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President Eisenhower teken “In God We Trust” in op die wet

President Eisenhower teken “In God We Trust” in op die wet


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Op 30 Julie 1956, twee jaar nadat hy daarop aangedring het om die uitdrukking "onder God" in die troubelofte te laat plaas, onderteken president Dwight D. Eisenhower 'n wet wat amptelik verklaar dat "In God We Trust" die amptelike leuse van die land is. Die wet, P.L. 84-140, het ook die mandaat gegee dat die frase op alle Amerikaanse papiergeldeenhede gedruk moet word. Die uitdrukking is sedert die burgeroorlog op Amerikaanse munte geplaas, toe volgens die historiese vereniging van die Amerikaanse tesourie die godsdienstige sentiment 'n hoogtepunt bereik het. Eisenhower se tesourie -sekretaris, George Humphrey, het voorgestel dat die frase ook by papiergeld gevoeg word.

Alhoewel sommige historiese verslae beweer dat Eisenhower 'n Getuie van Jehovah is, meen die meeste presidensiële geleerdes nou dat sy familie Mennoniet was. Hoe dan ook, Eisenhower het sy gesin se godsdiens verlaat voordat hy die weermag binnegegaan het en die ongewone stap geneem om relatief laat in sy volwasse lewe as presbiteriaan gedoop te word. Die doop het in 1953 plaasgevind, skaars 'n jaar na sy eerste termyn as president.

Alhoewel Eisenhower godsdiens aangeneem het, dring biograwe daarop aan dat hy nooit van plan was om sy oortuigings op iemand af te dwing nie. Trouens, die kapelagtige struktuur naby waar hy en sy vrou Mamie begrawe word op die terrein van sy presidensiële biblioteek, word die 'plek van meditasie' genoem en is doelbewus interkerklik. Tydens 'n toespraak op Vlagdag in 1954 het hy uitgebrei oor sy gevoelens oor die plek van godsdiens in die openbare lewe toe hy bespreek het waarom hy 'onder God' in die troubelofte wou insluit: 'Op hierdie manier bevestig ons die transendensie van godsdienstige geloof in die erfenis en toekoms van Amerika; op hierdie manier sal ons voortdurend die geestelike wapens versterk, wat vir ewig die sterkste hulpbron van ons land in vrede en oorlog sal wees. ”

Die eerste papiergeld met die uitdrukking "In God We Trust" is eers in 1957 gedruk. Sedertdien het godsdienstige en sekulêre groepe geredeneer oor die gepastheid en grondwetlikheid van 'n leuse wat 'God' noem, met inagneming van die stigters se toewyding om die skeiding van kerk en staat.


Die komplekse geskiedenis van 'In God We Trust'

David Mislin werk nie vir, raadpleeg, besit aandele in of ontvang befondsing van enige onderneming of organisasie wat baat by hierdie artikel nie, en het geen relevante verbintenisse bekend gemaak buiten hul akademiese aanstelling nie.

Vennote

Die Conversation UK ontvang befondsing van hierdie organisasies

In sy toespraak op die National Prayer Breakfast op 8 Februarie het president Donald Trump die sentraliteit van geloof in die Amerikaanse lewe beklemtoon. Nadat hy die land as 'n 'nasie van gelowiges' beskryf het, het Trump sy gehoor daaraan herinner dat die Amerikaanse geldeenheid die uitdrukking 'In God We Trust' bevat, net soos die belofte van trou. Hy het ook verklaar dat “ons regte ons nie deur die mens gegee word nie”, maar “kom van ons Skepper”.

Hierdie opmerkings kom 'n week nadat Trump godsdiens met Amerikaanse identiteit in sy eerste staatsrede verbind het. Op 30 Januarie beroep hy hom ook op "In God We Trust" terwyl hy 'n 'Amerikaanse manier' verkondig waarin 'geloof en familie, nie die regering en burokrasie nie, die middelpunt van die Amerikaanse lewe is'.

Maar die geskiedenis van so 'n taal is meer kompleks as wat Trump se bewerings suggereer.

President Trump by die National Prayer Breakfast. Foto AP/Evan Vucci

Die plek van 'In God We Trust' en soortgelyke aanroepings van God in die nasionale lewe was 'n onderwerp van debat. Vanuit my perspektief as 'n godsdienstige geleerde, weerspieël dit 'n besondere siening van die Verenigde State, nie 'n universeel aanvaarde 'Amerikaanse manier' nie.


Inhoud

Die vroegste gebruik wat in Engels aangeteken is, was in Januarie 1748, toe die Pennsylvania Gazette berig oor die kleure van Associators -regimente, naamlik die van Benjamin Franklin se Pennsylvania -milisie, waarvan een gesê het: "IX. A Coronet and Plume of Feathers. Motto, In God we Trust." [21] [22] [23] Volgens Thomas S. Kidd blyk dit 'n geïsoleerde voorbeeld van 'n amptelike gebruik te wees, wat herlei kan word na enkele weergawes van Psalm 56:11. [24]

Later, in 1814, het Francis Scott Key 'n gedig saamgestel en gepubliseer met die titel "Defense of Fort M'Henry". In die vierde vers bevat Key se gepubliseerde weergawe van die gedig die reël: "En dit is ons leuse-" In God is our trust! "" [25] Key se gedig sou later aangeneem word as die volkslied van die Verenigde State onder die noem "The Star-Spangled Banner" en dien as een van die argumente om die leuse op die geldeenheid op te neem. Toe 'In God We Trust' oorweeg sou word om deur die Amerikaanse kongres as die nasionale leuse van die Verenigde State aangeneem te word, is die woorde van die vierde vers van Key se gedig ter sprake gebring in argumente wat die aanvaarding van die leuse ondersteun. [26]

Daar was verskeie ander onverwante opnames van die leuse. Dit kan in sommige literêre werke van die vroeë 19de eeu voorkom. [27] Dit verskyn ook in 1845, toe DS Whitney 'n gesang teen slawerny in Die Bevryder. [28] [29] Odd Fellows het die frase ook as leuse van 1840's en ten minste tot in die 1870's gebruik. [7] [29] [30]

Aanvanklike aanneming Wysig

Ds Mark R. Watkinson van Ridleyville, Pennsylvania (predikant van die Prospect Hill Baptist Church in die huidige Prospect Park, Pennsylvania), versoek in 'n brief van 13 November 1861 'n versoekskrif aan die ministerie van finansies om 'n verklaring by te voeg waarin erkenning word gegee aan "Almagtige God in 'n vorm op ons muntstukke "om ons te" bevry van die onheil van heidendom ". [31] [32] [33] Ten minste 'n deel van die motivering was om te verklaar dat God aan die Unie -kant van die burgeroorlog was, [7] [34] aangesien die Konfederasie, anders as die Unie, God aangeroep het in hul Grondwet. [35] Hierdie sentiment is gedeel deur ander burgers wat hierdie opname in hul briewe ondersteun het. [36] Inderdaad, die 125ste Pennsylvania -infanterie vir die Unie -leër het vroeg in Augustus 1862 die leuse "In God vertrou ons" aanvaar. [37] [38] [39] [40] In die suide het die frase ook 'n mate van vastrapplek gekry. , sodat in 1864, Harper's Weekly berig dat die Unie -vloot 'n vlag gevang het met die leuse: "Ons saak is regverdig, ons plig ons weet In God wat ons vertrou, om te veg, gaan ons." [41]

Die tesourie-sekretaris van Abraham Lincoln, Salmon P. Chase, 'n lewenslange evangeliese episkopalis wat bekend was vir sy openbaring van vroomheid, [7] [42] het vinnig opgetree na die voorstel om 'n leuse op te neem wat na God verwys en die destydse direkteur van Philadelphia die Munt en lid van die National Reform Association, James Pollock, om moontlike ontwerpe met die godsdienstige frase te begin opstel. [33] Chase het sy gunsteling ontwerpe gekies en 'n voorstel aan die kongres vir die nuwe ontwerpe aan die einde van 1863, met die besluit oor die nuwe leuse, "In God We Trust," in Desember 1863. [26] Lincoln se betrokkenheid by die proses was onduidelik , alhoewel hy bewus was van sulke gesprekke. [43]

Terwyl Chase sy aanbeveling aan die kongres voorberei, is bevind dat die Wet van die Kongres van 18 Januarie 1837 die leuse en toestelle wat op die munte van die Verenigde State geplaas moet word, voorskryf. Dit het beteken dat die munt geen veranderinge kon aanbring sonder die byvoeging van bykomende wetgewing deur die kongres nie. Sodanige wetgewing is op 22 April 1864 ingestel en aangeneem as die Coinage Act van 1864, wat die sekretaris van die tesourie toegelaat het om die frase op een-sent- en tweesent-munte op te neem. [34]

