veldrit om die assessering van die onderwyser te lei

Programdoelwitte

  • Dieresiklusse
  • Hoe boere vir hul diere sorg
  • Belangrike werksgeleenthede van diere en kinders op 'n plaas in 1900

Relevante kurrikula

Wetenskapstandaarde van die volgende generasie: K-LS1 Van molekules tot organismes: strukture en prosesse | K-LS1-1 Patrone in die natuurlike wêreld | 1-LS1-1 Struktuur en funksie | 1-LS1-2 Groei en ontwikkeling van organismes | 2-LS2-2 Interafhanklike verhoudings in ekosisteme | 3-LS1-1 Organismes en lewensiklusse | 3-LS2-1 Sosiale interaksies en groepsgedrag | 3-LS3 Oorerflikheid, oorerwing en variëteit van eienskappe | 4-LS1-struktuur, funksie en inligtingsverwerking

NJ Sosiale Studies Standaarde: 6.1B Aardrykskunde, mense en die omgewing

Koste en skedulering

$ 60 vir groepe tot 25 studente (beurse beskikbaar vir sekere programme)


S. Aerts D. Lips S. Spencer E. Decuypere J. Tavernier Particle De (2006) ArticleTitle "A New Framework for the Assessment of Animal Welfare: Integrating bestaande kennis vanuit 'n praktiese etiese perspektief." Tydskrif vir Landbou- en Omgewingsetiek 19 Uitgawe ID 1 67–76

Berdoy, M. (2002), "The Laboratory Rat: A Natural History," http://www.ratlife.org.

F. W. R. Brambell (1965) Verslag van die tegniese komitee om ondersoek in te stel na die welsyn van diere wat onder intensiewe veeteeltstelsels gehou word HMSO London

A. M. Beck A. H. Katcher (1996) Between Pets & amp People: The Importance of Animal Companionion Purdue University Press West Lafayette, IN

J. P. Broida L. Tingley R. Kimball J. Miele (1993) Artikeltitel "Persoonlikheidsverskille tussen pro- en anti -viviseksioniste" Diere en samelewing 1 129–144

T. Hardy (1985) The Mayor of Casterbridge Penguin Classics Edition London

A. M. Hills (1993) Artikeltitel "Die motiveringsgronde van houdings teenoor diere" Samelewing en diere 1 111–128

Jensen, P. (2005), "Domestisering en dieregedrag", in Van Darwin tot Dawkins: The Science and Implications of Animal Sentience, Londen: Compassion in World Farming.

Littlefair, P. (2005), "Why China is Waking Up to Animal Welfare", in Van Darwin tot Dawkins: The Science and Implications of Animal Sentience, Londen: Compassion in World Farming (opsomming).

H. G. Parker L. V. Kim N. B Sutter S. Carlson T. D. Lorentzen T. B. Malek G. S. Johnson H. B. DeFrance E. A. Ostrander L. Kruglyak (2004) ArticleTitle “Genetic Structure of the Purebred domestic domestic dog” Wetenskap 304 1160–1164 Voorkomshanteer 10.1126/wetenskap.1097406

Regan, T. (2005), "Het sentimentele wesens 'n inherente waarde?" in Van Darwin tot Dawkins: The Science and Implications of Animal Sentience. London: Compassion in World Farming (opsomming).

J. A. Serpell (1986) In the Company of Animals Cambridge University Press Cambridge

J. Webster (1995) Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden Blackwell Science Oxford

Webster, J. (2005), "Ideale en realiteite: wat is ons aan plaasdiere te danke?" in Van Darwin tot Dawkins: The Science and Implications of Animal Sentience, Londen: Compassion in World Farming (opsomming).

F. Wemelsfelder (1997) “Ondersoek van die diere se standpunt. 'N Ondersoek na 'n subjekgebaseerde metingsmetode op die gebied van dierewelsyn ”M. Dol S. Kasanmoetalib S. Lijmbach E. Rivas R. Bos Particle van den (Eds) Dierbewussyn en dieretiek Van Gorcum Assen 73–89


Inhoud

Vee as 'n woord die eerste keer tussen 1650 en 1660 gebruik is, as 'n saamgestelde woord wat die woorde "lewendig" en "voorraad" kombineer. [9] In sommige periodes is 'beeste' en 'vee' uitruilbaar gebruik. Vandag is die moderne betekenis van beeste mak beeste, terwyl vee 'n wyer gevoel het. [10]

Die federale wetgewing van die Verenigde State definieer die term om spesifieke landbouprodukte in aanmerking te kom of nie in aanmerking te kom vir 'n program of aktiwiteit nie. Die Wet op Verpligte Verslagdoening van Vee van 1999 (PL 106–78, Titel IX) omskryf vee byvoorbeeld slegs as beeste, varke en skape, terwyl die wetgewing oor ramphulp in 1988 die term omskryf as “beeste, skape, bokke, varke, pluimvee” (insluitend pluimvee wat eier produseer), perde wat vir voedsel gebruik word of vir voedselproduksie, vis wat vir voedsel gebruik word en ander diere wat deur die sekretaris aangewys is. " [11]

Dooie voorraad word in teenstelling met vee gedefinieer as "diere wat gevrek het voor slagting, soms as gevolg van siektes of siektes". Dit is in baie lande, soos Kanada, onwettig om vleis van dooie diere vir menslike gebruik te verkoop of te verwerk. [12]

Opvoeding van diere het ontstaan ​​tydens die kulturele oorgang na gevestigde boerderygemeenskappe uit die leefwyse van jagter-versamelaars. Diere word mak as hulle teel- en lewensomstandighede deur mense beheer word. Met verloop van tyd het die kollektiewe gedrag, lewensiklus en fisiologie van vee radikaal verander. Baie moderne plaasdiere is nie geskik vir die natuurlewe nie.

Die hond is mak gemaak. Honde verskyn ongeveer 15 000 jaar gelede in Europa en die Verre Ooste. [13] Bokke en skape is tussen 11 000 en 5 000 jaar gelede in Suidwes -Asië in verskeie gebeurtenisse mak gemaak. [14] Varke is in 858 vC in die Nabye Ooste [15] en 6 000 vC in China mak gemaak. [16] Tuismaak van die perd dateer uit ongeveer 4000 vC. [17] Beeste word sedert ongeveer 10 500 jaar gelede mak gemaak. [18] Hoenders en ander pluimvee is moontlik omstreeks 7000 vC mak gemaak. [19]

Die term "vee" is newelig en kan eng of breed gedefinieer word. In die algemeen verwys vee na enige ras of populasie van diere wat deur mense gehou word vir 'n nuttige, kommersiële doel.

