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Afro -Amerikaners - Geskiedenis

Afro -Amerikaners - Geskiedenis


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Inleiding

Feitlik geen Afro-Amerikaners in die Verenigde State kon die vryhede geniet wat vermoedelik deur die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring en die Amerikaanse Grondwet gewaarborg is nie. Nietemin het Afro-Amerikaners in verskillende dele van die land verskillende lewensomstandighede beleef. Diegene wat in slawerny leef, het duidelik die minste vryhede gehad. Baie Afro-Amerikaners regoor die land was egter nie slawe nie, alhoewel hul regte dikwels deur die wet beperk is. Ondanks die uitdagings wat hulle ondervind het, het 'n aantal swart Amerikaners belangrike bydraes gelewer vir hul gemeenskappe en vir die land.

Slawerny

Die kwessie van slawerny was soos 'n onheilspellende skaduwee op die verhoog van Amerikaanse onafhanklikheid. Buitelanders en Amerikaners wys op die skynheiligheid van slawerny in 'n nasie wat beweer dat hy die ideale van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring nakom: "Ons beskou hierdie waarhede as vanselfsprekend: dat alle mense gelyk geskape is." Mense wat in slawerny leef, word beskou as die wettige eiendom van hul eienaars. Hulle het dus geen regte gehad nie en kon deur geen enkele verbeelding gelyk wees aan hul eienaars nie.

Om te vergoed vir die regte en voorregte wat hulle ontken het, het Afro-Amerikaners wat in slawerny leef hul eie kulturele rituele en gebruike geskep. Aangesien huwelike van mense wat in slawerny woon, nie as wettige vakbonde beskou is nie, het die slawe sulke verhoudings "amptelik" gemaak deur middel van seremonies, soos die "spring oor die besem" van die pasgetroudes. Hierdie praktyk blyk te wees ontleen aan 'n tradisionele seremonie wat in sommige gebiede van Wes -Afrika gehou is. Alhoewel Afro-Amerikaners nie hul dooies op wit begraafplase of deur dienste in wit kerke kon begrawe nie, het hulle hul eie begrafnisplegtigheid ontwikkel. Die gebruik was om die dooies in die nag te begrawe, onder begeleiding van gesange en die verligting van fakkels. Op pad terug van die begrafnis sou die rouklaers meer vrolike musiek sing ter viering van die lewe. Afro-Amerikaners het ook 'n manier ontwikkel om te kommunikeer deur liedjies te sing, wat ons nou spirituals noem. Die woorde van die liedjies gee uiting aan die probleme om in slawerny te lewe, en bevat dikwels gekodeerde boodskappe wat slegs deur ander Afro-Amerikaners verstaan ​​kon word.

Slawerny en politiek

Die afgevaardigdes van die Grondwetlike Konvensie was baie bewus van die bitter ironie van slawerny in die 'land van die vrye'. Tog sou die ekonomiese belange van slawe -eienaars en ander wat slawerny ondersteun, nie die afskaffing van slawerny aanvaar nie. Terselfdertyd wou suidelike pro-slawe dat die slawe as mense gereken word om die verteenwoordiging in die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers te verhoog. Nie-slawestate wou ook hê dat slawe as mense gereken word, sodat slawestate dienooreenkomstig belasting moes betaal. 'N Kompromis is bereik waarin elke slaaf drie-vyfdes van 'n persoon was. Boonop het afgevaardigdes ingestem om die kongres te verbied om die slawehandel vir ten minste 20 jaar te beperk of te beëindig. Dit lyk asof die afgevaardigdes bewus was van die morele onduidelikheid van die grondwet se oorspronklike standpunt oor slawerny, aangesien hulle verkies het om die woord "slawerny" nêrens in die teks van die dokument te gebruik nie.

Soos deur die Grondwet toegelaat, verbied die Kongres die Afrika -slawehandel in 1808. Aangesien die verbod swak toegepas is, het die slawehandel egter etlike dekades voortgeduur. Slawerny is duidelik gevestig as 'n kwessie van politieke mag en streeksgeskil, eerder as 'n kwessie van menseregte. Dit was die duidelikste duidelik in die krisis van 1820, waarin die staatskaping van Missouri bespreek is. Missouri wou as slawestaat tot die Unie toegelaat word, maar sodanige toelating sou 'n wanbalans in die kongres tussen slawe en vrystate veroorsaak het.

So is die Missouri-kompromie bereik/ Daar word gesê dat slawerny noord en wes van die 36-30 parallelle lyn binne die Louisiana-gebied verbied is. As gevolg hiervan het Missouri as 'n slawestaat by die Unie aangesluit, en Maine het as 'n vrystaat by die Unie aangesluit. Die meeste wetgewing rakende slawerny was onder die jurisdiksie van die individuele state. Baie state in die Noorde het geleidelik slawerny begin verbied. Die Ordonnansie van 1787, ook die Northwest Ordinance genoem, het reeds verklaar dat slawerny in die Noordwestelike gebied verbied sou word. Tog het sommige suidelike state, veral in die diep suide, wette aangeneem om slawerny te ondersteun en te versterk. Die kongres, op sy beurt, het die eerste wet op vlugtelinge -slawe in 1793 goedgekeur, wat dit 'n misdaad verklaar het om 'n ontsnapte slaaf te huisves of sy of haar arrestasie in te meng.

Pogings tot afskaffing

Benjamin Franklin het gesê dat '' 'n ingesteldheid om slawerny af te skaf, heers in Noord -Amerika '. In 1775 het hy gehelp om die American Abolition Society te stig. Nietemin het die uitvinding van die watte, die sosiale aanvaarding van slawerny en die tekort aan nie-slawe-arbeid gekombineer om die 'eienaardige instelling' deur 'n groot deel van die Suide uit te brei. Eli Whitney se uitvinding het katoenboerdery nuut winsgewend gemaak, aangesien een persoon honderd keer meer katoen met die masjien kan produseer as sonder dit. Die katoen -jenewer was maklik om te kopieer, so dit het oor die landbou suide versprei, veral in kombinasie met die gebruik van slawe -arbeid. Diegene wat meer geïnteresseerd was om ryk te word as om die reg van ander mense op vryheid te respekteer, was gretig om meer slawe aan te skaf om katoen te pluk en dit te "gin". Ander, wat moontlik geneig was om werkers aan te stel om die katoenlande te bewerk, het gevind dat die tekort aan gewillige loonarbeid en die sosiale aanvaarding van onderdrukking vir geld dit moeilik gemaak het om hul morele traagheid te oorkom en teen slawerny op te tree.

Omdat slawerny baie minder belangrik was vir die noordelike ekonomie as vir die suidelike ekonomie, het morele argumente teen slawerny meer optrede in die noorde as die suide tot gevolg gehad. Vermont was die eerste staat wat slawerny in sy grondwet van 1777 verbied het. Deur die 1780's het hofsake wat deur slawe en simpatiseerders in Massachusetts gebring is, 'vryheidsake' genoem, die instelling van slawerny verval totdat dit geleidelik deur die howe afgeskaf is. In New Hampshire het slawerny geleidelik verdwyn namate die agtiende eeu tot 'n einde gekom het en die negentiende eeu begin het. Teen 1800 het die New Hampshire -sensus slegs agt slawe getoon, en teen 1810 was daar geen. Geleidelike afskaffingswette is aangeneem in die staatswetgewers van Pennsylvania (1780), Rhode Island (1784), Connecticut (1784), New York (1799) en New Jersey (1804). Die afskaffingsproses was egter stadig, en mense leef nog so laat as 1840 in slawerny in New Jersey. Nietemin het slawerny geleidelik in die noorde verdwyn.