'N Kongreswet wat op 3 Maart 1865 aangeneem is, het die Muntdirekteur, met goedkeuring van die Sekretaris, in staat gestel om die leuse te plaas op alle goue en silwer muntstukke wat "die opskrif daarop sal toelaat", [34] [44] wat Lincoln daarna onderteken het as die laaste kongreswet voor sy sluipmoord. [29] In 1873 het die kongres 'n ander muntwet aangeneem, waarin die sekretaris van die tesourie toegelaat het dat "die leuse IN GOD ONS VERTROU op sodanige munte ingeskryf kan word as wat dit toegegee word". [45]

In God We Trust (of, selde, die variasie daarvan, God We Trust) verskyn die eerste keer op 2 ¢ munte, wat die eerste keer in 1863 geslaan is en die daaropvolgende jaar in massasirkulasie gegaan het. [46] Volgens Lange was die insluiting van die leuse op 'n munt 'n belangrike dryfveer vir die popularisering van die slagspreuk. [47] Ander munte, dit wil sê nikkels, kwart dollar, half dollar, half arende en arende, het In God We Trust vanaf 1866 gegraveer. [48] ​​Dollarmuntstukke het in 1873 die motto gekry vir handelsdollars en 1878 vir gewone dollars van Morgan. [48] ​​Daar was egter geen verpligting om die leuse te veroorsaak nie, so sommige denominasies het dit nog steeds nie. Ander, soos nikkel, het die frase na 'n herontwerp sien verdwyn, sodat die meeste munte teen die laat 19de eeu nie die leuse dra nie. [49] Uiteindelik, in 1892, het 'n toesig oor die wysiging van die muntwet die taal ontken wat die insluiting van die frase vereis het. [50]

Banknote het nie 'n formele magtiging of mandaat gehad om 'In God We Trust' te laat graveer tot 1955. 'n Weergawe van die leuse (In God Is Our Trust) het eers 'n kort verskyning gemaak aan die voorkant van die tesouriebriewe van $ 20 met rente en saamgestelde rente van $ 2064 saam met die leuse "God and our Right".

Reaksies Wysig

Die aanvanklike reaksies van die algemene bevolking was verre van eenparige goedkeuring. Aan die een kant was Christelike koerante oor die algemeen tevrede dat die frase in muntstukke vervat is, hoewel sommige hulle vir meer godsdienstig aangewese leuse beywer, soos: "In God alleen is ons vertroue "of" God ons Christus. " Die New York Times die redaksie het gevra om 'ons godsdiens, soos dit is, in ons harte te laat dra en nie in ons sak nie' en het die munt gekritiseer omdat dit die leuse slegs op goue en groter silwer muntstukke insluit. [51] New York Illustrated News het die nuwe muntstukke bespot omdat dit 'die eerste keer was dat God ooit op ons toonbank van Mammon herken is', [29] met 'n soortgelyke vergelyking wat deur die Detroit Free Press. [7] Die verskillende menings oor die insluiting daarvan het uiteindelik gegroei tot 'n geskil tussen sekulariste en geloofsgemeentes. [7] Ander het nog steeds grappe gemaak met 'In God We Trust'. Die American Journal of Numismatics, het byvoorbeeld voorgestel dat mense die leuse as 'In Gold we Trust' verkeerd sou lees, wat volgens hulle 'baie nader aan die feit' was. [52] Koerante het ook begin berig oor grappies wat met die slagspreuk gemaak is. Reeds in die 1860's het koerante berig oor mense wat bordjies "In God vertrou ons - terme kontant", "In God vertrou ons. Daar word van alle ander verwag om kontant te betaal" en dies meer. [22] [53]

Die frase het egter geleidelik 'n simbool van nasionale trots geword. Slegs 6 jaar nadat dit die eerste keer op munte verskyn het, het die San Francisco Chronicle het dit ook die 'leuse van ons land' genoem, groepe so uiteenlopend soos verbieders en suffragiste, pasifiste en naturiste, Demokrate en Republikeine, Christene en Jode het almal die leuse aangeneem of die gebruik daarvan teen die einde van die 19de eeu onderskryf. [7] Die leuse bly gewild, selfs al het minder denominasies 'In God We Trust' op muntstukke ingeprent. [29]

1907 Saint-Gaudens muntstukke kontroversie Redigeer

In 1904 het president Theodore Roosevelt probeer om Amerikaanse muntstukke te verfraai en besluit om die taak te gee aan sy vriend, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, [12], wat, na verskeie vertragings en tegniese probleme met sy ontwerp, 'n nuwe ontwerp vir arende en dubbelpersone gemaak het. arende. Roosevelt het Saint-Gaudens spesifiek opdrag gegee om "In God We Trust" nie op die muntstukke op te neem nie, aangesien die president gevrees het dat hierdie muntstukke gebruik sou word om goddelose aktiwiteite, soos dobbelary, te bevorder en misdaad te vergemaklik. [12] [54] Saint-Gaudens was nie teen die bevel nie, aangesien hy gedink het dat die frase die aandag van die munt se ontwerpseienskappe sou aflei. [54]

Die muntstuk, waarvan die ultra-hoë reliëfweergawe nou beskou word as een van die mooiste munte wat ooit in die VSA geslaan is, [54] [55], is inderdaad waardeer deur sy estetika deur kunskritici. [56] 'n Skandaal het egter onmiddellik ontstaan ​​oor die gebrek aan 'In God We Trust' op die muntstukke. [57] [58] Theodore Roosevelt het daarop aangedring dat hoewel hy ten gunste was van die leuse op openbare geboue en monumente, dit vir geld (of posseëls en advertensies) 'gevaarlik naby aan heiligmaking' sou wees: [26]

My eie gevoel in die saak is te danke aan my baie vaste oortuiging dat om so 'n leuse op muntstukke te sit, of om dit op enige manier te gebruik, nie net goed doen nie, maar ook positiewe skade doen, en in werklikheid oneerbiedigheid is, wat kom gevaarlik naby aan heiligmaking. . Elke gebruik wat die neiging het om dit te vergroot, en bowenal, elke gebruik wat die neiging het om dit in 'n geestelike gees te behandel, moet uit elke oogpunt diep betreur word. . dit lyk vir my uiters onwys om so 'n leuse te vergoed deur dit op muntstukke te gebruik. In my hele lewe het ek nog nooit 'n mens eerbiedig oor hierdie leuse op die muntstukke gehoor of tekens getoon dat dit 'n hoë emosie in hom aangetrek het nie, maar ek het dit letterlik honderde kere gehoor dat dit gebruik word as 'n geleentheid om en aanhitsing tot. smalend. Almal moet die ontelbare tekenprente en artikels onthou wat gebaseer is op frases soos 'In God vertrou ons vir die 8 sent'. Ek is sekerlik binne die perke as ek sê dat die gebruik van die frase wat hierdie soort konstante lewenskragtigheid aanwend, die meeste ongewenste is.

Press se reaksie was grootliks negatief. Die meeste nuusblaaie ook verbonde aan Christelike organisasies The Wall Street Journal, The Philadelphia Press en ander koerante was kritiek op die besluit, met beskuldigings wat daarop neerkom dat die president hom skuldig maak aan opsetlike aanranding op godsdiens en die minagting van Amerikaners se godsdienstige sentimente. [56] Atlanta Grondwet het geskryf dat mense sou kies tussen 'God en Roosevelt' Die New York Sun het 'n gedig gepubliseer wat die houding van Roosevelt bespot. [26] Daarteenoor Die New York Times, Chicago Tribune, sowel as 'n paar godsdienstige koerante, soos Die Kerkman, aan die kant van die president, [7] [56], wat verstom en geïrriteerd was deur die opposisie van mense om die leuse op te neem. Dit het 'n debat in die kongres veroorsaak, wat vinnig besluit het om die leuse oor die muntstukke in 'n wet wat in 1908 aangeneem is, weer in te stel. As gevolg van omstredenheid is relevante ontwerpveranderings daarna deur die muntgraaf Charles E. Barber aangebring. [50]

Die leuse is sedert 1909 deurlopend op die een-sent-munt gebruik, en op die tien-sent-muntstuk. sedert 1 Julie 1908. [34] Sedert 1938 dra alle Amerikaanse munte die opskrif "In God We Trust". [8]

Pad na die universele mandaat Edit

Tydens die Koue Oorlog het die regering van die Verenigde State probeer om hom te onderskei van die Sowjetunie, wat staats atheïsme bevorder en sodoende antireligieuse wetgewing geïmplementeer het, [60], daarom is 'n debat oor die verdere gebruik van godsdienstige leuse in die kongres begin. Kevin M. Kruse voer egter in sy boek [61] aan dat opposisie van konserwatiewes teen New Deal, en hul daaropvolgende suksesvolle veldtogte om die invloed van godsdiens uit te brei, die belangrikste faktore was wat bygedra het tot die verdere aanvaarding van "In God We Trust".