Dier Wilde voorouer Tuiste Benutting Prent
Perd Tarpan Mongolië Ry, jaag, dra en vragte trek, vleis, melk
Donkie Afrikaanse wilde esel Afrika Dier van las en trek
Beeste Eurasiese aurochs Eurasië Vleis, melk, konsep
Zebu Indiese aurokke Eurasië Melk, vleis en konsep.
Bali beeste Banteng SE Asië Vleis, melk en konsep
Yak Wilde jak Tibet Pak diere, melk, vleis en verberg
Waterbuffel Wilde waterbuffel Indië en SE -Asië Vleis, melk en lasdiere
Gayal Gaur Indië en Maleisië Dier van las en trek
Skape Mouflon Iran en Klein -Asië Vleis, melk en vag.
Bok Bezoar steenbok Griekeland en Pakistan Vleis, melk en vag
Rendiere Rendiere Eurasië Konsep, melk, vleis en vel
Baktriese kameel Wilde Baktriese kameel Sentraal -Asië Ry en jaag
Arabiese kameel Thomas se kameel Noord -Afrika en SW -Asië Ry en jaag
Llama Guanaco Andes Pak diere en vag
Alpaca Guanaco Andes Vlies
Huishoudelike vark Wilde vark Eurasië Vleis
Haas Europese konyn Europa Vleis
proefkonyn Montane proefkonyn Andes Vleis

Mikrovee Redigeer

Mikrovee is die term wat gebruik word vir baie kleiner diere, gewoonlik soogdiere. Die twee oorheersende kategorieë is knaagdiere en lagomorfe (konyne). Selfs kleiner diere word aangehou en grootgemaak, soos krieke en heuningbye. Mikrovee sluit gewoonlik nie vis (akwakultuur) of hoenders (pluimveeboerdery) in nie.

Tradisioneel was veeteelt deel van die lewensboer van die bestaansboer, wat nie net die voedsel wat die gesin nodig het nie, maar ook die brandstof, kunsmis, klere, vervoer en trekkrag produseer. Die doodmaak van die dier vir voedsel was 'n sekondêre oorweging, en waar moontlik, is die produkte daarvan, soos wol, eiers, melk en bloed (deur die Maasai) geoes terwyl die dier nog gelewe het. [20] In die tradisionele transhumansisteem het mense en vee seisoenaal tussen vaste somer- en winterweidings in bergstreke beweeg, die somerweiding was in die berge, die winterweiding in die valleie. [21]

Diere kan ekstensief of intensief aangehou word. Uitgebreide stelsels behels dat diere na willekeur dwaal, of onder toesig van 'n veewagter, dikwels ter beskerming van roofdiere. Boerdery in die Wes -Verenigde State behels dat groot troppe beeste wyd oor openbare en private lande wei. [22] Soortgelyke veestasies kom in Suid -Amerika, Australië en ander plekke voor met groot oppervlaktes en lae reënval. Boerderystelsels is gebruik vir skape, takbokke, volstruise, emoes, lama's en alpaca. [23] In die hooglande van die Verenigde Koninkryk word skape in die lente op die vale gedraai en die oorvloedige berggrasse onbehandeld bewei, wat laat in die jaar na laer hoogtes gebring word, met aanvullende voeding in die winter. [24]

In landelike gebiede kan varke en pluimvee baie van hul voeding verkry deur op te vang, en in Afrika -gemeenskappe kan hoenders maande lank leef sonder om gevoed te word, en steeds een of twee eiers per week te produseer. [20] Aan die ander uiterste, in die meer ontwikkelde dele van die wêreld, word diere dikwels intensief bestuur deur melkkoeie wat in weidingstoestande gehou kan word, met al hul voer wat vleisbeeste na hulle gebring het, in voerkrale met 'n hoë digtheid gehou kan word [25 ] varke mag in klimaatbeheerde geboue gehuisves word en nooit buitenshuis gaan nie [26] pluimvee mag in skure grootgemaak word en as lêvoëls onder beligtingstoestande gehou word. Tussen hierdie twee uiterstes is semi-intensiewe, dikwels deur familie bestuurde plase waar vee die grootste deel van die jaar buite wei, kuilvoer of hooi gemaak word om die tye van die jaar te dek wanneer die gras ophou groei, en kunsmis, voer en ander insette gekoop word. van buite af op die plaas. [27]

Veeboere het gely onder roofdiere en diefstal deur wilde diere. In Noord -Amerika word diere soos die grys wolf, grizzlybeer, poema en coyote soms as 'n bedreiging vir vee beskou. In Eurasië en Afrika sluit roofdiere die wolf, luiperd, tier, leeu, dhole, Asiatiese swartbeer, krokodil, gevlekte hiëna en ander vleiseters in. In Suid -Amerika is wildehonde, jaguars, anacondas en brilbere 'n bedreiging vir vee. In Australië is die dingo-, jakkals- en wigstertarend algemene roofdiere, met 'n addisionele bedreiging van mak honde wat kan doodmaak as gevolg van 'n jaginstink, wat die karkas ongesuur laat. [28] [29]

Goeie veeteelt, behoorlike voeding en higiëne is die belangrikste bydraers tot die dieregesondheid op die plaas, wat ekonomiese voordele inhou deur maksimum produksie. As diere, ondanks hierdie voorsorgmaatreëls, steeds siek word, word hulle deur die boer en die veearts met veeartsenykundige middels behandel. In die Europese Unie, wanneer boere hul eie diere behandel, moet hulle die riglyne vir behandeling volg en die behandelings wat gegee word, aanteken. [30]

Diere is vatbaar vir 'n aantal siektes en toestande wat hul gesondheid kan beïnvloed. Sommige, soos klassieke varkkoors [31] en scrapie [32], is spesifiek vir een tipe vee, terwyl ander, soos bek-en-klouseer, alle klauwediere beïnvloed. [33] Waar die toestand ernstig is, stel regerings regulasies op oor die invoer en uitvoer, oor die vervoer van voorraad, kwarantynbeperkings en die aanmelding van vermoedelike gevalle. Entstowwe is beskikbaar teen sekere siektes, en waar toepaslik word antibiotika wyd gebruik.

Op 'n tydstip is antibiotika gereeld by sekere saamgestelde voedingsmiddels gevoeg om groei te bevorder, maar hierdie praktyk word nou in baie lande afgekeur vanweë die risiko dat dit tot antibiotikaweerstand kan lei. [34] Diere wat onder intensiewe toestande leef, is veral vatbaar vir inwendige en eksterne parasiete, en 'n toenemende aantal seeluise beïnvloed gekweekte salm in Skotland. [35] Die vermindering van die parasietlas van vee lei tot verhoogde produktiwiteit en winsgewendheid. [36]

Volgens die spesiale verslag oor klimaatsverandering en grond word veesiektes na verwagting erger namate klimaatsverandering die temperatuur en die neerslag verander. [37]

Aangesien baie vee kuddes is, is hulle histories gedryf om 'op die hoef' na 'n stad of 'n ander sentrale plek te bemark. Die metode word steeds in sommige dele van die wêreld gebruik. [38]

Vragmotorvervoer is nou algemeen in ontwikkelde lande. [39]

Plaaslike en streeksveeveilings en kommoditeitsmarkte vergemaklik handel in vee. In Kanada by die Cargill-slaghuis in High River, Alberta, verwerk 2 000 werkers 4500 beeste per dag, of meer as 'n derde van Kanada se kapasiteit. Dit het gesluit toe die COVID-19-pandemie sommige van sy werkers besmet het. [40] [41] Die Cargill-aanleg saam met die JBS-aanleg in Brooks, Alberta en die Harmony Beef-aanleg in Balzac, verteenwoordig Alberta ten volle driekwart van die Kanadese beesvleisvoorraad. [41] In ander gebiede kan vee in 'n basaar of nat mark gekoop en verkoop word, soos in baie dele van Sentraal -Asië.