Sommige Suidlanders weerstaan ​​die sosiale aanvaarding van slawerny en tree daarteen op. In die boonste suide (Maryland, Delaware en Virginia, Noord -Carolina) is wette aangeneem om die vrylating van slawe makliker te maak. Daar was 'n aantal slawe -eienaars wat hul slawe bevry het weens hul diens tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog. Sommige, soos Robert Carter III, het slawerny so afstootlik gevind dat hulle hul slawe gedurende hul lewens bevry het. Ander slawe -eienaars, soos George Washington, het voorsiening gemaak om hul slawe na hul dood te bevry. Nog ander het hulle slawe bevry; het saam met hulle na die weste verhuis en aan elke pas bevryde gesin grond gegee. Waar wette dit ook al toelaat, het kwakers in die suide hul slawe bevry. Hierdie individue was nietemin uitsonderings, veral in die state van die diep suide. Daar was geen poging tot slawerny van betekenis in Suid -Carolina en Georgië nie. Slawe-eienaars verdedig dikwels hul gierigheid en opsetlike miskenning van die mensdom deur Afro-Amerikaners uit te beeld as ondermenslike elemente wat slawerny verdien. Baie het so ver gegaan as om te sê dat hulle deur hul eie mense hul vernietigende neigings te bekamp en sodoende 'n sosiaal voordelige funksie vervul. In 1797 het Afro-Amerikaners in Noord-Carolina 'n petisie aan die kongres voorgelê teen 'n staatswet wat vereis dat slawe wat deur hul Quaker-meesters bevry is, as slawe aan die staat terugbesorg moet word. Dit, die eerste aangetekende petisie teen slawerny deur Afro-Amerikaners, is deur die kongres verwerp. Sommige slawe was gefrustreerd oor hul magteloosheid om vryheid te verkry en het gekies om opstande te maak. Gabriel Prosser en Jack Bowler se beplande slawe -opstand in Virginia, wat moontlik een van die grootste slawe -opstande in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis was. Die twee mans het slawe gereël vir 'n opstand wat in 1800 sou plaasvind, waarin hulle die arsenaal in Richmond sou gryp, blankes in die gebied sou aanval en die slawe kon bevry. Twee slawe verraai egter die plot in 1797, en goewerneur James Monroe van Virginia verklaar krygswet in Richmond. John Randolph van Virginia verklaar dat "die beskuldigdes 'n gees getoon het, wat as dit algemeen word, die suidelike land in bloed moet stort. Hulle het 'n gevoel van hul regte en 'n minagting van gevaar geopenbaar." In 1811 het Amerikaanse troepe slawe -opstande in twee gemeentes in Louisiana naby New Orleans onderdruk. Die toenemende geweld het weinig noemenswaardige vordering opgelewer, en dit kan die saak vererger het deurdat dit groter beperkings op Afro-Amerikaners tot gevolg gehad het.

Gratis swartes

Ongelukkig het die einde van slawerny in die Noorde nie gelei tot die einde van rassistiese houding teenoor Afro-Amerikaners nie. Die teenwoordigheid van 'n groeiende bevolking van vryswartes in noordelike stede en dorpe het 'n bron van rasgebaseerde sosiale wrywing geword. In die koloniale tydperk is noordelike swartes snags streng beperk deur die aandklokreëls; en is verbied vir sekere tipes eiendomsbesit en om sonder toestemming ander dorpe te besoek. Alhoewel hierdie beperkings na die Revolusionêre Oorlog ietwat verslap het, het hulle na die begin van die eeu teruggekeer. In 1804 aanvaar die wetgewer van Ohio 'Black Laws', wat die regte en bewegings van vrye swartes beperk. Verskeie ander Noord- en Noordwes -state het swart immigrasie begin verbied en swart kiesers beperk of ontneem. In noordelike stede en dorpe het hegte swart gemeenskappe ontwikkel, veral in woonbuurte met 'n groot swart bevolking. Hierdie gemeenskappe het instellings gestig, soos kerke, skole, sosiale klubs, liefdadigheidsverenigings en ander organisasies. Philadelphia's Free African Society, wat in 1787 gestig is, was die eerste van sulke organisasies. Newport Gardner, een van die eerste swart musiekonderwysers in die Verenigde State, het in 1791 'n musiekskool in Newport, Massachusetts, geopen. In 1794 stig Richard Allen die eerste African Methodist Episcopal Church in die Verenigde State. Dit is in Philadelphia gebou en het die Bethel A.M.E. Kerk. Die A.M.E. denominasie is formeel georganiseer in 1816, met Allen as biskop. Die sosiale, finansiële, geestelike en emosionele ondersteuning van hierdie gemeenskappe en instellings het gehelp om die aanpassing van slawerny na vryheid te vergemaklik. Afro-Amerikaners in New Orleans het, in teenstelling met die meeste swartes in die suide, 'n relatief hoë mate van finansiële sukses behaal. Trouens, daar was proporsioneel meer geskoolde swart werke as geskoolde Ierse werkers. Tog was die gebrek aan ekonomiese mag in die gemeenskap van vrye Afro-Amerikaners 'n geweldige struikelblok om te vorder.

Gratis Afro-Amerikaners was ook betrokke by die protes teen onregverdige optrede teen hul gemeenskap. In 1791 het 'n groep in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, 'n petisie aan die staatswetgewer voorgelê om wette te protesteer wat hul vryhede beperk. Een voorbeeld was die Wet van 1740, waarvan 'n deel slawe of vryswartes verbied het om onder eed in die hof te getuig en hulle die reg om deur die jurie te verhoor word ontken. Ook in 1791 skryf die prominente sterrekundige en landmeter Benjamin Banneker aan Thomas Jefferson; het hom aangespoor om 'n meer liberale houding teenoor swartes te oorweeg. Gratis Afro-Amerikaners het saamgedrom om die pogings van die American Colonization Society teë te staan. Die American Colonization Society is in 1816 in Washington, DC gestig om rassespanning te verlig deur gratis swartes na Afrika te vervoer. John C. Calhoun van S.C. en Henry Clay van KY was onder die borge van die genootskap. Francis Scott Key was ook 'n ondersteuner. Sommige voorstanders beskou die deportasie van swartes as 'n manier om slawerny te beëindig, op grond daarvan dat slawe -eienaars meer geneig sou wees om slawe te bevry as die slawe die land sou verlaat. Ander mense ondersteun die beweging net om van die vrye swart gemeenskap ontslae te raak. Die Free African Society vergader by die Bethel A.M.E. Church, in Philadelphia, om die aktiwiteite van die American Colonization Society te protesteer. Baie is in Amerika gebore en het die VSA as hul tuiste beskou, ondanks die tekortkominge daarvan. Alhoewel die kolonisasiegenootskap uiteindelik daarin geslaag het om 'n Afro-Amerikaanse kolonie te stig, Liberië (1821), het slegs 'n paar duisend Afro-Amerikaners geëmigreer.

Bydraes van Afro-Amerikaners

Vanaf die geboorte van die nuwe nasie het Afro-Amerikaners belangrike bydraes gelewer. Benewens die diens in die Revolusionêre Oorlog, het 'n aantal Afro-Amerikaners in die oorlog van 1812 geveg. Sommige het op privaat persone gedien. 'N Paar ander het in die vloot gedien, hoewel regulasies om swartes te werf, baie ander verhinder het om aan te sluit. Afro-Amerikaners het saam met Commodore Perry se eskader aan die Erie-meer gedien, by Commodore Chauncey se eskader aan die Ontariomeer en by Commodore Thomas McDonough se eskader aan die Champlain-meer. Baie gratis swartes het gereageer op die oproep van Andrew Jackson om vrywilligers in die suidweste. Twee bataljons vrye swartes het in die Slag van New Orleans geveg. In 1820 het die kantoor van die adjudant -generaal van die Amerikaanse weermag egter aangekondig: "Geen neger of Mulatto sal as werf in die weermag ontvang word nie."

Op die tuisfront het baie Afro-Amerikaners aktief 'n rol gespeel in die vorming van die Amerikaanse kultuur. Kort na die Revolusionêre Oorlog publiseer die Maryland Gazette 'n gereelde rubriek wat deur 'n swart man geskryf is, getiteld "Vox Africanorum" (die stem van die Afrikaners). In 1792 het die gerespekteerde wetenskaplike en landmeter, Benjamin Banneker, 'n jaarlikse almanak begin publiseer wat tien jaar lank verskyn het.

In 1790 is Banneker en Andrew Ellicott gekies om die grense van die District of Columbia te ondersoek. Toe die ingenieur wat die planne vir die bou van Washington geskep het, DC die projek verlaat en sy planne saamneem; bouwerk kan nietemin voortgaan, want Banneker het die planne reeds gememoriseer. Benewens sy werk in sterrekunde, landmeting en ingenieurswese; Banneker publiseer 'n monografie oor bye en bereken die siklus van die sprinkaan van 17 jaar.

Die gemeenskap van Afro-Amerikaners in Philadelphia het die stad gehelp om die geelkoorsplaag van 1793 te oorleef. Dr Benjamin Rush, een van die leiers van die mediese hulpverleningspoging, het die teorie ontwikkel dat 'daar iets baie besonders in die grondwet is' Neger wat hulle nie aan hierdie koors aanspreeklik hou nie. " Daarom het hy 'n beroep op die Free African Society gedoen om mense te voorsien om as verpleegsters en ander mediese hulp te werk; eerder as om uit die stad te vlug, soos die meeste inwoners probeer het. Alhoewel Rush se mediese teorieë twyfelagtig gelyk het en inderdaad verkeerd bewys is deur die dood van baie Afro-Amerikaners weens die koors, het baie lede van die samelewing sy versoek toegestem. Baie het verkies om in Philadelphia te bly om Rush uit dankbaarheid vir hom te help vir sy pogings namens Afro-Amerikaners. Sommige het betaal vir betaling, terwyl ander vrywillig hul tyd en vaardighede aangebied het. Richard Allen, stigter van die African Methodist Episcopal Church, het self 'n begraafplaaspersoneel gewerf om die duisende dooie liggame te begrawe. Afro-Amerikaners in New Orleans het aansienlike bydraes gelewer tot die ontwikkeling van die stad se ekonomiese en kulturele lewe. 'N Betreklik groot deel was geskoolde werkers. Baie was professionele persone. Afro-Amerikaanse musikante en komponiste het optredende organisasies gevestig om aan die gesofistikeerde gehoor van New Orleans te voldoen.