Die Eisenhower -administrasie het 'n diep godsdienstige toon getoon, wat 'n vrugbare grond was vir lobby vir die insluiting van die leuse in verdere gebruike. [62] Na intense openbare druk vir die opname van die nasionale leuse, verskyn dit vir die eerste keer op 'n paar posseëls van die 1954 Liberty Issue, [63] [64] [65], hoewel hy hom beywer vir universele insluiting deur die senator Charles E van Michigan Potter en Rep. Louis C. Rabaut het misluk. [62]

Die volgende jaar het die demokraat -reps Charles Edward Bennett van Florida die Koue Oorlog aangehaal toe hy HR 619 bekendstel, wat 'In God wat ons vertrou' verplig was om op alle banknote gedruk te word en op alle muntstukke geslaan te word in die Huis, met die argument dat '[ in] deesdae, wanneer imperialistiese en materialistiese kommunisme probeer om vryheid aan te val en te vernietig, moet ons voortdurend na maniere soek om die grondslag van ons vryheid te versterk ". [66] [67] Die American Numismatic Association en die American Legion het saamgestem en besluite geneem om die gebruik van 'In God We Trust' te bevorder. [68] [69]

Op 11 Julie 1955 is die wetsontwerp, wat aanvaar is met partydige ondersteuning van albei kamers van die Kongres, deur president Eisenhower onderteken. [70] [71] Aangesien alle munte reeds aan die wet voldoen, is die enigste veranderinge aan die papiergeld gemaak. Die leuse verskyn die eerste keer op die silwer sertifikaat van $ 1 in 1957, gevolg deur ander sertifikate. Federal Reserve Notes en United States Notes [72] is versprei met die leuse vanaf 1964 tot 1966, afhangende van die benaming. [34] [73] [74]

Federale regering Redigeer

Op 30 Julie 1956 het die 84ste kongres 'n gesamentlike resolusie aangeneem wat "IN GOD ONS VERTROU die nasionale leuse van die Verenigde State". [75] Die resolusie het beide die Huis en die Senaat eenparig en sonder debat aangeneem. [76] [77] [78] Dit is vervang E pluribus unum, wat voorheen bestaan ​​het as 'n de facto amptelike leuse. [6] Die Amerikaanse kode op 36 U.S.C. § 302 lui nou: "'In God vertrou ons' is die nasionale leuse." Die resolusie is in 2006, op die 50ste herdenking van die aanneming daarvan, herbevestig deur die Senaat, [79] en in 2011 deur die Huis van Verteenwoordigers met 396 teen 9 stemme. [80] [81] In 2000 het die Huis ook aangemoedig om die leuse in die openbaar te vertoon. [82] [83]

Die Huis van Verteenwoordigers het die leuse bo die rostrum van die Speaker, wat in Desember 1962 in die muur gesny is. [84]

Staats- en plaaslike regerings Redigeer

Aanneming van die nasionale leuse in staatsimbole Redigeer

Drie state het In God We Trust aangeneem as deel van die amptelike simboliek van die staat.

In Florida is die huiswetsontwerp nr. 1145 maak voorsiening vir die aanneming van 'In God We Trust' as die amptelike staatsleuse, in plaas van 'n soortgelyke 'In God Is Our Trust', van krag op 1 Julie 2006. [4] [5] [85] Die leuse het ook verskyn op die seël van Florida [86] en op die vlag van Florida, aangesien die seël een van sy elemente is sedert 1868. [87]

Die vlag van Georgië het die leuse sedert 2001, wat na 'n herontwerp twee jaar later behoue ​​gebly het. [88]

In Mississippi het die Senaat van Mississippi gestem om die woorde "In God We Trust" by die staatsseël te voeg, wat dit regverdig as 'n poging om godsdiensvryheid te beskerm. Die verandering is van krag geword op 1 Julie 2014. [89] [90] Ses jaar later het goewerneur van Mississippi, Tate Reeves, 'n wetsontwerp onderteken wat vereis dat die staat se vlag, wat die Konfederale gevegsembleem bevat het, vervang word deur 'n nuwe een met die frase "In God We Trust." [91] 'n Nuwe vlag met die leuse is deur die kiesers in 'n referendum goedgekeur, en dit het in Januarie 2021 die amptelike staatsvlag geword. [92]

Mandaat vertoon Redigeer

  • Arkansas: In Maart 2017 het wet 911, geborg deur die staatsverteenwoordiger, Jim Dotson, 'n vereiste van die staatswet van Arkansas gemaak dat openbare skole plakkate met die nasionale leuse moet vertoon as dit geskenk word. [93] [94] In 2019 is die wet later gewysig om die nasionale leuse in openbare skole, hoëronderwysinstellings en staatsregerings in die openbaar te openbaar, indien geld daarvoor beskikbaar is. [13]
  • Florida: Begin 2018 stel Kimberly Daniels, 'n demokraat wat as 'n verteenwoordiger van die Florida -huis van verteenwoordigers gedien het, HB 839 voor, 'n wetsontwerp wat vereis dat openbare skole die leuse 'In God We Trust' op 'n opvallende plek moet vertoon. Op 21 Februarie 2018 het die wetsontwerp 97 tot 10 in die Huis aangeneem. [95] [96] Gov.Rick Scott onderteken toe die mandaat in die wet. [97] [98]
  • Idaho: Gelyktydige resolusie 32, wat in Maart 2020 aangeneem is, bepaal dat die nasionale leuse op die voorsitters van die voorsittende beamptes van albei kamers van die Idaho -wetgewer moet plaas. [99]
  • Kentucky: In 2014 is 'n wet aangeneem wat die nasionale leuse in wetgewende geboue en in komitees moes wys. [100] In Junie 2019 is 'n wetsontwerp wat deur rep. Brandon Reed van Hodgenville geborg is, aangeneem wat vereis dat openbare skole in Kentucky die leuse 'op 'n prominente plek' moet vertoon, begin vanaf die skooljaar 2019-20. ] Hodgenville is sitplek, skole gebruik groot beelde van sent. [102]
  • Louisiana: 'N Wetsontwerp wat die leuse in openbare skole openbaar moet maak, is in Maart 2018 deur senator Regina Ashford Barrow ingedien. Dit is eenparig aangeneem in die Senaat (33 tot 0) en in die Huis (93 tot 0). [104] Dit is in Mei daardie jaar deur goewerneur John Bel Edwards onderteken. [105] [106] Die wetsontwerp vereis ook skoolonderrig oor "In God We Trust" as deel van die kurrikulum vir sosiale studies. [104] [107]
  • Mississippi: In Maart 2001 het goewerneur van Mississippi, Ronnie Musgrove, wetgewing onderteken wat vereis dat die leuse "In God We Trust" in elke openbare skoolklaskamer, sowel as die skool -ouditoriums en kafeteria, in die hele staat moet verskyn. [108]
  • Ohio: Ohio vereis dat openbare skole 'n motto -materiaal van "In God We Trust" hang as skooldistrikte dit as skenking ontvang, of as geld geskenk word met die doel om sulke materiaal te koop. [13] [109]
  • Suid -Dakota: In Maart 2019 het Suid-Dakota vereis dat openbare skole vanaf die skooljaar 2019-20 'n leuse van "In God We Trust" op hul mure op hul mure moes vertoon. [110] [111] [112]
  • Tennessee: In Maart 2018 het 'n wetsontwerp wat vereis dat skole in Tennessee die nasionale leuse ("In God We Trust") wat deur rep. Susan Lynn geborg is, op 'n prominente wyse die staatshuis goedgekeur, met 81 van die 99 lede wat daarvoor stem. [113] Nadat dit eenparig in die senaat goedgekeur is, is dit die volgende maand deur goewerneur Bill Haslam onderteken. [114]
  • Virginia: 'N Regulasie wat alle skole in Virginia verplig om die leuse in die openbaar te vertoon, is in Mei 2002 onderteken. [115] [116]
  • Utah: Utah se wet om skole te verplig om in die openbaar "In God We Trust" te vertoon, is in Maart 2002 deur die goewerneur Mike Leavitt onderteken. [117] Die wet verplig ook skoolonderrig oor die leuse. [118]