In ontwikkelende lande het toegang tot markte boere aangemoedig om in vee te belê, met die gevolg dat die lewensbestaan ​​beter is. Die International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) het byvoorbeeld in Zimbabwe gewerk om boere te help om hul veekuddes optimaal te benut. [42]

In voorraadvertonings bring boere hul beste vee om met mekaar mee te ding. [43]

Veeteelt het 'n beduidende impak op die wêreldomgewing. Dit is verantwoordelik vir tussen 20 en 33% van die varswaterverbruik ter wêreld, [45] en vee, en die produksie van voer vir hulle, beslaan ongeveer 'n derde van die aarde se ysvrye land. [46] Veeproduksie is 'n bydraende faktor in die uitsterwing van spesies, woestynvorming, [47] en vernietiging van habitatte. [48] ​​Vleis word beskou as een van die belangrikste faktore wat bydra tot die huidige sesde massa -uitwissing. [49] [50] [51] [52] Dierelandbou dra op verskillende maniere by tot die uitsterwing van spesies. Habitat word vernietig deur bosse skoon te maak en grond te omskep in voergewasse en vir diereweiding, terwyl roofdiere en herbivore gereeld geteiken en gejag word weens 'n vermeende bedreiging vir veewins, byvoorbeeld, is veeteelt verantwoordelik vir tot 91% van die ontbossing in die Amasone -streek. [53]

Daarbenewens produseer vee kweekhuisgasse. Die IPCC (Intergouvernementele Paneel oor Klimaatsverandering) het beraam dat die landbou (insluitend nie net vee nie, maar ook voedselgewas, biobrandstof en ander produksie) verantwoordelik is vir ongeveer 10 tot 12 persent van die globale antropogene kweekhuisgasvrystellings (uitgedruk as 100-jaar koolstofdioksied ekwivalente) in 2005 [54] en in 2010. [55] Koeie produseer ongeveer 570 miljoen kubieke meter metaan per dag, [56] wat 35 tot 40% van die totale metaanvrystellings van die planeet uitmaak. [57] Vee is verantwoordelik vir 65% van alle menslike verwante uitstoot van die kragtige kweekhuisgasgas. [57] As gevolg hiervan word maniere bestudeer om die omgewingsimpak van veeteelt te verminder. Strategieë sluit in die gebruik van biogas uit mis. [58]

Die waarde van die wêreldwye veeproduksie in 2013 word op ongeveer 883 miljard dollar geraam (konstante 2005-2006 dollar). [59]

Vee bied 'n verskeidenheid voedsel- en nie -voedselprodukte; laasgenoemde sluit leer, wol, farmaseutiese produkte, beenprodukte, industriële proteïene en vette in. Vir baie slagplase kan baie min dierlike biomassa by die slag vermors word. Selfs derminhoud wat tydens slagting verwyder is, kan herwin word vir gebruik as kunsmis. Veemis help om die vrugbaarheid van weivelde te behou. Mis word gewoonlik uit skure en voedingsgebiede versamel om die landerye te bemes. Op sommige plekke word dieremis gebruik as brandstof, hetsy direk (soos in sommige ontwikkelende lande), óf indirek (as 'n bron van metaan vir verhitting of vir die opwekking van elektrisiteit). In streke waar masjienkrag beperk is, word sommige klasse vee as trekvoorraad gebruik, nie net vir bewerking en ander gebruik op die plaas nie, maar ook vir die vervoer van mense en goedere. In 1997 verskaf lewende hawe tussen ongeveer 25 en 64% van die verbouingsenergie in die besproeiingstelsels ter wêreld, en dat 300 miljoen trekdiere wêreldwyd in kleinskaalse landbou gebruik word. [60]

Alhoewel veeproduksie 'n bron van inkomste is, kan dit bykomende ekonomiese waardes vir landelike gesinne bied, wat dikwels 'n belangrike bydraer tot voedselsekerheid en ekonomiese veiligheid is. Vee kan as 'n versekering teen risiko dien [61] en is 'n ekonomiese buffer (van inkomste en/of voedselvoorsiening) in sommige streke en sommige ekonomieë (byvoorbeeld tydens sommige Afrika -droogtes). Die gebruik daarvan as 'n buffer kan egter soms beperk word as alternatiewe teenwoordig is, [62], wat die strategiese instandhouding van versekering kan weerspieël, benewens die begeerte om produktiewe bates te behou. Selfs vir sommige vee -eienaars in ontwikkelde lande kan vee as 'n soort versekering dien. [63] Sommige gewasprodusente kan vee produseer as 'n strategie vir diversifikasie van hul inkomstebronne, om risiko's wat verband hou met weer, markte en ander faktore te verminder. [64] [65]

Baie studies [ watter? ] het bewyse gevind van die sosiale, sowel as ekonomiese, belangrikheid van vee in ontwikkelende lande en in streke van armoede op die platteland, en sulke bewyse is nie beperk tot pastorale en nomadiese samelewings nie. [61] [66] [67] [68] [69]

Sosiale waardes in ontwikkelde lande kan ook aansienlik wees. Byvoorbeeld, in 'n studie van veeteelt wat toegelaat word op nasionale bosgrond in New Mexico, VSA, is die gevolgtrekking gekom dat "boerdery tradisionele waardes handhaaf en gesinne verbind met voorvaderlike gronde en kulturele erfenis", en dat 'n gevoel van plek, gehegtheid aan grond, en die waarde van die behoud van oop ruimte was algemene temas ". "Die belangrikheid van grond en diere as 'n manier om kultuur en lewenswyse te handhaaf, het herhaaldelik in reaksies van die komitee verskyn, net soos die onderwerpe van verantwoordelikheid en respek vir grond, diere, familie en gemeenskap." [70]

In die VSA is die wins meestal laag onder die motivering vir betrokkenheid by veeteelt. [71] In plaas daarvan is familie, tradisie en 'n gewenste lewenswyse geneig om groot motiewe vir die aankoop van boerderye te wees, en boere was "histories bereid om lae opbrengste uit veeproduksie te aanvaar." [72]


The Five Freedoms: 'n Geskiedenisles in dieresorg en -welstand

Die Five Freedoms is sedert die 1960's die basis van dierewelsyn. Lees meer oor wat hulle is en waarom hulle dit verduur het.