Regoor die land het die musiek wat deur Afro-Amerikaners geskep en uitgevoer is, 'n integrale deel van die Amerikaanse musikale idioom geword. Afro-Amerikaners wat in slawerny leef, het die genre van spirituals geskep; met wortels in beide Afrikaanse en Europese musiek, maar tog in wese Amerikaans. Sommige van die musiek wat deur Afro-Amerikaners geskep is, was eintlik die eerste inheemse Amerikaanse musiek. Die meeste ander musiek van die tydperk behels Amerikaanse lirieke op Europese musiek.


Afro -Amerikaanse geskiedenis

Afro-Amerikaners word op verskillende tye in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State na verwys as Afrikaans, bruin, neger, Afro-Amerikaans en swart, sowel as Afro-Amerikaner. Dit is nie bekend presies watter deel van die Afro -Amerikaanse bevolking slegs van Afrika -afkoms is nie. In die afgelope 300 en meer jare in die Verenigde State het 'n aansienlike rassemengsel plaasgevind tussen persone van Afrika -afkoms en diegene met ander rasse -agtergronde, hoofsaaklik van blanke Europese of Amerikaanse Indiese afkoms. Histories was die oorheersende houding teenoor rassegroeplidmaatskap in die Verenigde State dat persone met 'n swart Afrikaanse afkoms as Afro -Amerikaners beskou word. In sommige dele van die Verenigde State, veral in die antebellum -suide, is wette opgestel om rassegroeplidmaatskap op hierdie manier te definieer, in die algemeen tot nadeel van diegene wat nie Kaukasies was nie. Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat afkoms en fisiese eienskappe slegs deel uitmaak van wat swart Amerikaners as 'n aparte groep onderskei het.

Afro-Amerikaners onder slawerny: 1600-1865
Die eerste Afrikane in die Nuwe Wêreld het met Spaanse en Portugese ontdekkingsreisigers en setlaars opgedaag. Teen 1600 was ongeveer 275 000 Afrikane, beide vry en slaaf, in Sentraal- en Suid -Amerika en die Karibiese gebied. Afrikaners het die eerste keer aangekom in die gebied wat in 1619 die Verenigde State geword het, toe 'n handjievol gevangenes deur die kaptein van 'n Nederlandse oorlogsman aan setlaars in Jamestown verkoop is. Ander is toenemend in aantrekkingskrag gebring om die begeerte na arbeid te vervul in 'n land waar daar baie grond was en skaars arbeid. Teen die einde van die 17de eeu het ongeveer 1,300,000 Afrikane in die Nuwe Wêreld geland. Van 1701 tot 1810 het die getal 6,000,000 bereik, met nog 1,800,000 wat na 1810 aangekom het. Sommige Afrikane is direk na die Engelse kolonies in Noord -Amerika gebring. Ander het as slawe in die Wes -Indiese Eilande beland en is later herverkoop en na die vasteland gestuur.
Slawerny in Amerika. Die vroegste aankomelinge in Afrika is op dieselfde manier beskou as bediende uit Europa. Hierdie ooreenkoms het nie lank voortgeduur nie. Teen die laaste helfte van die 17de eeu was daar duidelike verskille in die behandeling van swart en wit dienaars. 'N Wet van Virginia uit 1662 het aanvaar dat Afrikaners lewenslank hul dienaars sou bly, en 'n wet van 1667 verklaar dat die doop die toestand van die persoon ten opsigte van sy slawerny of vryheid nie verander nie. 'N Virginia -wet in daardie jaar het slawe verklaar dat hulle' persoonlik 'is in die hande van hul eienaars en eienaars vir alle doeleindes, konstruksie en hoegenaamd.

Die beginsel waarvolgens persone van Afrika-afkoms as die persoonlike eiendom van ander beskou is, het meer as twee derdes van die drie en 'n half eeue sedert die eerste Afrikane daar aangekom het, in Noord-Amerika geheers. Die invloed daarvan het toegeneem, alhoewel die Engelse kolonies onafhanklikheid gewen het en nasionale ideale verwoord het in direkte opposisie teen slawerny. Ten spyte van talle ideologiese konflikte, is die slawernystelsel egter tot 1865 in die Verenigde State gehandhaaf, en daarna het die wydverspreide teen -swart houdings wat deur slawerny gekweek is, voortgegaan.

Voor die Amerikaanse rewolusie het slawerny in al die kolonies bestaan. Die ideale van die rewolusie en die beperkte winsgewendheid van slawerny in die noorde het daartoe gelei dat dit in die laaste kwart van die 18de eeu in die noordelike state laat vaar is. Terselfdertyd het die sterkte van slawerny in die Suide toegeneem, met die volgehoue ​​vraag na goedkoop arbeid deur die tabakprodusente en katoenboere van die suidelike state. Teen 1850 was 92% van alle Amerikaanse swartes in die suide gekonsentreer, en van hierdie groep was ongeveer 95% slawe.

Die lewe op die plantasies was moeilik, en die kulturele tradisies van swartes is nie in ag geneem nie. In die slawemark is mans van hul vrouens geskei, en gereeld is kinders van hul moeders geneem. Familie- en stamskakels is dus byna onmiddellik verbreek. Vyftig persent van die slawe was in besit van 10% van die 385,000 slawe -eienaars. Hierdie konsentrasie binne 'n beperkte aantal landbou -eenhede het belangrike gevolge vir die lewe van die meeste swartes gehad.

Onder die plantasiestelsel was bendearbeid die tipiese vorm van indiensneming. Algemene praktyk was opsieners hard, en brutaliteit was algemeen. Straf is uitgevoer na die absolute diskresie van die eienaar of die eienaar se agent. Slawe kon geen eiendom besit nie, tensy dit deur 'n slawe -meester goedgekeur is, en verkragting van 'n vroulike slaaf word nie as 'n misdaad beskou nie, behalwe omdat dit 'n betreding van 'n ander eiendom verteenwoordig. Slawe kon nie getuienis in die hof teen blankes voorlê nie. Behuising, kos en klere was van 'n swak gehalte en het selde dit wat as minimaal nodig geag is, oorskry om die gewenste werkvlak te handhaaf. Eienaars versterk onderdanige gedrag nie soseer deur positiewe belonings as deur ernstige straf van diegene wat nie daaraan voldoen nie. In die grootste deel van die Suide was dit onwettig om 'n swartman te leer lees of skryf.

Teenstand deur swartes. Alle suidelike state het slawe -kodes aangeneem wat bedoel was om slawe te beheer en enige uitdrukking van opposisie te voorkom. Uitbrake van opposisie het egter plaasgevind, insluitend die Gabriel Prosser -opstand van 1800, die opstand wat Denemarke Vesey in 1822 gelei het, die Nat Turner -rebellie van 1831 en baie kleiner opstande. As gevolg hiervan het die inhoud en die handhawing van onderdrukkende wette teen swartes ernstiger geword. Swartes is verbied om wapens te dra of om in getalle bymekaar te kom, behalwe in die teenwoordigheid van 'n blanke.

Vryeswartes, hetsy in die noorde of suide, word gekonfronteer met houdings en optrede wat min verskil het van dié wat suidelike swart slawe in die gesig staar. Diskriminasie het bestaan ​​in die meeste sosiale en ekonomiese aktiwiteite, sowel as in stemming en opvoeding. In 1857 plaas die Dred Scott v. Sandford -saak van die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof die gesag van die Grondwet agter besluite wat deur state oor die behandeling van swartes geneem is. Volgens die Dred Scott -besluit was Afro -Amerikaners, selfs al was dit gratis, nie bedoel om onder die woord & quotcitizen & quot, soos omskryf in die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring, op te neem nie en kon hulle dus geen van die regte en voorregte waarvoor in daardie dokument voorsiening gemaak word, eis nie.

Afro -Amerikaners het op verskillende maniere op hul behandeling onder slawerny gereageer. Benewens persone soos Prosser, Vesey en Turner, wat openlik teen die slawestelsel gekant was, het duisende swartes ontsnap uit slawerny en na die Noord -Verenigde State of Kanada verhuis. Ander het maniere gesoek om 'n gevoel van individualiteit en 'n deel van hul Afrika -erfenis onder moeilike omstandighede te behou. Nog ander aanvaar die beelde van hulself wat die blanke Amerika daarop wou projekteer. Die gevolg in sommige gevalle was die & quotUncle Tom & quot of & quotSambo & quot; persoonlikheid, die swartes wat sy of haar nederige posisie aanvaar het as bewys dat blankes beter was as swartes.