Laat skerm wysig

  • Alabama: 'N Wet van 2018 laat die leuse in skole, biblioteke, regeringsgeboue en op wetstoepassingsvoertuie toe. [13] [119]
  • Arizona: Arizona laat die leuse in openbare skole openbaar. [13]
  • Georgië: Georgië maak voorsiening vir die gebruik van die nasionale leuse in skole en regeringsgeboue, mits hulle geld het vir die vertoning daarvan. [13]
  • Indiana: Indiana laat die nasionale leuse sedert 2005 in openbare skole toe. [13]
  • Michigan: Michigan laat en moedig die vertoning van die leuse in en op openbare skole sowel as staats- en plaaslike regeringsgeboue aan. [13] [120]
  • Noord -Dakota: Die statuut van Noord -Dakota laat die nasionale leuse in openbare skole toe. [13]
  • Oklahoma: 'N Wetsontwerp is in 2004 aangeneem wat openbare skole in staat gestel het om "In God We Trust" en "E Pluribus Unum" in klaskamers, ouditoriums en kafeteria [121] te wys, en 'n wetsontwerp van die Senaat van 2018 om sodanige vertoning in die Huis op te lê. [122]
  • Suid Carolina: Suid -Carolina laat politieke onderafdelings en skole toe om 'n vertoning te plaas waarin die grondslae van die Amerikaanse wet en regering uiteengesit word, waarvan die nasionale leuse een van dertien dokumente is, terwyl dit konteks bied aan hierdie dokumente in terme van die statuut. [123]
  • Texas: Texas laat die leuse in openbare skole en hoëronderwysinstellings toe sedert 2003. [12] [124]

Wetgewing hangende Redigering

  • Illinois: 'N Voorstel van 2021 deur verteenwoordiger Adam Niemerg om die vertoning van In God We Trust in openbare skole toe te laat, het die Huis van Verteenwoordigers in Illinois in April 2021 [125] geslaag, en word sedert Junie 2021 deur die staats senaat beraadslaag.
  • New Hampshire: Huiswetsontwerp 69, wat in April 2021 ingedien is, het aanvanklik voorgestel dat skole die nasionale en staatsmotto moet vertoon, en die Huis 204-169 goedgekeur. Dit is in die senaat gewysig om die leuse te laat publiseer en op 13 Mei 2021 goedgekeur. Die wetsontwerp wag op goedkeuring van die huis vanaf Junie 2021. [126]
  • Oklahoma: In 2020 het die Huis van Verteenwoordigers van Oklahoma gestem om staatsgeboue te verplig om die leuse te toon, [127], maar die wetsontwerp sterf in die Senaat as gevolg van die ontwrigting van COVID-19. [128] Die volgende jaar het die Huis dieselfde wetsontwerp in Maart 2021 weer ingestel en goedgekeur, [128] terwyl die Senaat 'n weergawe goedgekeur het wat die leuse moontlik maak, maar dit nie vereis nie. [129] Beide die wetsontwerpe word vanaf Junie 2021 voortgesit.
  • Texas: 'N Wetsontwerp van die Senaat van 2021 om afskrifte van die leuse wat op 'n "opvallende plek" gehang is, te skenk, het op 25 Mei 2021 die Huis van Verteenwoordigers in Texas verbygesteek en wag nou op die ondertekening van die goewerneur, wat na verwagting dit by die wet sal onderteken . [130] [131]

Daarbenewens het verskeie plaaslike regerings die leuse van regeringsgeboue en munisipale motors vertoon. [132] [133] [134] [135] Skoolrade het ook die leuse vrywillig bekendgestel, veral na die aanvalle van 11 September, toe die American Family Association verskeie plakkate van 11-by-14-duim aan skoolstelsels verskaf het en belowe het om enige regsuitdagings teen hul vertoning te verdedig. [136]

Verskeie geleerdes het opgemerk dat die motto 'In God We Trust' een van die belangrikste elemente van burgerlike godsdiens in die Verenigde State is. [29] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141]

Godsdiens Redigeer

In die Judaïsme en die Christendom word die amptelike leuse "In God We Trust" nie woordeliks gevind in verse uit die Bybel nie, maar baie noukeurig in die Ou Testament in Psalm 91: 2, "Ek sal van die HERE sê, Hy is my toevlug en my vesting: my God in hom sal ek vertrou"en in die Nuwe Testament in 2 Korintiërs 1:10," Wie het ons verlos uit so 'n groot dood en red: in wie ons vertrou dat hy nog sal verlos ons. "Die begrip word geparafraseer in Psalm 118: 8, Psalm 40: 3, Psalm 73:28 en Spreuke 29:25. [142] Volgens Philip Jenkins het sommige Bybelvertalings Psalm 56:11 weergee as"In God vertrou ek Ek sal nie vrees nie ", [143] wat kan lei tot die vervanging van die eerste" ek "deur" ons ". [24]

In Islam word die woord vir die konsep van vertroue op God genoem Tawakkul die frase "In God We Trust" word letterlik gevind op twee plekke in die Koran, in Surah 10 Yunus, sowel as Surah Al-A'raf (7:89), en verskeie ander verse versterk hierdie konsep. [144] Melkote Ramaswamy, 'n Hindoe -Amerikaanse geleerde, skryf dat die teenwoordigheid van die frase "In God We Trust" op Amerikaanse geldeenheid 'n herinnering is dat "daar oral God is, of ons bewustelik is of niet." [145]

In die populêre kultuur Redigeer

In 'n e-pos-samesweringsteorie uit 2007 word gesê dat 'In God We Trust' doelbewus weggelaat is uit nuwe munte van die Amerikaanse dollar. [146] Die eerste munte wat onder die presidensiële $ 1 -muntprogram geproduseer is, het nie die inskripsie "In God We Trust" langs hul kante ontbreek nie (saam met die opskrif "E Pluribus Unum", die jaar van produksie en die muntmerk van hierdie muntstukke, anders as normale dollar -muntstukke, het heeltemal leë rande), maar hierdie munte, bekend as "goddelose dollars", was die gevolg van 'n knipfout, nie 'n doelbewuste weglating nie. [147] [148]

In Januarie 2006 is Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen en sy vrou Jackie 'n plek aangebied op die Valentynsdag-uitgawe van beroemde paartjies van Wie wil 'n miljoenêr word? Hulle verskyn op die program om die vraag van £ 1 miljoen te bereik, voordat hulle dit verkeerd beantwoord en van £ 500,000 tot £ 32,000 ('n verlies van £ 468,000) daal. Celador het Llewelyn-Bowen en sy vrou toegelaat om die program weer te probeer nadat die maatskappy beweer het dat die laaste vraag "nie aan hul standaarde voldoen nie". Die kwansuis misleidende vraag was "Wat is die leuse van die Verenigde State uit die Latyn vertaal?" Die antwoord wat Llewelyn-Bowen gegee het, was 'In God We Trust', wat oorspronklik Engels is en sedert 1956 die leuse van die Verenigde State was. Die bedoelde antwoord was 'One Out of Many', 'n vertaling van die Latynse frase E pluribus unum, wat nog nooit 'n amptelike leuse van die Verenigde State was nie. [149]

Die leuse het ook in die boek van Jean Shepherd verskyn In God vertrou ons: alle ander betaal kontant, en in albums gemaak deur Stryper, Brand Nubian en Mermen.