Kommer oor die versorging en welstand van diere is nie 'n nuwe onderwerp vir diegene wat diere grootmaak nie, maar dit is steeds kommerwekkender vir die algemene publiek. Meer en meer mense wil weet en verstaan ​​hoe diere, veral dié wat grootgemaak word om die voedselketting te betree, versorg word, waar en hoe hierdie diere leef, en hoe 'n moderne plaas is. Die antwoorde op hierdie vrae het nie 'n enkele, korrekte antwoord nie. In werklikheid is daar ontelbare korrekte maniere om diere groot te maak, afhangende van die ras en die grootte van die dier, die grootte, ligging, klimaat, fasiliteite, personeel, doelwitte van 'n plaas en verskeie ander faktore. Wat op alle plase dieselfde bly, is dat boere omgee vir die diere wat hulle grootmaak en diere wil laat floreer. Een manier om te verseker dat diere in 'n positiewe toestand is, is om die Five Freedoms as maatstaf te gebruik om aan diere se behoeftes te voldoen.

Om die belangrikheid van die Five Freedoms te verstaan ​​en waarom dit ontwikkel is, laat ons terugkeer na 1964 toe Ruth Harrison, 'n Britse vrou, Animal Machines skryf. & Rdquo Die boek beskryf intensiewe vee- en pluimveeboerdery van die tyd. Die oproer van die Britse publiek oor die inligting in die boek het die Britse regering aangespoor om 'n komitee aan te stel om na die welstand van plaasdiere te kyk. In 1965 het die komitee, onder voorsitterskap van professor Roger Brambell, die 85 bladsye lange verslag van die tegniese komitee aangebied om navraag te doen oor die welstand van diere onder Intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems, en het bekend gestaan ​​as & ldquoThe Brambell Report. & Rdquo

Samevattend het die verslag gesê dat diere die vryheid moet hê om op te staan, te gaan lê, om te draai, hulself te versorg en hul ledemate te strek. behoeftes. Die advieskomitee vir plaase dierewelsyn is gestig in reaksie op Brambell en kollegas se verslag oor die veeproduksiesektor. In 1979 is die naam verander na die Farm Animal Welfare Council (nou komitee) en teen die einde van dieselfde jaar is die aanvanklike Five Freedoms in die onderstaande formaat gekodifiseer.

Die welsyn van 'n dier, wat sy fisiese en geestelike toestande insluit, hoe dit met sy omgewing omgaan en menslike ervarings en etiek behels om dierewelsyn te evalueer deur waarneming en interpretasie van 'n dier se gedrag en gesondheidstatus. Die gekodifiseerde vyf vryhede is soos volg:

  1. Vryheid van honger en dors: deur onmiddellike toegang tot vars water en 'n dieet om volle gesondheid en krag te behou.
  2. Vryheid van ongemak: deur 'n geskikte omgewing te bied, insluitend skuiling en 'n gemaklike rusplek.
  3. Vryheid van pyn, besering of siekte: deur voorkoming of vinnige diagnose en behandeling
  4. Vryheid om normale gedrag uit te druk: deur voldoende ruimte, behoorlike fasiliteite en geselskap van die dier en eie spesies te verskaf.
  5. Vryheid van vrees en nood: deur toestande en behandeling te verseker wat geestelike lyding vermy.

Die Five Freedoms word as basis gebruik vir die opstel van diereversorgingsprotokolle en verwagtinge vir baie professionele groepe, insluitend veeartse soos op die webwerf van die American Veterinary Medical Association. Dit is internasionaal aangeneem deur verteenwoordigende groepe, waaronder die Wêreldorganisasie vir Dieregesondheid en die Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Die meeste van die dierewelsynsoudits wat ontwikkel is vir implementering op plase en in verwerkingsfasiliteite, is gebaseer op die Five Freedoms.

Die impak en gebruik van die vyf vryhede is wydverspreid oor die hele wêreld. 'N Opkomende artikel van die Michigan State University Extension fokus op die erkenning van hoe diereversorgers, veral jongmense in 4-H dierekunde-projekte, elke dag die vyf vryhede gebruik om diere te versorg.


BEES

Beeste is beeste wat afstam van ou diere wat aurochs genoem word. Hulle het ingewikkelde mae met vier kompartemente wat rumens genoem word en eet plantegroei. In die natuur sluk beeste hul kos heel. Later word die gedeeltelik verteerde voedsel, of kudde, in hul mond opgegooi sodat hulle kan kou. 'Chewing the cud' is 'n bekende beeseienskappe. Die natuurlike lewensduur van beeste is twintig tot vyf-en-twintig jaar.

Daar is baie verskillende beesrasse. Sommige word spesiaal vir vleis geteel (soos Angus en Hereford), terwyl ander geteel word om melk te produseer (soos truie). Volwasse vroulike beeste word koeie genoem. Hulle produseer maande lank melk vir hul pasgebore kalwers. Mense het lank gelede geleer om kalwers van hul moeders weg te neem en die melk vir menslike gebruik te versamel. Jong vroulike koeie wat nog nie geboorte gegee het nie, word verse genoem. Ongekastreerde volwasse manlike beeste word bulle genoem. Hulle word slegs vir teeldoeleindes gebruik. Manlike beeste wat gekastreer word voordat hulle geslagsryp word, word steers genoem. Hulle is 'n belangrike bron van beesvleis in hierdie land.

Soos getoon in tabel 4.2, was daar meer as 97,1 miljoen beeste op Amerikaanse plase in 2005. Figuur 4.5 toon aan dat die voorraad van beeste deur die vroeë sewentigerjare dramaties toegeneem het en daarna afgeneem het voordat dit in die middel van die negentigerjare begin afneem het.

Vleisbeeste

GESKIEDENIS

Aan die begin van die twintigste eeu was die Amerikaanse veebedryf in die westelike state gekonsentreer. Beeste is deur cowboys na markte in groot stede met spoorwegknoppe gehou. Beeste is per spoor na massiewe veewere en slag-/verwerkingsentrums op plekke soos Chicago en Kansas City gestuur. Namate verkoeling en elektrisiteit oor die hele land versprei het, kon slaghuise wegbeweeg van die groot stede en na die platteland.

Gedurende die vyftigerjare het groot vleisondernemings voerkrale vir beeste begin vestig, eers in die Groot Vlakte en later verder wes. (Sien figuur 4.6.) Voor die tyd het beeste meestal gras geëet, met 'n bietjie mielies en ander korrels bygevoeg om dit vet te maak. Hulle is geslag toe hulle bemarkingsgrootte bereik het, ongeveer drie tot vier jaar oud. Amerikaanse boere het in die middel van die vyftigerjare 'n oormaat koring begin produseer, en dit het 'n primêre voer vir vleisbeeste geword. Beeste wat baie koring gevoer het, het baie vinniger vet geword en kon baie vroeër geslag word as beeste wat met gras gevoer is. Mielievleis het 'n ryk, vetterige smaak met 'n gemarmerde tekstuur en was sagter as grasvleis. Dit was ook baie goedkoper. Sterk bemarking deur kruidenierswinkels het gelei tot 'n groot vraag na beesvleis.