Ten spyte van die afwesigheid van regstatus en die nadelige gevolge van die binnelandse slawehandel, het die Afro -Amerikaanse gesin sy tradisionele rol behou om die verhoudings tussen volwassenes en kinders te bestel. Baie godsdienstige aktiwiteite onder slawe weerspieël die invloede van Afrika -godsdienstige praktyke en het gedien as 'n manier waarop slawe hulself anders kon ontwikkel as wat die slawe -eienaar het. Buite die Suide het swartes aparte kerke gestig en uiteindelik kerkgenootskappe binne die protestantisme, waaronder baie swart Baptistekerke. 'N Ander vroeë denominasionele poging was die African Methodist Episcopal Church, aanvanklik die Free African Society genoem, wat in 1787 in Philadelphia deur Richard Allen gestig is.


Wat is presies belowe?

Generaal William Tecumseh Sherman in Mei 1865. Portret deur Mathew Brady.

Ons is op skool geleer dat die bron van die beleid van 822040 hektaar en 'n muil die vakbondgeneraal William T. Sherman se spesiale veldbevel nr. 15 is, uitgereik op 16 Januarie 1865. (Die rekening is half regs: Sherman het die 40 hektaar in die Orde voorgeskryf, maar nie die muil nie. Die muil sou later kom.) Maar wat baie rekeninge laat, is dat hierdie idee vir massiewe grondverdeling eintlik die gevolg was van 'n bespreking wat Sherman en sekretaris van oorlog Edwin M. Stanton vier dae gehou voor Sherman het die bevel uitgereik met 20 leiers van die swart gemeenskap in Savannah, Ga, waar Sherman sy hoofkwartier gehad het ná sy beroemde March to the Sea. Die vergadering was ongekend in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis.

Vandag gebruik ons ​​gewoonlik die frase 󈬘 hektaar en 'n muil, ”, maar min van ons het die Orde self gelees. Drie van die dele daarvan is hier van toepassing. Afdeling een herhaal volledig: “ Die eilande van Charleston, suid, die verlate ryslande langs die riviere, dertig myl terug van die see, en die land wat grens aan die St. Johns -rivier, Florida, is gereserveer en afgesonder vir die afhandeling van die negers [sic] wat nou vrygemaak is deur die oorlogshandelinge en die afkondiging van die president van die Verenigde State. ”

Afdeling twee spesifiseer dat hierdie nuwe gemeenskappe boonop geheel en al deur swartmense self beheer sal word: ” ... op die eilande, en in die nedersettings wat hierna gevestig sal word, geen blanke persoon nie, tensy militêre offisiere en soldate uiteengesit is vir diens, sal toegelaat word om te woon en die enigste en eksklusiewe bestuur van sake sal oorgelaat word aan die bevryde mense self ... Volgens die oorlogswette en opdragte van die president van die Verenigde State is die neger gratis en moet dit hanteer word as sodanig. ”

Laastens, in afdeling drie word die toewysing van grond gespesifiseer: ” ... elke gesin moet 'n erf hê van nie meer as (40) hektaar bewerkbare grond nie, en as dit grens aan 'n waterkanaal, met 'n hoogte van meer as 800 voet water, in die besit van watter grond die militêre owerhede hulle beskerming sal bied, totdat hulle hulself kan beskerm, of totdat die kongres hul titel sal reguleer. ”

Met hierdie bevel, 400 000 hektaar 'n strook kuslyn wat strek van Charleston, Suid -Carolina, tot by die St. John's River in Florida, insluitend die see -eilande van Georgia en die vasteland, 30 myl van die kus af, en#8221 soos Barton Myers verslae — sal herverdeel word aan die pas vrygemaakte slawe. Die omvang van hierdie orde en die groter implikasies daarvan is eintlik verstommend.


The O ’Jays, 'n R &B -ensemble uit Canton, Ohio, is in 1958 gestig deur die kinderjare, Eddie Levert, wat in 1942 in Bessemer, Alabama, gebore is en op 8 -jarige ouderdom na Canton verhuis het, en Walter Williams, sr. gebore in Canton in 1942. Hulle het & hellip geword Lees meer The O ’Jays (1958 – 2019)

Die legendariese komponis, sangeres, liriekskrywer Mary Wells is op 13 Mei 1943 in Detroit, Michigan, gebore as Mary Esther Wells in Arthur Wells en Geneva Campbell Wells. Haar broers was Thomas en Fletcher. Toe sy twee jaar oud was, is by Wells gediagnoseer met spinale meningitis en gedeeltelike en hellip Lees meer Mary Wells (1943-1992)


Afro -Amerikaanse geskiedenis

Seelui op die walvisbas Wanderer maak gereed om te vertrek vir nog 'n reis. Die presiese ligging is onbekend, maar waarskynlik New England.

Walvisvangs: geleenthede vir Afro -Amerikaners in 'n harde onderneming

Die walvisbedryf, wat tot in die 1870's in New Bedford gesentreer was, het 'n groot aantal Afro -Amerikaners in diens geneem. Dit was deels te wyte aan die Quaker -tradisie van verdraagsaamheid in die New Bedford -omgewing, maar nog belangriker, die groot vraag na mannekrag in 'n groeiende bedryf wat buitengewoon groot bemannings benodig.

Sommige swart seelui in die onderneming was Amerikaners, uit die noordooste en die suide, sommige uit die Wes -Indiese Eilande, en 'n beduidende groep was van die Kaap Verde -eilande aan die Afrika -kus. Wat ook al hul oorsprong, swart seelui het aanvaarding gevind as harde werkers en geskoolde seevaarders in 'n industrie wat veeleisend, vuil en dikwels finansieel onbetaalbaar was.

Toe die middelpunt van die bedryf in die 1870's na San Francisco verhuis, het Afro -Amerikaners steeds 'n groot persentasie van die bemanningslede gevorm. Die walvisvangs was ongetwyfeld die grootste werkgewer van Afro -Amerikaners aan die Weskus totdat dit kort voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog geëindig het.

Kaptein William T. Shorey en familie.

William T. Shorey (1859-1919) was 'n beroemde kaptein in die laaste dae van walvisjag. Hy is gebore in Barbados, die seun van 'n Skotse suikerplanter en 'n Indiese kreoolse vrou. Shorey het as tiener begin seevaar en in 1876 het hy sy eerste walvisvaart gemaak.

Walvisvangs het hom na Kalifornië gebring en hy is getroud met die dogter uit 'n toonaangewende Afro -Amerikaanse gesin in San Francisco. In 1886 word hy die enigste swart skeepskaptein van die Weskus. Shorey, wat bekend is vir sy vaardigheid en leierskap, beleef vele avonture en gevare op see saam met veelrassige bemanning voor sy uittrede in 1908.

Mettertyd het groter, stoom-aangedrewe vaartuie die plek van verouderde seilskepe ingeneem en swart seelui is gedwing om minderwaardige diens op skepe as kokke en rentmeesters te aanvaar. Die era van groot deelname deur swartes aan walvisvangs eindig in 1923 toe die Swerwer het gestrand van Nantucket, MA.

Die bemanning van die Britse skip Rathdown, afgeneem in 1892 in San Francisco. Die twee mans in voorskote is die kok en bestuurder, maar die ander swart mans is almal seemanne.

Swart mans in buitelandse vlag seilskepe

Swart mans is dikwels gevind onder die bemanning van Britse skepe, en selfs 'n paar Duitse en Skandinawiese skepe, wat hawe aan die Weskus besoek. Swart gesigte verskyn op ongeveer 'n kwart van al die bemanningsfoto's van die buitelandse vlag in die versamelings van die park. In baie gevalle is die mans duidelik kokke of rentmeesters, maar op 'n verrassende aantal foto's is die mans duidelik seemanne, wat leef en werk op die gebied van volkome gelykheid met ander lede van die bemanning. Die meerderheid swart seelui in Britse skepe kom waarskynlik uit die Wes -Indiese Eilande, maar ons het nie verwysings vir Afro -Amerikaners wat as seemanne gehuur word in buitelandse skepe in New York en ander hawens aan die ooskus nie.

Afro -Amerikaners in skeepsbou

Shipwrights en ander werfwerkers was een van die eerste werkers in hierdie land wat vakbond was. Soos gereeld die geval was, het die bestaan ​​van vakbonde beteken dat Afro -Amerikaners grootliks uitgesluit was van die meeste groot skeepswerwe. Die uitsondering hierop was in die suide.

In 1902 by die werf van Newport News in Virginia was ongeveer twee derdes van die 5000 werknemers Afro -Amerikaners. Tydens die opbloei van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Afro -Amerikaanse werk vinnig gestyg, meestal weer in die suide.

Teen 1919 was daar 24 500 Afro -Amerikaanse werfwerkers in die land, ongeveer 20% in geskoolde ambagte. Gedurende die tydperk tussen die oorloë het die skeepsbou feitlik opgehou en die meeste werfwerknemers uit die werk gesit.

On the West Coast, the great shipbuilding program of World War II brought tremendous opportunities for African Americans in the industry.

Prior to the war, African Americans comprised no more than 3%, or 1,800 workers, out of a workforce of approximately 60,000. By 1945 there were more than 700,000 workers in western yards, and about 7%, or 50,000, were African American men and women.