Kentekenplate Edit

Vanaf 25 Mei 2021 bied die volgende Amerikaanse state tans 'n "In God We Trust" nommerplaat aan (ydelheid en standaardkwessies): Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, North Carolina, Ohio, [150] Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Suid -Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia en Wisconsin. [151] [152]

Die huidige standaardplaat van Mississippi bevat die leuse soos op sy staatsseël, [152] [153], terwyl Utah 'n standaard nommerplaat bied. [154] Florida, wat ook 'n spesiale bord bied, het 'n opsie om "In God We Trust" te plaas in plaas van die amptelike bynaam of landnaam [155] Georgia bied ook so 'n opsie, [156] terwyl Noord -Carolina 'n opsie met die staatsleuse van Noord -Carolina en 'In God We Trust' in plaas van 'First in Flight' of 'First in Freedom'. [157]

Meningspeilings Redigeer

Volgens 'n 2003 gesamentlike peiling deur USA Today, CNN en Gallup, 90% van die Amerikaners ondersteun die opskrif "In God We Trust" op Amerikaanse munte, [17], egter 'n meer onlangse peiling van studente in 2019 deur College Pulse gemaak vir Die College Fix het getoon dat net meer as die helfte van die studente die opname van die nasionale leuse in geldeenheid ondersteun, met twee derdes van diegene wat hulself as demokrate erken en 94% van die Republikeine ten gunste van die maatreël. [18]

"In God We Trust" is lank reeds 'n omstrede as 'n amptelike leuse vanweë wat teenstanders as 'n godsdienstige verklaring beskou en as sodanig die skeiding van kerk en staat skend. Sekulêre en ateïstiese organisasies, soos Amerikaners verenig vir die skeiding van kerk en staat, [158] [159] Stigting Freedom From Religion, [160] [161] sowel as die Sataniese tempel [91] lede, het almal gekant teen die opname van so 'n leuse. Aan die ander kant het Project Blitz sowel as konserwatiewe organisasies en wetgewers 'n beroep gedoen op die verdere aanvaarding daarvan. [162] [163]

Voorstanders het uitgebrei gepleit vir die opname van die nasionale leuse, en dit gegrond op die tradisionele aanroepings van God wat volgens hulle nou 'n element van 'n burgerlike godsdiens geword het en moet die wil uitdruk van die stigters, wat in God geglo het. [7] [83] [164] [165] Teenstanders, aan die ander kant, beweer dat die leuse nie net die sekulêre karakter van die Verenigde State skend nie, maar dat dit ook die tipe en aantal gode (indien enige) vooraf bepaal vertrou word, [128] [159] [166] met sommige wat hul argumente na die howe bring.

Litigasie Redigeer

Die grondwetlikheid van die frase "In God We Trust" is herhaaldelik gehandhaaf volgens die geregtelike interpretasie van akkommodasie, waarvan die aanhangers beweer dat hierdie gevestigde praktyk histories geen grondwetlike probleme meebring nie, nie dwingend is nie en nie een godsdienstige denominasie verkies bo 'n ander. [167] In Zorach v. Clauson (1952), het die Hooggeregshof ook geskryf dat die land se "instellings 'n opperwese veronderstel" en dat die erkenning van God van die regering nie 'n stigting van 'n staatskerk is nie, soos die skrywers van die Grondwet wou verbied. [168] Die howe maak ook staat op die idee van 'seremoniële deïsme' (soos omskryf in Brennan se onenigheid in Lynch v. Donnelly), [169] dit wil sê dat daar godsdienstige verwysings bestaan ​​wat deur hul herhalende en gebruiklike gebruik sekulêr geword het en dus grondwetlik is. [170] While opponents of such rulings argue that Jefferson's notion of "wall of separation between church and state" prohibits any aid, direct or indirect, to any religious institution, and therefore any ruling to the contrary goes counter to Founders' intent, this separationist view has not gained significant ground in judicial settings. [167] [171]

Even though not directly related to the motto, Engel v. Vitale elicited much speculation on the future of "In God We Trust" in public settings. In the ruling, the US Supreme Court has struck down a New York law that encouraged public schools to recite a prayer as written in state law on First Amendment grounds. The ruling sparked widespread outrage and was extremely unpopular at the time, even as the judges' decision was near-unanimous. [172] Almost 4/5 of Americans disapproved of the ruling, according to a Gallup poll. [173] Congressmen were afraid that "In God We Trust" would have to disappear from coins and banknotes, [174] the feeling shared by the then president of the American Bar Association, John C. Salterfield, [7] while a senator was wondering if God was declared unconstitutional. [175] Congressmen tried to direct federal funds to buy Bibles for the Supreme Court justices and to propose a constitutional amendment allowing school prayer (both measures failed). [172] A similar ruling the following year in Abington Township v. Schempp prompted senators to attempt to force the Supreme Court to hang the national motto in the courtroom, which also did not succeed. [7]

Even though the Supreme Court has never ruled directly on the constitutionality of "In God We Trust", [16] several appellate federal courts and some state courts have, and the Supreme Court itself did not seem to have any problem with the phrase being inscribed on coins and banknotes. [48]

Aronow v. United States was the first case to challenge the inclusion of "In God We Trust" on U.S. currency. [176] The passage of the statute that the lawsuit challenged ("31 U.S.C. § 324a "the inscription 'In God we Trust'. shall appear on all United States currency and coins") [176] stood, and the Ninth Circuit stated that: "its [motto's] use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise". In O'Hair v. Blumenthal (1978), the US District Court for the Western District of Texas also upheld the law. A similar decision was reached on appeal to the Fifth Circuit in 1979, which affirmed that the "primary purpose of the slogan was secular". [177] The decision was reaffirmed by a ruling in the Tenth Circuit in Gaylor v. United States. [178]

A series of lawsuits attempting to outlaw "In God We Trust" was filed, with support of the Freedom From Religion Foundation, by Michael Newdow, who was known for his previous case Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, where the Ninth Circuit issued a ruling removing "under God" from the Pledge of Allegiance (the ruling was overturned by the US Supreme Court). A federal judge in California rejected his reasoning in a June 2006 ruling, and the same conclusion was reached by the Ninth Circuit. Because the Supreme Court denied certiorari, the appelate court's decision, which said that "the national motto is of a "patriotic or ceremonial character," has no "theological or ritualistic impact," and does not constitute "governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise,"" remained unchanged and in force. [179] A lawsuit filed by Newdow and Freedom from Religion Foundation in 2013 in New York also failed, both on trial [180] and on appeal to the Second Circuit [181] yet another one, filed in Ohio in 2016, was dismissed by the US District Court for the Northern District of Ohio and the Sixth Circuit. [182] The same happened with the lawsuit in the Eighth Circuit, which was unrelated to Newdow's efforts. [183] ​​[184]

In 2015, New Jersey state judge David F. Bauman dismissed a case against the Matawan-Aberdeen Regional School District brought by a student of the district and the American Humanist Association that argued that the phrase "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance created a climate of discrimination because it promoted religion, making non-believers "second-class citizens". [185] [186] He noted that "as a matter of historical tradition, the words 'under God' can no more be expunged from the national consciousness than the words 'In God We Trust' from every coin in the land, than the words 'so help me God' from every presidential oath since 1789, or than the prayer that has opened every congressional session of legislative business since 1787." [187]

Additionally, several courts have agreed that "In God We Trust" on public buildings does not violate the Establishment Clause: the New Hampshire Supreme Court [188] and the Fourth Circuit [189] did so for public schools, with the same appelate federal court arguing the same for a county government office. [190] [191]

While efforts to remove "In God We Trust" were largely fruitless, in Wooley v. Maynard, the Supreme Court struck down a New Hampshire law mandating that every person carry the state motto on their license plates, noting that the State can't "use their private property as a 'mobile billboard' for the State's ideological message". In obiter dicta, the majority agreed that this "In God We Trust" lawsuit should not be construed to be a basis for challenge to the constitutionality of the motto on US currency, which they argued was not something that was either associated directly with the owner or made to display. [48] [192]

The Spanish equivalent of "In God We Trust", En Dios Confiamos, is an unofficial motto of the Republic of Nicaragua, which can be seen on most of Nicaragua's coins. [19]

Additionally, the phrase has been used in heraldic settings. In 1860, the phrase was included in the coat of arms of New Westminster, British Columbia, and it stayed there ever since. [193] [194] Also, until 1997, the heraldic motto of Brighton, England was the Latin equivalent of the phrase, In Deo Fidemus. [195] [196]

"IN GOD WE TRUST" motto over the tribune in the United States House of Representatives Chamber (between the clock and the flag)

Indian Head eagle, revised design of 1908 adding " IN GOD WE TRUST " motto to reverse

Dollar coin stack showing " IN GOD WE TRUST " on edge

United States one-dollar bill, reverse, series 2009 with " IN GOD WE TRUST " motto

Saint-Gaudens double eagle, revised design of 1908 adding " IN GOD WE TRUST " motto to reverse


'In God We Trust' becomes the official motto of U.S.

On July 30, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a law passed by the 84th Congress declaring "IN GOD WE TRUST" as the national motto of the United States.