HEDE VOORWAARDES

Tabel 4.5 toon die aantal voerkrale en hul voorraad vanaf 1 Januarie 2006. Destyds was daar meer as veertien miljoen beeste op ongeveer agt-en-tagtigduisend voerkrale in die Verenigde State. Die oorgrote meerderheid voerkrale (97,5%) bevat elk minder as duisend beeste. Die klein aantal voerkrale wat elk meer as twee-en-dertigduisend beeste bevat het, was egter 'n groot deel (40,4%) van al die beeste op voerkrale. Meer as 5,7 miljoen beeste was destyds op hierdie massiewe voerkrale.

Most beef cattle are slaughtered around the age of fourteen to sixteen months. Calves spend the first six to eight months of their lives with their mothers, drinking milk and grazing on grass at farms and ranches around the country. This is called the cow-calf stage of the business. Following weaning, most calves are moved to large, crowded feedlots — outdoor grassless enclosures — to be "finished" for slaughter. During finishing the cattle receive virtually no exercise to prevent muscle buildup and fat loss. The animals are given various drugs to help them digest the rich corn diet and fend off disease from the crowded and often dirty conditions.

In March 2002 the reporter Michael Pollen purchased an eight-month-old calf from a South Dakota ranch and chronicled the calf's life in "Power Steer" (New York Times, March 31, 2002). Following weaning, Pollen's calf spent several months in a backgrounding pen becoming accustomed to a corn diet before being shipped to a feedlot. At the feedlot, crowded with thirty-seven thousand cattle, the calf was fed a diet of corn, fat, protein supplements, and some alfalfa hay and corn silage for roughage. The calf was given antibiotics to help it digest this new diet.

TABLE 4.5
Cattle feedlot breakdown, by number and inventory, January 1, 2006
Feedlot capacity (head)Number of feedlots%January 1, 2006, inventory (1,000 head)%
Source: "Table A1.6. Cattle-on-Feed Production," in 2005 United States Animal Health Report, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, August 2006, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/content/printable_version/AHR_Web_PDF/J_appendices.pdf (accessed November 28, 2006)
<1,00086,00097.52,32816.5
1,000-1,9998551.05063.6
2,000-3,9995470.67775.5
4,000-7,9993500.41,0097.1
8,000-15,9991840.21,3639.6
16,000-31,9991370.22,43817.3
≥ 32,0001260.15,71140.4
All feedlots88,199100.014,132100.0

Pollen notes that feedlot cattle must be fed antibiotics and antacids to overcome digestive problems from eating corn rather than grass. Corn-fed cattle are prone to severe bloat, indigestion, and other conditions that can weaken their immune systems and make them susceptible to serious diseases. Thus, many are fed continuous low-level doses of antibiotics to keep them reasonably healthy. The corn diet damages their livers, but this is a trade-off acceptable to the beef industry because cow liver is not in high demand. Pollen's steer also received a hormone injection of synthetic estrogen to help him gain weight, a common and legal practice.

According to Pollen, the cattle on the feedlot lived amid a thick layer of manure during their entire stay, another reason that antibiotics are required for feedlot cattle. Generally, manure is not a concern until slaughtering time, when it is washed off the carcasses during processing. Pollen argues that this practice is not healthy for the people who will eat the beef or for the cattle living in this environment.

Ranchers use the feedlot system because it is much cheaper for them than finishing the cattle at the ranch. The price of beef is so low that profit margins on cattle are slim. Ranchers and farmers must cut costs wherever they can. Many ranchers sell their calves to corporations and companies running feedlots. Others retain ownership and pay rent to the feedlot during the finishing process.

Dairy Cattle

Dairy cattle are a valuable commodity because they produce milk that can be consumed as a drink or used to make other dairy products. According to the ERS, the average per capita consumption in the United States during 2004 was 21.2 gallons of milk, 31.3 pounds of cheese, and 26.4 pounds of frozen dairy products (mostly ice cream).

The USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service reports in Charts and Maps: Milk Production and Milk Cows (February 17, 2006, http://www.nass.usda.gov/Charts_and_Maps/Milk_Production_and_Milk_Cows/milkprod.asp) that dairy cows produced more than 175 trillion pounds of milk during 2005. The combination of factory farming, high-tech breeding, and modern medicine means that the average dairy cow produced three times as much milk in 2005 as did a cow in 1955. Milk production per cow increased by 19% between 1996 and 2005 alone. (See Figure 4.7.)

Even though some people assume that dairy cattle spend leisurely days in rolling fields of grass and are only occasionally milked, the reality is that dairy cows have become milk-producing machines. Most dairy cows live in small indoor stalls or are confined to large dirt pens called dry lots. To produce milk, the cows must have calves. Modern farmers keep dairy cows pregnant almost continuously, often through artificial insemination. They take the calves away from their mothers as soon as possible after birth to prevent the calves from drinking the valuable milk. Male calves and any cows that cease to produce milk are slaughtered for beef. Common health problems in dairy cows include mastitis (an udder infection) and lameness because of back and leg problems.

Many dairy cattle are given antibiotics and other drugs on a routine basis. One of the most controversial drugs is called bovine growth hormone (BGH). The Animal Protection Institute, in "Get the Facts: The Destructive Dairy Industry" (2007, http://www.api4animals.org/facts?p=373&more=1), indicates that BGH can increase by 25% the amount of milk that a cow can produce. Animal welfarists note that BGH enlarges cows' udders to such a degree that the cows suffer from spine and back problems and have difficulty keeping their udders from dragging in dirt and manure. The International Dairy Foods Association (November 2006, http://www.idfa.org/reg/biotech/rbst_idfa_position.cfm) states that BGH has been used in U.S. dairy herds since 1993 and that Americans have consumed billions of gallons of milk from BGH-supplemented cows. The IDFA reports that the milk has been deemed safe for human consumption "by the FDA, the World Health Organization, the American Medical Association, the National Institutes of Health, the American Dietetic Association, Health Canada, and regulatory agencies in 50 countries." The use of BGH, which is also called bovine somatotropin, is banned in Europe and Canada because of its effects on cow health.

Another criticism of the factory farming of dairy cattle is that the cows spend long periods standing on hard surfaces. This includes concrete floors, metal gratings, and dirt-packed dry lots. Welfarists contend that this contributes to lameness problems in dairy cattle. Lameness is a major reason for cows to be culled (killed) during the raising process. Experts studying downed animals (those that cannot stand and walk because of injury or illness) arriving at slaughterhouses report that a large percentage of downers are dairy cows.

Veal is meat from young calves that are raised in a way that produces tender, light-colored flesh. This meat is highly prized for its pale color and delicate flavor. According to the American Veal Association (2004, http://www.vealfarm.com/industry-info/facts.asp), veal farmers purchase unwanted calves from the dairy industry (mostly male Holstein calves) and raise them to the desired weight.