In the Bay Area the total African American population rose from less than 20,000 in 1940 to over 60,000 in 1945. Shipbuilding jobs were the primary factor in this migration which has been called ". the most important event in the history of African Americans in the Bay Area."

A gang of welders at the Marinship yard around 1943. Large numbers of women, Caucasian and African American, entered the yards during World War II. Although the wartime effort led to a
permanent increase in the number of African American shipyard workers, no women remained as construction workers after the war.

Photograph from "Marinship At War," by Charles Wollenberg

Captain Michael Healy of the Revenue Cutter Bear.

The Navy: A Mixed Legacy

Throughout most of its history, the Navy has followed a policy of employing African Americans in all enlisted grades. They were active in both naval and privateer crews during the Revolutionary War. A brief period of discrimination ended with the War of 1812. From then until 1915 African Americans served in the ranks of all naval vessels. During the Civil War, at least six African Americans were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Only officer ranks were closed to them during this period.

In 1915 an executive order from President Wilson ordered segregation for all branches in the military. Until 1942 African Americans were recruited only as messmen. During the rest of World War II, opportunities for African Americans gradually expanded and the first twelve officers were commissioned in 1944. In 1946 a Navy order finally ended official segregation throughout the Navy.

Desegregation in practice took somewhat longer to achieve, but was finally accomplished, and today the Navy can once again take pride in its tradition of racial equality.

Although the Navy had no commissioned officers in the 19th century, this restriction did not hold for the Revenue Service, the predecessor of the modern Coast Guard.

Captain Healy, an African American, rose to the rank of Captain in 1883. From 1886 until 1895 Healy commanded the Beer, a steam barkentine, on patrols in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean. Die Beer was virtually the only law in these Northern regions, enforcing quotas in the sealing industry, protecting native people from exploitation, and keeping the peace among white settlers. She performed many feats of heroic rescue among the whaling fleet and the isolated outposts of trappers and hunters.

Captain Healy was known as a stern disciplinarian, and was accused of brutalizing his seamen on at least one occasion. Although formally exonerated from these charges, it is no doubt true that he was a hard man, performing a difficult and demanding duty.


About African American History Month

The Library of Congress, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Gallery of Art, National Park Service, Smithsonian Institution and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum join in paying tribute to the generations of African Americans who struggled with adversity to achieve full citizenship in American society.

As a Harvard-trained historian, Carter G. Woodson, like W. E. B. Du Bois before him, believed that truth could not be denied and that reason would prevail over prejudice. His hopes to raise awareness of African American&aposs contributions to civilization was realized when he and the organization he founded, the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH), conceived and announced Negro History Week in 1925. The event was first celebrated during a week in February 1926 that encompassed the birthdays of both Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. The response was overwhelming: Black history clubs sprang up teachers demanded materials to instruct their pupils and progressive whites, not simply white scholars and philanthropists, stepped forward to endorse the effort.

By the time of Woodson&aposs death in 1950, Negro History Week had become a central part of African American life and substantial progress had been made in bringing more Americans to appreciate the celebration. At mid–century, mayors of cities nationwide issued proclamations noting Negro History Week. The Black Awakening of the 1960s dramatically expanded the consciousness of African Americans about the importance of black history, and the Civil Rights movement focused Americans of all colors on the subject of the contributions of African Americans to our history and culture.

The celebration was expanded to a month in 1976, the nation&aposs bicentennial. President Gerald R. Ford urged Americans to “seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history.” That year, fifty years after the first celebration, the association held the first African American History Month. By this time, the entire nation had come to recognize the importance of Black history in the drama of the American story. Since then each American president has issued African American History Month proclamations. And the association—now the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH)—continues to promote the study of Black history all year.

(Excerpt from an essay by Daryl Michael Scott, Howard University, for the Association for the Study of African American Life and History)


African-American Graduates and their Dissertation Titles

W. Sherman Savage, 1934, "The Controversy over the Distribution of Abolition Literature, 1830-1860"

Helen Grey Edmonds, 1946, "The Negro and Fusion Politics in North Carolina, 1895-1901"

Earlie Endris Thorpe, 1954, "Negro Historiography in the United States"

Paul McStallworth, 1954, "The United States and the Congo Question, 1884-1914"

Robert E. Moran, 1968, "The History of Child Welfare in Louisiana, 1850-1960"

William Gibson, 1969, "A History of Family and Child Welfare Agencies in Baltimore, 1849-1943"

Chester W. Gregory, 1969, "The Problem of Labor during World War II: Employment of Women in Defense Production"

W. Sherman Jackson, 1970, "Ohio and Amendment Thirteen: A State Biography of the First National Reform Amendment, 1861-65"

Oscar R. Williams, 1970, "Blacks and Colonial Legislation in the Middle Colonies"

Melvin L. Murphy, 1970, "The Columbus Urban League: A History, 1917-67"

Gossie Harold Hudson, 1970, "A Biography of Paul Laurence Dunbar"

Felix James, 1972, "The American Addition: The History of a Black Community"

Arthur P. Stokes, 1973, "Daniel Alexander Payne: Churchman and Educator"

William Marvin Dulaney, 1985, "Black Shields: A Historical and Comparative Study of Blacks in American Police Forces"

Stephanie J. Shaw, 1986, "Black Women in White Collars: A Social History of Lower-Level Professional Black Women Workers, 1870-1954"

James Thomas Gillam, 1987, "Standard Oil and Chinese Nationalism, 1863-1930"

Vibert Leslie White, 1988, "Developing a 'School' of Civil Rights Lawyers: From the New Deal to the New Frontier"

Robert William Barone, 1989, "The Reputation of John Dee: A Critical Appraisal"

Felton O'Neal Best, 1994, "Crossing the Color Line: A Biography of Paul Laurence Dunbar, Advocate of Racial Integration in America, 1872-1906"

Selika Marianne Ducksworth, 1994, "WHAT HOUR OF THE NIGHT: Black Enlisted Men's Experiences and the Desegregation of the Army during the Korean War, 1950-51"

Joyce Thomas, 1994, "The 'Double V' Was for Victory: Black Soldiers, the Black Protest, and World War II"

Lawrence Steven Little, 1994, "A Quest for Self-Determination: The African-Methodist Episcopal Church in the Age of Imperialism, 1884-1916"

Stacey Kevin Close, 1992, "Elderly Slaves in the Plantation South: Somewhere between Heaven and Earth"

Robin Bernice Balthrope, 1995, "Lawlessness and the New Deal: Congress and Anti-Lynching Legislation, 1934-38"

Versalle Freddrick Washington, 1995, "Eagles on their Buttons: The Fifth Regiment of Infantry, United States Colored Troops in the American Civil War"

Charles Kenyatta Ross, 1996, "Outside the Lines: The African-American Struggle to Participate in Professional Football, 1904-1962"

Carol E. Cox Anderson, 1996, "Eyes off the Prize: African-Americans, the United Nations, and the Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-52"

Oscar Renal Williams, III, 1997, "The Making of a Black Conservative: George S. Schuyler"

Arwin Doremus Smallwood, 1997, "A History of Three Cultures: Indian Woods, North Carolina, 1585-1995"

Anthony Bryant-Thomas Milburn, 1997, "Conflict of Interest: The April 1945 Mutiny of the 477th Bomber Group"

Steeve Oliver Buckridge, 1998, "'Dem Caa Dress Yah!' Dress as Resistance and Accommodation Among Jamaican Women from Slavery to Freedom 1760-1890"

Leonard Nathaniel Moore, 1998, "The Limits of Black Power: Carl B. Stokes and Cleveland's African-American Community, 1945-1971"

Marilyn K. Howard, 1999, "Lynching in the Promise Land: Racial Violence in Ohio, 1878-1916"

Stephen Gilroy Hall, 1999, "'To Give a Faithful Account of the Race': History and Historical Consciousness in the African-American Community, 1827-1915"

Siri Danielle Briggs, 2001, "'The Wrongs That are Done and Suffered in Silence': Sexual Assault and Legal Fraternity in Nineteenth-Century Ohio"

Jason Paul Chambers, 2001, "Getting a Job and Changing an Image: African-Americans in the Advertising Industry, 1920-1975"

Christienne Leigh Hinz, 2001, "Dismembered Remembrance: Female Entrepreneurship and the Construction and Marketing of Japanese Modern Identity in the Twentieth Century"

Elisse Yvette Wright, 2002, "Birds of a Different Feather: African-American Supporters of the Vietnam War in the Johnson Years, 1965-69"

Tiwanna Michelle Simpson, 2002, "'She Has Her Country Marks Very Conspicuous in the Face': Africans in Early Georgia"

Cherisse Renee Jones, 2003, "Repairers of the Breach: Black and White Women and Racial Activism in South Carolina, 1940s-1960s"

Derrick Edward White, 2004, "'New Concepts for the New Man': The Institute of the Black World and the Incomplete Victory of the Second Reconstruction"

James Thomas Jones, 2005, "Creating Revolution as We Advance: The Revolutionary Years of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense and those Who Destroyed It"

Sherwin Keith Bryant, 2005, "Slavery and the Context of Ethnogenesis: African, Afro-Quiteños, and the Realities of Bondage in the Kingdom of Quito, 1600-1800"


African American History in the U.S.