The phrase first appeared on one-cent and two-cent pieces in 1864 after the passing of the Coinage Act of 1864. The phrase continued to be inscribed and printed on U.S. currency into the Cold War era. During that time, the U.S. government was looking to distinguish itself from the state atheism practiced in the Soviet Union and a resolution was introduced to create the national motto.

The resolution passed unanimously in both the House and the Senate and was signed into law by President Eisenhower. On the same day, Eisenhower also signed into law a requirement that "IN GOD WE TRUST" be printed on all U.S. currency and coins.

Religion calendar

July 30: Eid al-Adha (Islamic)

Aug. 1: Lughnasadh (Pagan and Wiccan)

Aug. 15: Feast of the Assumption (Roman Catholic)

Aug. 19: Islamic New Year (Islamic)

Sept. 1: Pitru Paksha (Hindu)

"Defined by Moments: Leadership Lessons from Gideon the Biblical Judge" by Joel E. Medley

"Defined by Moments" breaks down the life of Gideon into 13 critical decisions that either advanced or diminished his leadership. Defining moments are not the grand successes or failures for which we are remembered but are the moments, hardly noticed by others, that create those public milestones.

yahrzeit: In Judaism, the anniversary of the death of an immediate family member, marked by the lighting of a yahrzeit candle that burns for 24 hours.

Religion around the world

According to the CIA World Factbook, the religious makeup of Singapore is:


This Day in History: Jul 30, 1956: President Eisenhower signs "In God We Trust" into law

On this day in 1956, two years after pushing to have the phrase "under God" inserted into the pledge of allegiance, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a law officially declaring "In God We Trust" to be the nation's official motto. The law, P.L. 84-140, also mandated that the phrase be printed on all American paper currency. The phrase had been placed on U.S. coins since the Civil War when, according to the historical association of the United States Treasury, religious sentiment reached a peak. Eisenhower's treasury secretary, George Humphrey, had suggested adding the phrase to paper currency as well.

Although some historical accounts claim Eisenhower was raised a Jehovah's Witness, most presidential scholars now believe his family was Mennonite. Either way, Eisenhower abandoned his family's religion before entering the Army, and took the unusual step of being baptized relatively late in his adult life as a Presbyterian. The baptism took place in 1953, barely a year into his first term as president.


Although Eisenhower embraced religion, biographers insist he never intended to force his beliefs on anyone. In fact, the chapel-like structure near where he and his wife Mamie are buried on the grounds of his presidential library is called the "Place of Meditation" and is intentionally inter-denominational. At a Flag Day speech in 1954, he elaborated on his feelings about the place of religion in public life when he discussed why he had wanted to include "under God" in the pledge of allegiance: "In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America's heritage and future in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our country's most powerful resource in peace and war."

The first paper money with the phrase "In God We Trust" was not printed until 1957. Since then, religious and secular groups have argued over the appropriateness and constitutionality of a motto that mentions "God," considering the founding fathers dedication to maintaining the separation of church and state.


RELIGION BULLETIN: Eisenhower declares ‘IN GOD WE TRUST’ as national motto

On July 30, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a law passed by the 84th Congress declaring "IN GOD WE TRUST" as the national motto of the United States. The phrase first appeared on one-cent and two-cent pieces in 1864 after the passing of the Coinage Act of 1864. The phrase continued to be inscribed and printed on U.S. currency into the Cold War era. During that time, the U.S. government was looking to distinguish itself from the state atheism practiced in the Soviet Union and a resolution was introduced to create the national motto. The resolution passed unanimously in both the House and the Senate and was signed into law by President Eisenhower. On the same day, Eisenhower also signed into law a requirement that "IN GOD WE TRUST" be printed on all U.S. currency and coins.

Aug. 1: Lughnassad &mdash Imbolc (Wicca/Pagan)

Aug. 6: Transfiguration of the Lord (Orthodox Christian)

Aug. 10: Waqf al Arafa (Islam)

Aug. 15: Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary (Catholic Christian)

Aug. 15: Dormition of the Theotokos (Orthodox Christian)

Aug. 23: Krishna Janmashtami (Hindu)

Aug. 29: Beheading of St. John the Baptist (Christian)

"Religion in the Public Square: Sheen, King, Falwell" by James M. Patterson

In "Religion in the Public Square," James M. Patterson considers religious leaders who popularized theology through media campaigns designed to persuade the public. Ven. Fulton J. Sheen, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Rev. Jerry Falwell differed profoundly on issues of theology and politics, but they shared an approach to public ministry that aimed directly at changing how Americans understood the nature and purpose of their country.

&mdash University of Pennsylvania Press

jen: In Confucianism, jen (pronounced "ren") is the highest principle and translates to compassion and humanity derived from genuine love.

RELIGION AROUND THE WORLD

According to the CIA World Factbook, the religious makeup of Grenada is: Protestant: 49.2% Roman Catholic: 36% Jehovah&rsquos Witness: 1.2% Rastafarian: 1.2% Other: 5.5% None: 5.7% and Unspecified: 1.3%.


Religion Bulletin: Eisenhower declares 'In God We Trust' as national motto

On July 30, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a law passed by the 84th Congress declaring "IN GOD WE TRUST" as the national motto of the United States. The phrase first appeared on one-cent and two-cent pieces in 1864 after the passing of the Coinage Act of 1864. The phrase continued to be inscribed and printed on U.S. currency into the Cold War era. During that time, the U.S. government was looking to distinguish itself from the state atheism practiced in the Soviet Union and a resolution was introduced to create the national motto. The resolution passed unanimously in both the House and the Senate and was signed into law by President Eisenhower. On the same day, Eisenhower also signed into law a requirement that "IN GOD WE TRUST" be printed on all U.S. currency and coins.

July 25: St. James the Great Day (Christian)

Aug. 1: Lughnassad - Imbolc (Wicca/Pagan)

Aug. 6: Transfiguration of the Lord (Orthodox Christian)

Aug. 10: Waqf al Arafa (Islam)

Aug. 15: Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary (Catholic Christian)

Aug. 15: Dormition of the Theotokos (Orthodox Christian)

Aug. 23: Krishna Janmashtami (Hindu)

Aug. 29: Beheading of St. John the Baptist (Christian)

"Religion in the Public Square: Sheen, King, Falwell" by James M. Patterson

In "Religion in the Public Square," James M. Patterson considers religious leaders who popularized theology through media campaigns designed to persuade the public. Ven. Fulton J. Sheen, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and Rev. Jerry Falwell differed profoundly on issues of theology and politics, but they shared an approach to public ministry that aimed directly at changing how Americans understood the nature and purpose of their country.

— University of Pennsylvania Press

jen: In Confucianism, jen (pronounced "ren") is the highest principle and translates to compassion and humanity derived from genuine love.


Defending “In God We Trust”

On July 30, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a law declaring “In God We Trust” the official motto of the United States. Public Law 84-851 was based upon a 90 year tradition of inscribing “In God We Trust” upon American coins and a centuries old heritage of recognizing God’s sovereignty in our nation’s affairs.

America Acknowledges God

From the very beginning, American public documents have acknowledged and given tribute to God. The first Charter of Virginia (1606) granted the king’s authority to launch a British colony in the New World. After naming the persons receiving the grant, the charter began:

We, greatly commending, and graciously accepting of, their Desires for the Furtherance of so noble a Work, which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the Glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating of Christen Religion to such People, as yet live in Darkness and miserable Ignorance of the true Knowledge and Worship of God…”

Using similar language, the Pilgrims of Plymouth set forth the purpose of their government in the first few words of the Mayflower Compact:

In the NAME OF GOD, AMEN…Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country…

The Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, looked to the “laws of nature and of nature’s God” and to the unalienable rights of men given “by their Creator” to justify the colonists break from Great Britain The signers of this historic document acknowledged their trust in God by appealing to “the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions,” and pledging to defend the Declaration “with a firm reliance on the protection of DIVINE PROVIDENCE.”

It was Jefferson who also drafted the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786), a forerunner of the First Amendment, which prohibited government control of religion because:

Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free that all attempts to influence it by temporal punishment…are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion, who, being Lord both of body and mind, yet chose not to propagate it by coercions on either.

Since its earliest days, the leaders of our republic have acknowledged God’s hand in America. In his first inaugural address, George Washington confessed dependence upon God and His providence in the affairs of the United States:

[I]t would be peculiarly improper to omit in this first official act my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the universe, who presides in the councils of nations, and whose providential aids can supply every human defect, that His benediction may consecrate to the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States a Government…No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the Invisible Hand which conducts the affairs of men more than those of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation seems to have been distinguished by some token on providential agency.