The Cattlemen's Beef Board and National Cattlemen's Beef Association (2005, http://www.veal.org/Content/Veal101Veal.aspx) explains that there are three main types of veal:

  • Special-fed veal calves are fed a nutritionally complete milk supplement until they reach eighteen to twenty weeks of age and typically weigh from 400 to 450 pounds. The meat is ivory or creamy pink, with a firm, fine, and velvety texture. Approximately 85% of the veal consumed in the United States is special-fed veal. This is the veal industry's premium product.
  • Bob veal calves are fed milk. They usually weigh less than 150 pounds and are approximately three weeks old when marketed. The meat has a light-pink color and a soft texture.
  • Grain-fed veal calves are initially fed milk and then receive a diet of grain, hay, and nutrition formulas. The meat tends to be darker in color and has additional marbling and often visible fat. Grain-fed veal calves are usually marketed at five to six months of age and weigh from 450 to 600 pounds.

THE CONTROVERSY

Veal production is harshly criticized by both animal rights supporters and welfarists. They view the early separation of calves from their mothers and the extremely confined conditions under which the calves live as inhumane. Some calves are kept in very narrow stalls or boxes that prevent them from turning around and are allowed no exercise that would help them build muscles. Also, critics accuse producers of feeding the calves diets that are extremely low in iron to prevent the flesh from darkening. This results in anemic calves that suffer from health problems and stress brought on by their living conditions. The British government has banned the use of veal crates that do not allow a calf to turn around and requires that calves be fed a diet containing sufficient iron and fiber.

American veal producers defend the use of individual stalls to raise their calves. They point out that this method reduces the spread of disease by preventing interaction among the calves. Each calf receives its own feed and does not have to compete with others for food. Also, each calf can receive individual attention to its nutrition and health needs. The American Veal Association claims that the stalls are designed so that calves "can comfortably lay in a natural position, stand up, groom themselves and interact with their neighbors."

In November 2006 Arizona voters passed a measure banning the use of confining crates for veal calves. It was the first state ban of its kind.

CONSUMPTION OF VEAL

Figure 4.8 shows annual consumption data for veal on a per capita basis. Americans consumed only 0.41 pounds of veal per person during 2004, down from a high of 8.4 pounds per person in 1944.

Cattle Slaughter

Cattle killed at federally inspected slaughterhouses are required by law to be killed humanely. In most plants the preferred method is use of a stun gun. Cattle are directed single-file through chutes that lead to the stunner. As each animal passes by, the stunner shoots a stun bolt into the animal's forehead to render it unconscious.

The animal is then hoisted up by one rear leg to hang from a bleed rail. At that time, its throat is cut so that the blood can drain out. Federal law requires that no animal fall into the blood of other slaughtered animals. This is why bloodletting is performed while the animal is suspended in the air. Following bloodletting, the animal moves down the line to a number of processing stations where the tail and hocks are cut off, the belly is cut open, and the hide is removed.

SPECIALLY DESIGNED METHODS

Temple Grandin is a professor at Colorado State University and a renowned expert on cattle handling and slaughter. She maintains a comprehensive Web site full of useful information on this subject at http://www.grandin.com. Grandin designed the systems in use at most U.S. slaughterhouses and has written many guidance documents for the American Meat Institute.

Grandin suffers from autism and says that this allows her to see the world "in pictures," as animals see it. She has published many books and articles on the proper design of livestock chute systems. For example, chutes must be curved to trick the animals into thinking they are going back to where they came. The chutes must have high walls to keep the animals from seeing what is going on around them. Each animal should only see the rear end of the animal in front of it as it walks toward the stunner.

Grandin's recommendations are designed to keep cattle moving efficiently and peacefully. This has both economic and welfare benefits. Cattle that balk (refuse to move ahead or try to go back down a chute) hold up production. Also, animals that panic are believed to release stress chemicals that taint their meat. Therefore, it is in the best interest of producers that their cattle remain calm in the slaughterhouse. Maintaining quiet and calm also leads to less stress for the animals, which is of importance to animal welfarists.

Grandin says that she is often asked if animals entering the slaughterhouse know they are about to die. She believes that the animals do not suspect their fate, because if they did, they would all balk and panic. She reports that cattle will calmly walk into restraining devices covered with the blood of other cattle, as long as the previous cattle were also calm. However, cattle will refuse to approach a location in which a stressed animal has been killed. Grandin believes that animals that become agitated for several minutes release fear pheromones that other animals can smell.

Grandin (June 2006, http://www.grandin.com/welfare.audit.using.haccp.html) has developed an audit procedure with which slaughterhouses can be graded on how well they meet AMI guidelines. The audit procedure centers on five main performance categories that can be graded numerically:

  • Stunning proficiency (the number of cattle stunned correctly on the first try)
  • Insensibility on the bleed rail (the number of cattle that are still breathing, moving their eyes or blinking, making sounds, or trying to lift themselves up)
  • Electric prod usage (the number of cattle that are prodded to keep them moving and the manner in which the prodding is performed)
  • Slipping and falling cattle (the number of cattle that slip and fall while they are being moved through the plant)
  • Vocalizing cattle (the number of cattle that moo, bellow, or make some other noise during handling and stunning)

In addition, the auditor assesses how the plant handles nonambulatory animals (downers), the condition of flooring and pens, truck unloading and handling procedures, the presence of drinking water in the pens, problems with overcrowding, and the general health condition of the cattle at the plant.

Grandin reports in "Survey of Stunning and Handling in Federally Inspected Beef, Veal, Pork, and Sheep Slaughter Plants (January 7, 1997, http://www.grandin.com/survey/usdarpt.html), an audit she did for the USDA in 1996 of ten federally inspected slaughterhouses in various states, that only three of the plants were able to stun at least 95% of the cattle with a single shot. She also describes problems with poor equipment maintenance, lack of management supervision, excessive use of electric prods, transport of downed animals with forklifts, and other such practices.

Grandin notes in "Corporations Can Be Agents of Great Improvements in Animal Welfare and Food Safety and the Need for Minimum Decent Standards" (April 4, 2001, http://www.grandin.com/welfare/corporation.agents.html) that in 1999 she was hired by McDonald's Corporation to audit the company's beef and pork suppliers for their compliance with the standards. She states that compliance greatly improved after McDonald's fired a supplier that failed the audit. For example, 90% of the plants audited after that firing were able to stun at least 95% of the cattle with a single shot. In addition, the use of electric prods was reduced or eliminated, and most abusive behavior by employees stopped.