See the faces of just some of the many African Americans who have contributed to building the United States into the country it is today.

African Americans in the early history of the United States had an extremely difficult start as immigrants. Having been primarily forced to immigrate to a new continent, African Americans worked through slavery to become a powerful force that influenced our nation to value equal rights among all men and women of all races. Between 1555 and 1865, most Africans arrived in the Americas as the result of slavery. Overcoming slavery and the resulting prejudice, the African American community has greatly contributed to the art, culture, and economic growth of the United States. In the 1930's, the newly formed employment and infrastructure Works Progress Administration (WPA) program paid people to interview living ex-slaves in the United States. Thanks to this initiative, we have a recorded history of slavery in the United States. Their narratives were powerful and show us all how recent the heritage of slavery really is and why it affects us all. Here is part of the narrative of one of these men and women: "Well, Sir, Cap'n, I was born in Richmond, Virginny, in 1848. Befo' I was ole 'nuff to 'member much, my mammy wid me an' my older brudder was sold to Marse John Calloway at Snodoun in Montgomery County, ten miles south of de town of Montgomery. Marse John hab a big plantation an' lots of slaves. Dey treated us purty good, but we hab to wuk hard. Time I was ten years ole I was makin' a reg'lar han' 'hin de plow. Oh, yassuh, Marse John good 'nough to us an' we get plenty to eat, but he had a oberseer name Green Bush what sho' whup us iffen we don't do to suit him . . . Nawsuh, we didn't git no schoolin' 'cep'in' befo' we got big 'nough to wuk in de fiel' we go 'long to school wid de white chillun to take care of 'em. Dey show us pictures an' tell us all dey kin, but it didn't 'mount to much . . . When de war started 'mos' all I know 'bout it was all de white mens go to Montgomery an' jine de army. My brudder, he 'bout fifteen year ole, so he go 'long wid de ration wagon to Montgomery 'mos' ebry week. One day he come back from Montgomery an' he say, 'Hell done broke loose in Gawgy.' He couldn't tell us much 'bout what done happen, but de slaves dey get all 'cited 'caze dey didn' know what to 'spect. Purty soon we fin' out day some of de big mens call a meetin' at de capitol on Goat Hill in Montgomery. Dey 'lected Mista Jeff Davis president an' done busted de Nunited States wide open." - Walter Calloway, Birmingham, Alabama interviewed by W.P. Jordan in the 1930's From Dred Scott, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Booker T. Washington, George Washington Carver, and W.E.B. Du Bois through Langston Hughes, Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Jackie Robinson, and Medgar Evers to Martin Luther King Jr., Coretta Scott King, Hank Aaron, Maya Angelou, Oprah, and Barack Obama and countless others, African Americans have impacted the nation in uncounted ways. The narratives are powerful, and so are the pictures in these pages, showcasing the history of African Americans in the United States.

African Americans in the early history of the United States had an extremely difficult start as immigrants. Having been primarily forced to immigrate to a new continent, African Americans worked through slavery to become a powerful force that influenced our nation to value equal rights among all men and women of all races.

Between 1555 and 1865, most Africans arrived in the Americas as the result of slavery. Overcoming slavery and the resulting prejudice, the African American community has greatly contributed to the art, culture, and economic growth of the United States.

In the 1930's, the newly formed employment and infrastructure Works Progress Administration (WPA) program paid people to interview living ex-slaves in the United States. Thanks to this initiative, we have a recorded history of slavery in the United States. Their narratives were powerful and show us all how recent the heritage of slavery really is and why it affects us all. Here is part of the narrative of one of these men and women:

"Well, Sir, Cap'n, I was born in Richmond, Virginny, in 1848. Befo' I was ole 'nuff to 'member much, my mammy wid me an' my older brudder was sold to Marse John Calloway at Snodoun in Montgomery County, ten miles south of de town of Montgomery.

Marse John hab a big plantation an' lots of slaves. Dey treated us purty good, but we hab to wuk hard. Time I was ten years ole I was makin' a reg'lar han' 'hin de plow. Oh, yassuh, Marse John good 'nough to us an' we get plenty to eat, but he had a oberseer name Green Bush what sho' whup us iffen we don't do to suit him . . .

Nawsuh, we didn't git no schoolin' 'cep'in' befo' we got big 'nough to wuk in de fiel' we go 'long to school wid de white chillun to take care of 'em. Dey show us pictures an' tell us all dey kin, but it didn't 'mount to much . . .


Literatuur

African American literature has its roots in the oral traditions of African slaves in America. The slaves used stories and fables in much the same way as they used music. [ 8 ] These stories influenced the earliest African American writers and poets in the 18th century such as Phillis Wheatley and Olaudah Equiano. These authors reached early high points by telling slave narratives.

During the early 20th century Harlem Renaissance, numerous authors and poets, such as Langston Hughes, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington, grappled with how to respond to discrimination in America. Authors during the Civil Rights era, such as Richard Wright, James Baldwin, and Gwendolyn Brooks wrote about issues of racial segregation, oppression, and other aspects of African American life. This tradition continues today with authors who have been accepted as an integral part of American literature, with works such as Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley, Die kleur pers by Alice Walker, Beloved by Nobel Prize-winning Toni Morrison, and fiction works by Octavia Butler and Walter Mosley. Such works have achieved both best-selling and/or award-winning status. [ 45 ]


Black History Timeline: 1920–1929

The 1920s, often called the Roaring Twenties, is synonymous with the Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance. Black musicians, visual artists, and writers were able to achieve great fame and notoriety for their work during this period. Black students were establishing fraternities and sororities on college campuses, new organizations were being founded to support Black Americans in the fight for equality, Black politicians were elected, and the world of professional sports saw Black players making history.

At the same time, Black communities were ravaged by riots, subjected to racism and discrimination in every way possible, and under the near-constant threat of the highly-active Ku Klux Klan and other hate groups that felt Black Americans and White Americans could never be equal. Learn more about what Black Americans experienced, accomplished, and overcome between 1920 and 1929.

Afro Newspaper / Gado / Getty Images

January 16: Zeta Phi Beta, a Black sorority, is founded at Howard University in Washington, D.C. The sorority vows to take part in political and social change for Black and women's rights and hold members to high academic standards. The founding members are Arizona Cleaver Stemons, Pearl Anna Neal, Myrtle Tyler Faithful, Viola Tyler Goings, and Fannie Pettie Watts. These women are part of an important movement in Black history.

The New Negro Movement of the 1920s represents a new approach to the fight for civil rights. In the past, Black Americans like Booker T. Washington attempted to carve out a place for Black people in a society dominated by wealthy White Americans by making White people feel comfortable and unthreatened. Now, Black Americans confidently demand equality with protests, literature, media, and more. The NAACP is highly active during this time in lobbying for the right to vote and the end of segregation. The Ku Klux Klan is also active and growing, with as many as 8 million members estimated to have been a part of the organization, many of them in positions of political power. The Zeta Phi Beta expands in spite of racial tensions and becomes the first sorority to charter a chapter in Africa.  

February 13: The Negro National Baseball League is founded by Andrew Bishop "Rube" Foster (1879–1930). Eight teams are part of the league: the Chicago Giants, the Chicago American Giants, the St. Louis Giants, the Indianapolis ABCs, the Dayton Marcos, the Kansas City Monarchs, the Detroit Stars, and the Cuban Stars. This league provides an opportunity for Black players to compete professionally, an opportunity not granted them by the White-owned and -operated Major Leagues. The league plays teams from other Black leagues as well as White non-league teams, drawing crowds of both White and Black Americans. Though Jim Crow and segregation continue to define the nation's ideas about race relations, the Negro National League is successful in bringing talented Black players to national prominence and proving that White and Black players can be equally capable.  

August 18: The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, granting women the right to vote. However, Black American women residing in Southern states are barred from voting through poll taxes, literacy tests, voter intimidation tactics including threats, and grandfather clauses. Voter disenfranchisement of Black Americans is common, but not all advocates for women's suffrage agree that Black people are equal to White people and should be able to vote, and many that do regard Black suffrage and women's suffrage as separate goals.

August 1–31: Marcus Garvey (1887–1940) holds the first international convention of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in New York City. Garvey founded this association in 1914, inspired by the teachings of Booker T. Washington in "Up From Slavery" that stressed the importance of racial solidarity and working hard to achieve independence and economic success in eventually elevating Black Americans to equal status as White Americans. The goal of the UNIA is to celebrate African American heritage advocate for Black opportunities in education, politics, and the workplace and promote Pan-Africanism. There are more than 5,000 members by 1922.  