The Influence of Religion in America

The substantial influence of religion in American history makes the adoption of “In God We Trust” as our national motto particularly appropriate. Americans have a rich heritage of religious faith and practice. Foreign visitors were impressed by the religious character of early Americans. Alexis de Tocqueville, a Frenchman who traveled extensively in America noted in his famous book, Demokrasie in Amerika:

America is still the place where the Christian religion has kept the greatest real power over men’s souls and nothing better demonstrates how useful and natural it is to man, since the country where it now has widest sway is both the most enlightened and the freest.

Robert Baird, an observer of religious trends in the early 1800’s, spent the years 1835-1843 in Europe studying the roots of American religious freedom. At the end of his study, he published his classic work Religion in America in which he said,

To their religion the New England colonists owed all their best qualities. Even their political freedom they owed to the contest they had waged in England for religious liberty…Religion led them to abandon their country, rather than submit to a tyranny that threatened to enslave their immortal souls, and made them seek in the New World the freedom of conscience that was denied to them in the old.

Baird observed that, “In no other part of the world, perhaps, do a larger proportion of the inhabitants attend church than in the United States,” This led Baird to conclude:

It is just because of these influences—the Sabbath, the Church, the Bible—that a vast country of now more than twenty-seven millions of people can be governed, and is governed, without the bayonet and the cannon.

Commenting on his travels in America during the 1850’s, German agnostic and foe of religion Karl Griesinger was forced to ask why church attendance in America was “more common here than anywhere else in the world?”

Even to Griesinger, the statistics would have seemed astounding. During the period of the Revolution and the drafting of the Constitution, it is estimated that 59%-77.5% of all Americans were churched. The Second Great Awakening in the early 1800’s and the expansion of Methodist and Baptist Churches in this country pushed the figures even higher. The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge estimated that in 1831 there were 12,136,953 members and adherents of various American denominations. The population of the U.S. that year was estimated at 13,321,000, indicating 91% of the population was involved in churches Robert Baird found that in 1955 there were approximately 22,762,000 members and adherents among evangelical denominations and Catholics, which was 86% of the total population of approximately 26,500,000 people in the United States. The amazing influence of the churches on American life persisted up through the Civil War, during which the phrase “In God We Trust” first appeared on United States coins.

Recognizing God on U.S. Coins

According to the U.S. Treasury Department records, the first request for recognition of God on U.S. coins was made in a letter from the Reverend Mr. M. R. Watkinson of Ridleyville, Pennsylvania to Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, dated November 13, 1861:

You are about to submit your annual report to Congress respecting the affairs of the national finances.

One fact touching our currency has hitherto been seriously overlooked. I mean the recognition of the Almighty God in some form in our coins.

You are probably a Christian. What if our Republic were now shattered beyond reconstruction? Would not the antiquaries of succeeding centuries rightly reason from our past that we were a heathen nation? What I propose is that instead of the goddess of liberty we shall have next inside the 13 stars a ring inscribed with the words ‘perpetual union’ within this ring the all seeing eye, crowned with a halo beneath this eye the American flag, bearing in its field stars equal to the number of the States united in the folds of the bars the words ‘God, liberty, law.’

This would make a beautiful coin, to which no possible citizen could object. This would relieve us from the ignominy of heathenism. This would place us openly under the Divine protection we have personally claimed. From my heart I have felt our national shame in disowning God as not the least of our present national disasters.

To you first I address a subject that must be agitated.

Reverend Mr. Watkinson’s request was not without precedent. The colonial governments, as early as 1694 had issued coins bearing reference to God:

The Carolina cent minted in 1694 bore the inscription ‘God preserve Carolina and the Lords proprietors.’ The New England token of the same year bore the inscription ‘God preserve New England’. The Louisiana cent coined in 1721-22 and 1767 bore the inscription ‘Sit nomen Domini benedictum’—Blessed be the name of the Lord. The Virginia halfpenny of 1774 bore an inscription in Latin which translated meant “George the Third by the grace of God” Utah issued gold pieces in the denominations of $2.50, $5, $10, and $20 in 1849 bearing the inscription ‘Holiness to the Lord.’

Secretary Chase, responding within a week to Rev. Watkinson’s suggestion, wrote the Director of the Mint:

No nation can be strong except in the strength of God, or safe except in His defense. The trust of our people in God should be declared on our national coins. You will cause a device to be prepared without unnecessary delay with a motto expressing in the fewest and tersest words possible this national recognition.

James Pollock, who in May 1861 had been appointed Director of the Mint by President Lincoln, began preparing appropriate designs for coins incorporating such mottoes as “Our country our God,” and “God, our Trust.” On December 9, 1863, after reviewing Pollock’s proposals, Secretary Chase approved the present motto, “In God We Trust.”

On April 22, 1864, Congress passed new legislation authorizing one- and two-cent coins and granting the Director of the Mint and the Secretary of the Treasury discretion to fix “the shape, mottoes, and devices” of the new coins. Consequently, the mint issued the new two-cent bronze coin on which the motto “In God We Trust” first appeared.

On March 3, 1865, Congress expanded the mint’s authority to use the motto “In God We Trust” on still other coins. Pursuant to this law, the new motto was incorporated into the designs of the shield-type nickel, the quarter dollar, half dollar, dollar, half eagle ($5.00), eagle ($10.00) and double eagle ($20.00) coins beginning is 1866. This permissive grant of authority was restated in the Coinage Act of 1873.

Controversy Over the Motto’s Use

Use of the national motto “In God We Trust” on coins continued from 1864 up to 1907. At that time, the U.S. Mint released new eagles and double eagles designed by Augustus Saint-Gardens. President Theodore Roosevelt had commissioned Saint-Gaudens to design the new coins in a high relief style. The new eagles and double eagles did not include the motto “In God We Trust” in their design.

Public outcry for the motto’s restoration arose soon after the new coins’ release. President Roosevelt defended the motto’s removal. In a letter to the Reverend Mr. Roland C. Dryer of Nunda, New York, who along with many others had protested the omission, Roosevelt stated that public recognition of God was important and that “In God We Trust” was “indeed well to have inscribed on our great national monuments, in our temples of justice, in our legislative halls, and in buildings such as those at West Point and Annapolis-in short, wherever it will tend to arouse and inspire a lofty emotion in those who look thereon”. Roosevelt expressed fear that use of the motto on coins was “in effect irreverence which comes dangerously close to sacrilege.”

The President pointed out he had never heard anyone speak reverently of the motto on coins. He cited examples of how people had used the phrase in a jesting manner during debates over the free coinage of silver in the 1800’s. Noting the law did not require the motto, but only permitted its use. Roosevelt followed his personal conviction and chose not to use it. He did point out, however, a law could be passed mandating the use of the phrase “In God We Trust” on all coins. Roosevelt stated he would comply with such a mandate as the desire of the American people expressed through Congress.

Responding to increasing public demand, Congress did pass legislation requiring the use of the phrase “In God We Trust” on all coins which had previously borne the motto. The law stated:

That the motto “In God We Trust,” heretofore inscribed on certain denominations of the gold and silver coins of the United States of America, shall hereafter be inscribed upon all such gold and silver coins of said denominations as heretofore.

President Roosevelt signed the new law of May 18, 1908, and “In God We Trust” was restored to the coins.

Expanding References to America’s Trust in God

The new law only required that the motto be placed on coins which had previously borne the inscription. The next coin issued, however, incorporated “In God We Trust.” The Lincoln penny, released in 1909 to commemorate the 100 th anniversary of Lincoln’s birth, was a particularly appropriate coin for the motto. President Lincoln recognized the providence of God at work in the nation’s history and in his own life. His wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, observed the President’s deep devotion and reliance upon God:

[W]hen Mr. Lincoln became elevated to Office—with the care of a great Nation, upon his shoulders—when devastating war was upon us—then indeed to my own knowledge—did his great heart go up daily, hourly, in prayer to God—for his sustaining power.

As other coins were redesigned or new coins created, “In God We Trust” was incorporated into their pattern. The Mercury Dime of 1916, the Jefferson Nickel of 1938, the Standing Liberty Quarter of 1916, the Washington Quarter of 1932 and the Roosevelt Dime of 1946 are just some of the many new coins that bore the inscription.