Between 2001 and 2005 Grandin oversaw audits conducted for restaurants at dozens of beef and pork plants. The most recent audit findings are in the "2005 Restaurant Animal Welfare Audits of Federally Inspected Beef and Pork Slaughter Plants" (April 2, 2006, http://www.grandin.com/survey/2005.restaurant.audits.html). She reports that all the beef plants rendered 100% of their cattle insensible before the bleedline. More than half of the plants (55%) stunned 99% to 100% of their cattle on the first shot. The remaining plants stunned 95% to 98% on the first shot. Nearly a third of the beef plants received an "excellent" rating for their ability to move cattle through the plant using electric cattle rods on less than 5% of the cattle. Ten plants received an "acceptable" rating in this category, and one plant had a "very bad 61% electric prod score."

Grandin notes that better stunning technology and equipment maintenance have led to continuous improvements in the audits she has conducted over the years. She warns plants that they must have "zero tolerance" for hoisting, skinning, or cutting any animal showing any obvious signs of sensibility or even partial return to sensibility after stunning.

PROBLEMS WITH THE PROCESS?

Stories in the media since the late 1990s have exposed some problems with slaughterhouse procedures. In "'They Die Piece by Piece': In Overtaxed Plants, Humane Treatment of Cattle Is Often a Battle Lost" (Washington Post, April 10, 2001), Joby Warrick analyzed USDA records and conducted interviews with current and former slaughterhouse workers and federal inspectors. The workers, who made about $9 an hour, claimed to have seen many conscious cattle moving down the bleed rail.

A worker responsible for cutting off the cattle's hocks reported that dozens of conscious animals reached his station each day. He said the animals were blinking, moving, looking around, and making noises. Other workers also reported having to cut into living cattle. Workers in charge of stunning complained that the line moved so fast that they did not have time to do their job properly.

Warrick notes that the USDA had relaxed its oversight of slaughtering plants since 1998 and did not track the number of humane slaughter violations that occur each year. A records review, however, showed that inspectors found 527 violations in 1996 – 1997, including incidents in which "live animals were cut, skinned, or scalded."

Warrick reports that footage from hidden cameras at slaughterhouses show blinking cattle hanging from bleed rails. Other cattle twist, turn, and arch their backs as if trying to pull themselves upright. Footage also shows squealing hogs being lowered into the scalding water baths that are designed to soften the hides of dead animals. Industry officials claim that the videotaped incidents were staged by disgruntled employees and that unconscious animals kick and twitch by reflex.

Live animals on the bleed rail are a danger to line workers. According to Warrick, many workers are kicked by the animals and suffer broken bones and teeth. Although the line is supposed to be stopped when a conscious animal is detected, workers said that this does not happen.

Animal welfare activists say that the allegations made by Warrick are not unusual. They blame many of the problems on the extremely fast line speed at slaughterhouses and the use of low-paid workers. According to Warrick, most plants process around four hundred animals per hour. This figure has increased eightfold since the early 1900s.

Another major concern of welfarists relates to the problem of downed animals. Downed animals are primarily dairy cattle that collapse from illness, injury, or other causes. They are often tossed alive onto trash heaps, or dragged by chains or pushed by forklifts around stockyards and slaughterhouses. Animal welfare organizations consider processing of these animals inhumane and have tried unsuccessfully since the 1990s to achieve legislation called the Downed Animal Protection Act, which would require that critically ill or injured farm animals be humanely euthanized at the stockyards. In December 2003 a downer cow in Washington State tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. This is an extremely serious disease in cattle. It has been linked to a similar fatal disease in humans believed to have eaten beef contaminated with BSE. The USDA promptly announced a ban on the processing of downer cattle for human consumption. However, the audit report Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Surveillance Program (January 2006, http://www.usda.gov/oig/webdocs/50601-10-KC.pdf) by the USDA inspector general reports that twenty-nine downer cattle were slaughtered at two plants audited during fiscal year 2004.

RITUAL SLAUGHTER

The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act has exceptions for ritual slaughter — that is, slaughter conducted according to religious dictates. Ritual slaughter is practiced by some orthodox Jews and Muslims. Their teachings require that animals killed for food be moving and healthy when they are killed by having their throats slit. This was originally intended to ensure that sick animals were not eaten by humans. Meat from animals killed in this manner is said to be kosher in Jewish tradition and Halal in Muslim tradition. Regarding ritual slaughter, the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act does require "simultaneous and instantaneous" cutting of the throat arteries "with a sharp instrument" to render the animal insensible (unconscious).

Animal welfarists complain that strict interpretation of the directives for ritual slaughter means that cattle are not stunned before being bled out. They may be jerked up to the bleed rail by a hind leg while still fully conscious. The jerking action can break the leg and tear apart joints, causing them severe pain. Their thrashing makes it more difficult for the cutter to cleanly cut their throats, which prolongs the entire process.

There are upright restraining devices that hold animals more humanely while their throats are being cut. The AMI strongly recommends the use of these devices, both for the welfare of the animals and the safety of the plant workers. Grandin and Gary C. Smith report in "Animal Welfare and Humane Slaughter" (November 2004, http://www.grandin.com/references/humane.slaughter.html) that throat cutting must be done precisely with a long, razor-sharp knife to induce "near-immediate collapse." Otherwise, the animal can remain conscious for more than a minute. Animals that struggle against their restraints or become agitated stay conscious the longest.

Singer states in Animal Liberation that critics of ritual slaughter are often accused of being racist or anti-Semitic. He points out that parts of ritually killed animals wind up on supermarket shelves and are purchased by people who may not be aware of how the animal was killed. This is because Jewish law requires the removal of the lymph nodes and sciatic nerve from cattle. Singer says that this is difficult to do efficiently on the hindquarters of cattle, so often only the front portion is sold as kosher. The hindquarters are processed and sold in usual commercial markets.

Donald G. McNeil Jr. reports in "Inquiry Finds Lax Federal Inspections at Kosher Meat Plant" (New York Times, March 10, 2006) on an animal welfare controversy involving the nation's largest kosher slaughterhouse in Postville, Iowa. In 2004 an undercover investigator for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) captured video of cattle not being rendered unconscious by throat slitting. However, workers immediately used hooks to pull out the trachea and esophagus of each animal. This practice vastly speeds up the bleeding process. The video shows steers thrashing about for up to three minutes before passing out. According to the article the video's release spurred outrage among Jewish organizations around the world — outrage at PETA for allegedly being "anti-Semitic" and at the processing plant for causing animal suffering. The plant has reportedly altered its slaughtering procedures since the issue became public.

A resulting six-month investigation by the USDA found that its inspectors at the plant knew that the practice was going on but ignored it because they assumed the USDA had no say over ritual slaughter techniques. In addition, the inspectors had accepted free gifts of meat from employees at the slaughter plant. In response, the agency suspended one of the inspectors for two weeks and issued warning letters to two other inspectors. McNeil reports that PETA learned about the USDA investigation only after PETA obtained a copy of the USDA inspector general's report under the Freedom of Information Act.