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The first exhibition of Black American artists is held at the 135th Street Branch of the New York Public Library. Artists such as Henry Ossawa Tanner are featured in the exhibit. By giving Black artists a platform to display their work, this event marks an important moment of the Harlem Renaissance, which spanned the 1920s. The Great Migration that began around 1916 has brought Black Americans by the thousands from the South to the North in search of equality and Harlem, with a population of nearly 175,000 Black Americans, serves as a hub for Black cultural expression.

This expression takes many forms, such as art, music, writing, and dance. Icons of the Harlem Renaissance include trumpeter Louis Armstrong, writer and sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois, author Zora Neale Hurston, and many others. Besides being a historical representation of Black pride and independence, this exhibit gives America an idea of what it means to be Black, for one of the first times in history outside of offensive stereotypes portrayed in media.  

January 3: Jesse Binga (1856–1950) establishes Binga State Bank in Chicago. The banking institution is the largest Black-owned bank in the United States and it employs Black Americans that otherwise are not likely to work in finance due to lack of opportunity for Black people in professional careers. This bank allows Black Americans to manage their finances and pursue economic opportunities without racism playing a role in decision-making processes, as it has until now in the White-dominated personal finance sector. In 1929, the stock market crashes, which contributes to the start of the Great Depression. Hardships resulting from this as well as embezzlement allegations force the Binga State Bank to shut down in 1930.

Maart: "Shuffle Along," written by Noble Sissle (1889–1975) and Eubie Blake (1887–1983), debuts on Broadway. The musical is considered the first major theatrical production of the Harlem Renaissance. All cast members are Black and the musical draws large audiences and rave reviews from critics White and Black.

Maart: Harry Pace establishes Black Swan Phonograph Corporation in Harlem. The company is the first Black record company, a significant accomplishment for both Black business and Black expression as the label catered to Black listeners with Jazz and Blues singers. Prominent artists signed by Black Swan include Mamie Smith, Bessie Smith, and Ethel Waters. The label briefly experiences great success but is forced to negotiate with White-owned labels for opportunities and finally declare bankruptcy in 1923 when larger mainstream labels dominate the competition and cause Black Swan sales to plummet.  

May 31: The Tulsa Race Riot begins. Late in the day on May 31, a Black man named Dick Rowland is accused of assaulting a White woman. Between midnight and 6 a.m., a mob of armed White citizens raids a stretch of 44 blocks—occupied by Black houses and businesses—in response. When the riot ends the following day, an estimated 300 people have been killed, the vast majority of them Black. Properties and businesses have been burned to the ground and several blocks of Greenwood, a Black district referred to as "Little Africa," were destroyed. This event becomes known as the Tulsa Race Massacre.  

June 14: Georgiana R. Simpson becomes the first Black woman to receive a Ph.D. in philology when she graduates from the University of Chicago. The next day, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander becomes the first Black woman to earn a degree in economics, hers from the University of Pennsylvania. Soon after, Eva B. Dykes graduates from Radcliffe with a Ph.D. in language studies, the first Black woman with such a degree.

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The Harmon Foundation is developed to recognize the work of and support Black artists. William Elmer Harmon, a White real estate developer, was inspired to use the Harmon Foundation to recognize Black artists, business owners, educators, and others when he realized that Black artists were struggling to sell their work simply because they were Black. This foundation starts giving out awards for excellence to Black people across various industries in 1925.  

January 26: The Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, the first of its kind, passes the U.S. House of Representatives in part due to the efforts of the NAACP. In particular, NAACP secretary James Weldon Johnson, with the help of journalist Ida B. Wells and other outspoken civil rights activists, lobbies tirelessly for anti-lynching legislation. With the support of House representative Leonidas C. Dyer, this bill declaring lynching and mob violence a violation of 14th Amendment rights is considered by the House. The bill is passed.

Though the bill passes with 231 in favor and 119 opposed, it is blocked from reaching the Senate for a final vote by southern Democrats who filibuster to stop it from being debated. But while the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill does not become law, it gives publicity to the fight for Black civil rights.  

November 12: Sigma Gamma Rho, a Black sorority, is founded in Indianapolis, Indiana, at Butler University. The seven founders are Bessie Mae Downey Rhoades Martin, Cubena McClure, Dorothy Hanley Whiteside, Mary Lou Allison Gardner Little, Hattie Mae Annette Dulin Redford, Nannie Mae Gahn Johnson, and Vivian White Marbury. All are educators committed to service and social justice.  

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Dewey Gatson, who goes by Rajo Jack DeSoto, is the first Black American to participate in a professional car race, and he does so in an upgraded Model T Ford. He is picked up by Rajo Motor and Manufacturing, which is how he gets the nickname Rajo Jack. "DeSoto" is a pseudonym he uses to pass as Portuguese when registering to race, an ethnicity more readily accepted into segregated races than Black Americans.

Because he is Black, Rajo Jack is not allowed to race in events organized by the American Automobile Association until years later in 1954. But even before this, his racing draws crowds and fans. The more recognition he gets and success he achieves, the more White spectators are forced to challenge their perceptions of Black Americans and what they were capable of.  

Januarie: The National Urban League, a civil rights organization, begins publishing the magazine Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life. Edited by Charles S. Johnson, this publication becomes one of the leading forces of the Harlem Renaissance. The magazine features work by Black scholars and professionals including Eugene Kinckle Jones, Edith Sampson, and Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

January 1: The Rosewood Massacre occurs, an event that starts as a race riot and ends with the decimation of Rosewood, Florida, and the deaths of at least eight people, some Black and some White. On January 1 of 1923, a White woman named Fannie Taylor makes a claim that a Black man came into her home and attacked her. Believing the attacker to be a Black man named Jesse Hunter, a mob of angry White citizens assembles under the leadership of Fannie's husband, James Taylor, and Levy County Sheriff, Robert Walker, in search of him. KKK members are among those in the mob.

The armed mob makes its way through the Black community of Rosewood, threatening, beating, and killing several innocent people in their path. Rosewood is in ruins by the time the mob has been stopped several days later. Many sources now speculate that Fannie Taylor's claims that a Black man attacked her were likely a lie she told to conceal the fact that she was having an affair and her lover was the one that hurt her.  

January 3: William Leo Hansberry (1894–1965), a professor at Howard University, teaches the first course on African history and civilization at Howard University in Washington, D.C. He teaches about the purported existence of civilized societies in Africa long before civilized societies existed in Greece or Rome. His work is not well received by his colleagues or the greater community of historical researchers, who doubt the validity of his claims. But despite the criticism he faces, Hansberry's work bolsters the field of Black studies and inspires many Black American scholars that would come after.  

January 12: Marcus Garvey, founder of the UNIA, is arrested for mail fraud and sent to a federal prison in Atlanta. He and other officials from the UNIA are charged when accounting errors and evidence of mail fraud are revealed in the books for Black Star Line, a shipping company he founded with the UNIA in 1919 that was intended to boost the African economy. Responsible for bringing Garvey to court is J. Edgar Hoover, an F.B.I. agent that has been suspicious of Garvey due to his outspoken activism and radical civil rights efforts and tracking him for several years.  

Februarie: Bessie Smith records her first sides for Columbia Records. Her song “Down Hearted Blues” is the first record by a Black artist to sell a million copies. This record is added to the National Registry in 2002. She earns the title "Empress of the Blues" and creates a signature singing and performing style—bold and full of emotion—that many try and fail to replicate. Throughout her career, she performs with other prominent Black artists including Don Redman, Louis Armstrong, and James P. Johnson.  

February 23: In the Moore v. Dempsey court case, the Supreme Court, led by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, rules that federal courts are duty-bound to review claims of mob domination of state trials in which members of the public influence the outcome of a trial through intimidation, torture, and harassment, impacting the right to a fair and complete trial. In most cases, this involves mobs of angry White Americans gathering outside of courthouses while Black people and members of minority ethnic or religious groups are on trial, often threatening violence against defendants not found guilty.

Some of the first Americans to benefit from this case are six Black men who had been convicted in an unjust Arkansas trial. These men, sharecroppers, were accused of starting a "Black uprising" when they retaliated after being attacked by a group of White Americans by killing one of their attackers. Their jury included some of the White people responsible for having them accused of an uprising in the first place. The jury deliberated for only a few minutes before declaring the men guilty, the whole time hearing the shouts of a mob promising to kill the men if they weren't put in jail. These six men are released following the Moore v. Dempsey ruling.  

September: The Cotton Club opens in Harlem. This nightclub, cabaret, and speakeasy, opened by convicted murderer and gangster Owen Madden, features Black artists performing for a White audience. The club itself is decorated like a plantation and romanticizes the institution of slavery and African culture. The stage where Black musicians and dancers perform is painted like quarters for enslaved people and the opportunity to experience "authentic Black entertainment," as Madden advertises, draws great crowds of wealthy White Harlemites. Some performers are turned away because their skin is too dark and Black Americans are generally not allowed in the audience.