Expanded use of the motto was not limited to coins, however. “In God We Trust” appeared on a 1928 two-cent stamp which featured a picture of General George Washington kneeling in prayer at Valley Forge. Francis Scott Key’s poem “The Star Spangled Banner,” was penned in 1814 and was officially adopted as the national anthem on March 3, 1931. The fourth verse states:

“O, thus be it ever when freemen shall stand
Between their lov’d home and the war’s desolation!
Blest with vict’ry and peace may the heav’n rescued land
Praise the power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto—”In God is our Trust.’
And the Star-Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.”

Our nation’s reliance upon God was again acknowledged by Congress in 1954. In that year, the House and Senate voted to add the phrase “Under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance. The House Committee on the Judiciary supported passage of the bill, finding that:

Our American Government is founded on the concept of the individuality and the dignity of the human being. Underlying this concept is the belief that the human person is important because he was created by God and endowed by Him with certain inalienable rights which no civil authority may usurp. The inclusion of God in our Pledge therefore would further acknowledge the dependence of our people and our Government upon the moral directions of the Creator.

The Motto Appears on Currency

Congress further expanded the us of “In God We Trust” in 1955, passing a law calling for its inscription on all coins and on all paper money. The bill was conceived at the grass roots level by Mr. Matthew Rothert of Camden, Arkansas. Writing to Senators, Representatives, civic organizations, interest groups and individuals, Rothert initiated a groundswell of support for legislation placing the motto on United States bills. Organizations such as the American Numismatic Association and the American Legion joined Mr. Rothert in his efforts to promote the use of “In God We Trust” on all U.S. currency.

In response to the many petitions received by Congress, Representative Charles Bennett of Florida initiated a bill on January 5, 1955, calling upon the mint to place “In God We Trust” on all coins and paper money. The new law took effect when the Treasury Department instituted a new printing system requiring new dies. Presenting the bill to the House of Representatives, Congressman Bennett cited the long use of the motto and other public recognitions of God. He also noted that current world politics suggested a need for America to more clearly distinguish itself from other world superpowers.

In these days when imperialistic and materialistic communism seeks to attack and destroy freedom, we should continuously look for ways to strengthen the foundations of our freedom. At the base of our freedom is our faith in God and the desire of Americans to live by His will and His guidance. As long as this country trusts in God, it will prevail.

The bill unanimously passed both the Senate and the House of Representatives and was signed into law by President Eisenhower July11, 1955.

The following year, Representative Bennett introduced additional legislation, passed and signed July 30. 1956, designating “In God We Trust” as the official motto of the United States.

Modern Challenges to the Motto’s Use

Since 1955, all the United States coins and currency have carried the motto “In God We Trust.” Not until 1970 and 1978 were the laws authorizing its use legally challenged. Responding to atheist Madalyn Murray O”Hair’s charge, the court rejected her argument that the phrase, “In God We Trust,” violated the First Amendment. The court cited remarks about the motto made by Justice William Brennan in his concurring opinion in Abingdon v. Schempp, (the case which struck down school Bible reading) stating:

It is not that the use of these four words (In God We Trust) can be dismissed as ‘de minimis’… The truth is that we have simply interwoven the motto so deeply into the fabric of our civil policy that its present use may well not present that type of involvement which the First Amendment prohibits.”

The United States Supreme Court refused to hear her appeal.

Afsluiting

Public recognition of God and the use of our motto “In God We Trust” on our coins and currency have a long, well founded place in America’s heritage. The Supreme Court recognized this heritage when Justice William O. Douglas stated, “We are a religious people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being.”

As we enter our third century as a nation we must not forget the legacy of dependence upon God as reflected in our national motto “In God We Trust.” Only by remembering this legacy can we say with Abraham Lincoln “…that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom.”


'In God We Trust,' national motto of the United States, turns 60

Sixty years ago this Saturday, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law a declaration that “In God We Trust” become the official motto of the United States, according to the website for the History Channel.

The law required the motto, which had appeared on various U.S. coins dating back to the Civil War, to be phased into use on all currency whether paper or coin.

According to a website for the U.S. Treasury Department, the first time the phrase was place on U.S. coinage was in 1864, on the 2-cent piece, a coin no longer minted. It then appeared on various coins prior to 1956 subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

“The motto has been in continuous use on the one-cent coin since 1909, and on the ten-cent coin since 1916,” according the Treasury website. “It also has appeared on all gold coins and silver dollar coins, half-dollar coins, and quarter-dollar coins struck since July 1, 1908.”

In recent years atheist groups have decried the national motto as a violation of the First Amendment’s prohibition on the establishment of a national religion. As the Associated Press reported in January, activist Michael Newdow filed a lawsuit in federal court in Ohio seeking to prohibit the use of the motto on U.S. currency.

In 2004, the United States Supreme Court rejected Mr. Newdow’s challenge of the use of the words “under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance, although it did not rule on the merits of the case, merely that Mr. Newdow lacked standing to sue.


Symon Sez

Chase Thought Motto on Money was a Good Idea

On This Date in History: President Eisenhower signed into law a bill requiring “In God We Trust” (link to a history on “in God we trust’) be put on all currency and be considered the official US Motto on this date in 1956. Since 1864, during the Civil War, the motto had been put on some coins but not paper currency under the direction of Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P Chase. Chase later went to the Supreme Court, which is ironic considering the “separation” issue allegedly begun by Thomas Jefferson. The “in God We Trust” bill was just two years after Eisenhower pushed for “under God” to be added to the Pledge of Allegiance.

Most historians conclude this action was part of a reaction to the Rooi Skrik of the 1950’s. Interestingly, “under God” was inserted into the US Pledge of Allegiance during Eisenhower Administration. Eisenhower himself has been said to have admitted the he had been raised as a Jehovah’s Witness, while more modern accounts suggest he was raised as a Mennonite. Sources say that Ike abandoned his family religion but that religion was still important to him and in 1953, he was baptised as a Presbyterian, less than a year into his first term as President.

Today people claim the insertion of God into state mottoes and the pledge is a violation of the separation of church and state. Many defenders of the verbiage mistakenly think that the inclusion of God was mandated by our founders when in fact, “under God” and “In God We Trust” did not come along until after the founders were dead and gone. However, there are many who say that the founders intended on the Constitution to protect the churches from the government, not the government from the church…the proverbial freedom van religion, not freedom van religion. You make the call. If you need some help, here are some pros and cons of both “in God we trust” and “under God.”

On this date in 1945, the USS Indianapolis was sunk by a Japanese submarine. The cruiser was returning from Tinian Island where it had secretly delivered the atomic bomb. Because it was a secret mission, details of its schedule were shrouded. So much so that its late arrival went unnoticed. The Americans had intercepted a message from the sub describing the ship they had sunk. The Americans just assumed it was a boast and didn’t follow up. If you remember Jaws then you know the story as told by Captain Quint, who said he was a crew member of the doomed ship. Nearly 1200 men were on the ship.

About 400 died from the torpedo blast. Some 900 men went into the water but only 318 were rescued. No one showed up for a rescue for 84 hours in during that time nearly 500 men were devoured by sharks. Quint said he’d never wear a life jacket again. The Captain of the Indianapolis, Charles B McVay III, never sailed again as he became the only officer in US naval history to be court-martialed for losing a ship in war time. McVay committed suicide in 1968 and many speculate he took his own life due to guilt. But, during the Clinton Administration, Captain McVay was exonerated from fault by Congress in October 2000. In spite of the Congressional official exoneration, the US Navy records still indicate the Captain Charles McVay was found guilty in a Court-Martial for losing the USS Indianapolis while he was in command.

Weather Bottom Line: We have some consensus and also some disagreement in the forecast for the next several days. First off, we had a lot of clouds on Tuesday and even some showers with rumbles of thunder. That put the kabash on any chance we had of getting to 90 and it now looks inevitable that we will not get to 90 degrees for the entire month of July in Louisville. First time since records have been kept…I think since 1872….that we have had zero 90 degree days in Louisville. Remarkable considering that the official numbers are now kept at the airport.

We have agreement that a front is coming through. We have agreement that a wave will ride along that front. The timing is the issue. The GFS likes rain in the morning and late day, the NAM likes rain midday. The GFS has rain again on Thursday and also Friday. The NAM has rain Thursday afternoon into early Friday but dries it out from there. Both suggest a relatively mild and dry weekend. Now, the parameters for all data are not overly exciting. There is an elevation in the Showalter Index and the Total Totals and such but nothing real alarming as the SWEAT index is somewhat pedestrian. Strong storms with gusty winds from time to time are possible, but nothing appears imminent on the severe weather front.


Kyk die video: Old Glory! The Red, White, u0026 Blue (Desember 2022).

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