Facts – Farm Animals

Each day approximately 160 million farm animals throughout the world are transported to a slaughterhouse.
– Farm Animal Rights Movement

The number of pigs reared for food each year in the United Kingdom is 10 million in the United States is 110 million in Europe excluding the United Kingdom is 300 million, and in China is 680 million.
– Compassion in World Farming

An average person living in a developed country who is not a vegetarian or vegan will consume approximately 7,000 animals during his or her lifetime.
– Vegetarian Calculator

Global meat production is responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than all of the trains, cars and airplanes in the world combined.
– United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

Approximately 250,000 bulls are killed in bullfights throughout the world each year.
– Humane Society International

More than nine billion farm animals were slaughtered in the United States last year.
– Humane Society of the United States

Approximately 25 million farm animals are slaughtered each day in the United States.
– Mercy for Animals

Approximately nine percent — more than 850 million — of the animals reared for food in the United States each year never make it to the slaughterhouse because they have already died from stress-induced disease or injury.
– Farm Animal Rights Movement

About nine million cows are being used for milk production in the United States at any given time.
– American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

In the United States, an estimated 2.2 million sheep and lambs and 1.5 million goats are slaughtered for meat every year. Sheep used for meat in the country are typically slaughtered when they are only six to eight months old because consumers prefer lamb.
– Farm Sanctuary

Approximately 450,000 calves are reared for veal in the United States each year.
– Compassion in World Farming

United States farm law requires most animals but not birds to be rendered insensible to pain before being slaughtered.
– Farm Sanctuary

Approximately 260 million male chicks are killed upon hatching in the United States each year — they will not lay eggs or be used for meat and therefore have no economic value.
– Farm Sanctuary

More than 400,000 animals died in fires on factory farms in the United States last year.
– Humane Society of the United States

Approximately 80,000 horses are trucked from the United States to Mexico or Canada to be slaughtered for human consumption each year.
– American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

An average of 24 horses die each week on racetracks in the United States.
– CompassionWorks International

Farming and ranching are responsible for 68 percent of all species endangerment in the United States.
– United States Department of Agriculture

More than 330 million rabbits are farmed in tiny, barren cages across Europe each year.
– Compassion in World Farming

More than one billion rabbits are killed for their fur each year.
– People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Eighteen red foxes are killed to make one fox fur coat. Fifty-five minks are killed to make one mink fur coat.
– Compassionate Clothing Coalition

There are approximately 6,000 fur farms in the European Union.
– Four Paws

Approximately three million farm animals die while being transported in Canada every year.
– Canadian Food Inspection Agency

There are more than 17,000 dog-meat farms in South Korea.
– Humane Society of the United States

More than 10,000 bears are being kept on bile farms in China.
– Animals Asia Foundation

Approximately 3,000 silkworms are killed for every pound of silk produced.
– People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Most farm animals reared for meat are slaughtered while still less than one year old.

“Factory farm operators believe that the less Americans know about what goes on behind their closed doors, the better for the industry. That’s because the animals sent through those factories often endure an unimaginable amount of mistreatment and abuse."

- New York Times Editorial Board

There are many stores that sell only clothing not made with fur, leather or other animal products.

Animal Matters | 223 West 38 Street , New York , NY 10018 USA | Phone : 2128199604

Loose farm animals in NYC: A brief history

A bull escaped in Queens on Feb. 21, 2017. It was one of several farm animals to get loose in the city over the years. Photo Credit: Lianna Tarantin

Three goats, two sheep and a cow have all been rescued in the city this month, but they’re just the latest in a string of farm animals breaking loose in the five boroughs.

Animals that are definitely not house pets have been spotted on highways, on sidewalks and even on subway tracks.

Though it’s not always clear exactly where the animals come from, they are often escaping slaughterhouses, police have said.

Here’s a brief history of some of the farm animals running amok in the city.

A goat was found by teenagers near the Bronx Zoo, according to reports. After it was brought to Animal Care Centers of NYC by police, it was transferred to Farm Sanctuary in upstate Watkins Glen, ACC said.

A soaking wet sheep was found tied to a tree in Coney Island Creek Park in Brooklyn, the sanctuary that rescued him said. The animal was taken to Cornell University Nemo Farm Animal Hospital, representatives of Farm Sanctuary said.

The sheep was named Officer Cal, after one of the NYPD officers who rescued him from the park.

A loose calf was caught on the Major Deegan Expressway near Exit 6 in Highbridge, the Bronx, police said. The animal was named after the expressway and taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue in Wantage, New Jersey. The calf, renamed Kristen, died of kidney failure on March 22, according to the sanctuary.

The same day the calf was rescued from the Major Deegan, a goat was found by construction workers after it escaped a Bronx slaughterhouse, Farm Sanctuary said. The workers brought the animal, later named Alondra, to Animal Care Centers of NYC and it was picked up by Tracey Stewart, Jon Stewart’s wife, who brought her to Farm Sanctuary.

Another goat was found roaming in the Bronx just days before Alondra, according to the Animal Care Centers of NYC. The NYPD caught the animal and it was taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A lamb, later named Petunia, was spotted running on the eastbound lanes of the Gowanus Expressway in Brooklyn, the NYPD said. The animal was rescued and taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A pair of goats was caught grazing along N train tracks in Borough Park. The two “very baaaaad boys” were corralled by the MTA and the NYPD. Jon Stewart picked up the animals later and transferred them to Farm Sanctuary.

A brown calf was captured in the fields of Prospect Park Parade Ground after running through the streets of Brooklyn. The calf ran into a 2-year-old girl in a stroller, causing her to fall out and cut her lip, police said at the time.

The animal was taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A black bull ran nearly two miles away from the slaughterhouse it escaped from in Queens. The animal died after it was corralled by police in the yard of a home in South Jamaica.

A black and white steer escaped a truck that was going to take it to a slaughterhouse in Queens. The NYPD caught the animal near York College in Jamaica, and it was picked up by Jon Stewart and his wife, who took it to Farm Sanctuary.

A black and white cow, named Freddie, escaped from a slaughterhouse in Queens and was caught in a parking garage in Jamaica. It was taken to Skylands Animal Sanctuary and Rescue.

A goat ran away from its home in Queens, the Daily News reported. After almost being hit by a car, it was caught by police and returned to the owner, according to the report.


Method for Gene Transfer in Animals

The most common method for producing transgenic animals is gene transfer by DNA microinjection, which involves the following steps:

DNA containing the desired transgene is identified and cloned (copied tens of thousands of times in bacteria) before insertion into the animal host.

The host animals (cows, pigs, or sheep) are induced to superovulate and their eggs are collected.

The eggs are fertilized in a laboratory dish.

Using a fine, hollow needle, a solution of DNA containing the transgene is injected into the male pronucleus of the fertilized egg (the nucleus of the sperm cell that entered the egg) before it fuses with the female pronucleus.

The transgenic embryos are grown in cell culture and then implanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother, where they complete their development.

Screening is performed to determine which of the offspring have inherited the transgene. The main drawback of DNA microinjection is its low success rate: only between 1 and 4 percent of microinjected eggs result in the live birth of a sheep, goat, or cow containing the transgene, and about 80 to 90 percent of transgenic embryos die during early development. 11


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