Many famous Black artists and entertainers perform at the Cotton Club, including Duke Ellington, Dorothy Dandridge, and Sammy Davis Jr. Langston Hughes criticizes this establishment for taking advantage of Black Americans, drawing customers away from Black-owned clubs, and promoting racism with the use of segregation and harmful stereotypes against Black people.  

November 20: Garrett T. Morgan patents the caution light, also known as the three-position traffic signal. Like many Black entrepreneurs and business owners including Elijah McCoy and Henry Boyd, Morgan's career is never without racism and discrimination. Because he is Black and consumers are less likely to purchase goods created by Black inventors, he goes to great lengths in order to conceal his identity and achieve success throughout his career. Morgan uses disguises and fake personas, sponsorships by other companies, and publicity surrogates to sell his inventions in a society that applies heavy racial bias to purchasing decisions. He often goes by "Big Chief Mason," an Indigenous person, and wears a costume when advertising his products.

Morgan sold his traffic signal design to General Electric for $40,000. He also invented the gas mask or safety hood used by firefighters and started The Cleveland Call, a Black daily newspaper.  

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James Van Der Zee (1886–1983) begins his career as a photographer. He is one of the first mainstream photographers to regularly capture Black Americans, including famous musicians and performers as well as families. He is commissioned by Marcus Garvey to photograph UNIA events.  

The National Bar Association, originally called the "Negro Bar Association," is founded by Black attorneys in Des Moines, Iowa. The civil rights movement in Greenville, South Carolina, and the Iowa Colored Bar Association inspire its inception. It is incorporated in 1925. Among the founders are George H. Woodson, Gertrude E. Rush (the only woman to co-found the association), and William Harold Flowers. According to the association's website, the National Bar is the world's largest national network of predominantly Black attorneys and judges.  

Alain Locke (1885–1954) publishes Die nuwe neger, an anthology featuring Black writers and visual artists of the Harlem Renaissance.

Clifton Reginald Wharton (1899–1990) becomes the first Black Foreign Service officer (and the only one in the next 20 years) and later, in 1961, the first Black Foreign Service officer to become an Ambassador. In 1958, he is appointed Minister of Romania by President Eisenhower, which makes him the first Black U.S. diplomat in Europe.  

August 8: 30,000 unmasked Ku Klux Klanspeople march on Washington, D.C. This is thought to be the largest the Ku Klux Klan has ever been. The white supremacists march down Pennsylvania Avenue for three hours until they reach the Washington Monument. The Klan has been active in enforcing discriminatory policies and practices that advantage White people, lobbying for the election of racist politicians, and carrying out vigilante violence against Black Americans and members of minority groups as they see fit throughout the country following the Civil War. Some Americans regard their terrorist activity as patriotic.  

August 25: Asa Philip Randolph establishes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids. This trade union aims to help Black railroad porters and maids working for the Pullman Palace Car Company obtain fair treatment, including better pay, hours, and opportunities for promotion. This is the first successful Black trade union in history. The union signs its first contract with Pullman in 1937 and in 1941 persuades President Roosevelt to ban the practice of employment discrimination on the basis of race in the war industry, which he did via Executive Order 8802. In 1960, Randolph founds the Negro American Labor Council. He and his organizations are avid supporters of Martin Luther King, Jr.  

Oktober: The American Negro Labor Congress (ANLC), a communist-based organization, is developed by Lovett Fort-Whiteman to promote racial unity and help Black laborers fight racism and discrimination. Like the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, this union is intended to advocate for Black workers that are not afforded the same opportunities and considerations as their White counterparts. However, the ANLC is mostly unsuccessful because it serves a Communist agenda and many Black Americans do not feel this party aligns with their interests. Both Asa Philip Randolph of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Marcus Garvey of the United Negro Improvement Association are outspokenly opposed to the ANLC.  

Arturo Alfonso Schomburg sells his collection of books and artifacts to the Carnegie Corporation. The collection becomes part of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in New York City.

Alfred Knopf publishes The Weary Blues, the first volume of poetry by 24-year-old Langston Hughes. Hughes is regarded as one of the world's greatest Black writers.

February 7: Negro History Week is celebrated for the first time. It was developed by historian Carter G. Woodson to raise awareness for Black accomplishments throughout history and encourage Black pride. Woodson chose the week of February 7 because it contains the birthdays of both Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln, two figures inseparable from Black history.

Since 1976, what was once known as Negro History Week is known as Black History Month, a holiday declared as a national observance by President Ford. Throughout the month of February, Americans celebrate the contributions Black people have made to society and honor Black culture with speeches, media, rallies, and more.

June 26: Dr. Mordecai Johnson is the first Black president of Howard University. This milestone comes 59 years after the institution was founded. He appoints many Black scholars and leaders, including Rhodes Scholar Alain Locke and poet Sterling Brown, to professorships. The institution becomes known as the historically Black university it is today.

January 7: The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team plays its first game. This team was established the previous year in Chicago by Abe Saperstein, a Jewish booking agent and basketball coach, and is called the Harlem Globetrotters despite not being Harlem-based to represent the fact that the team is all Black (Harlem has the largest Black population in the country). Some view the existence of an all-Black team as progress in the fight for racial equality and a symbol of unification while others see the team as little more than a publicity stunt that uses offensive Black stereotypes to entertain White spectators. In addition to being skilled athletes, the Harlem Globetrotters are entertainers that incorporate theatrics and comedy into every game to capture the audience's attention, at the suggestion of their coach.

The team members are subjected to racism everywhere they go, often denied access to facilities because they are Black, barred from playing White teams, and ridiculed by basketball fans that do not believe Black Americans should be allowed to participate in professional sports. Still, the Harlem Globetrotters are used by the U.S. State Department to give the impression of positive race relations in America. And despite hostility at every turn, the Harlem Globetrotters gain popularity. However, racism is still at play. The team is paid very poorly compared to White professional teams—including Saperstein's other teams—and Saperstein books as many games as possible to make more money and gain more traction, the team often playing every night.  

October 2: Journalist Floyd Joseph Calvin becomes the host of the first Black journalism radio show. Calvin, who is Black himself, begins broadcasting from WGBS in Pittsburgh about influential Black Americans and topics in Black history. Some of his most important and groundbreaking segments include "Some Notable Colored Men," "The Negro in Art," and "Negro Journalism." Calvin and his show help usher in a new era of journalism in which Black Americans are portrayed in a more positive light as people with aspirations, families, and careers. Until now, journalism has been racist against Black Americans and portrayed them as uneducated, unimportant, and dangerous through sensational journalism tactics and scandal-mongering. His show also exposes racial injustices.  

December 2: Marcus Garvey is released from jail and deported from the United States to Jamaica following his arrest for mail fraud.

August 5: Atlanta World, a Black daily newspaper, is founded by William Alexander Scott II in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1932, Scott re-brands the newspaper as Atlanta Daily World and the publication becomes the first successful Black daily newspaper in the United States (as well as the first in the 1900s). Being based in the South and active during the civil rights movement, this paper becomes an important force for change. However, rather than take a firm stance on polarizing subjects such as racism and segregation, the Atlanta Daily World reports mostly objectively on issues within the Black community including police brutality, segregation in schools, and lynchings. By remaining somewhat neutral and taking a moderate Republican stance on topics in politics, the newspaper gains supporters even in Jim Crow Georgia and grows into one of the most successful Black-owned businesses in the country.

Scott is shot and killed in 1934, his murderer never convicted. Ownership of the newspaper is transferred to William Alexander Scott II's brother, Cornelius Adolphus Scott.  

November 6: Oscar De Priest is the first Black American to represent a northern, urban district when he is elected to Congress representing the South Side of Chicago. He is the first Black American elected to Congress in the 20th century and the first Black Congressperson from the North. De Priest was born to formerly enslaved Black parents and as a child moved from Mississippi to Kansas, his family in search of freedom from oppression as Black Americans in the Jim Crow South. He moved to Chicago in 1889. As a Black member of Congress, De Priest is able to represent the interests of Black Americans in a large city with a Black population that is on the rise, as is the case in many large northern cities at this time.

De Priest's election brings the topics of segregation and racial equality to the forefront of politics. For example, when his wife, Jessie De Priest, is invited to a tea party hosted by First Lady Lou Hoover, the Hoover administration comes under fire from southern Democrats, both members of the public and politicians, for not preserving the "racial integrity of the white race." Throughout his three-term tenure, De Priest becomes a symbol for Black civil rights and advocate for Black Americans. He successfully adds anti-discrimination measures to the bill that launched the Conservation Civilian Corps in 1933.

20 Junie: Die invloedryke Fats Waller (regte naam Thomas Wright Waller) se liedjie "Ain't Misbehavin '" is deel van 'n musiekblyspel, "Hot Chocolates", wat op Broadway verskyn. Louis Armstrong speel in die putorkes en word elke aand op die liedjie verskyn.


Kyk die video: Hapo Zamani - Miriam Makeba New (Januarie 2023).

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