Nuut

Die geboorte van Athena

Die geboorte van Athena


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

>

Verwante inhoud

Filters:

Almal

Definisies 154

Artikels 54

Beelde55

Video's22

Versamelings 9

Onderrigmateriaal4

Vasvrae 1


Parthenon East Pediment

Die oostelike voorkant verteenwoordig die geboorte van Athena. Volgens die Griekse mitologie het Zeus geboorte gegee aan Athena nadat 'n vreeslike hoofpyn hom genoop het om Hephaestus & die rsquo (die god van vuur en smee) hulp te ontbied. Om die pyn te verlig, beveel hy Hephaestus om hom met sy smeehumor te slaan, en toe hy dit doen, het Zeus se kop oopgegaan en die godin Athena in volle wapenrusting gebars. Die beeldhoukundige rangskikking beeld die oomblik van Athena & rsquos uit.

Ongelukkig is die middelste stukke van die voorkant vernietig voordat Jacques Carrey sy tekeninge in 1674 geskep het, sodat alle rekonstruksies onderhewig is aan aannames en bespiegelinge. Die belangrikste Olimpiese gode het seker rondom Zeus en Athena gestaan ​​en kyk na die wonderlike gebeurtenis met Hephaestus en Hera waarskynlik naby hulle. Die Carrey -tekeninge speel 'n belangrike rol in die rekonstruksie van die beeldhouwerk buite die middelste figure in die noorde en suide.

Die geboorte van Athena het met dagbreek plaasgevind, en hierdie presiese chronologie word uitgebeeld deur die koppe van die perde wat in die suidelike hoek van die voorkant verskyn. Die perde van Helios (son) word uitgebeeld asof hulle op die punt staan ​​om bo die horison uit te kom en die lewegewende son agter hulle aan te trek. Die perde en rsquos se gesigte word uitgebeeld in kragtige aktiwiteite en vol energie, in teenstelling met die groep perde aan die ander kant (die noorde) wat moeg lyk en met bultende oë, oop monde en gespanne spiere werk om hul reis onder die horison te beëindig . Die perde van Selene (maan) is moeg, want hulle is aan die einde van hul reis deur die naghemel.

Die standbeelde van die standbeelde is meestal ontspanne en vertoon matige interaksie met mekaar, terwyl die formele elemente van die draperie van die klere die meeste visuele drama bied, aangesien dit in diepe reliëf gesny is wat 'n groot kontras tussen lig en skaduwee bied. Die figure in die middel vertoon matige beweging, terwyl die op die hoeke agteroor is om die beperkte ruimte te akkommodeer en om die aktiwiteitsvlak tydens die vroeë oggendure akkuraat weer te gee wanneer die meeste gode en sterflinge wag totdat die son opkom .


Die geboorte van Athena

Daar word gesê dat Athena volledig gevorm is uit die kop van Zeus, maar daar is 'n agtergrond. Een van Zeus se vele liefdes was 'n Oceanid met die naam Metis. Toe sy swanger raak, onthou die koning van die gode die gevaar wat hy vir sy eie vader, Cronos, inhou en hoe Cronos met sy vader Ouranos omgegaan het. Zeus, versigtig om die siklus van patricide voort te sit, verslind sy minnaar.

Maar Metis, in die donkerte van Zeus se binnekant, het voortgegaan om haar kind te dra. Na 'n geruime tyd het die koning van die gode met 'n koninklike hoofpyn afgekom. Zeus roep die smidsgod Hephaestus aan (sommige mites sê dit was Prometheus) en vra dat sy kop oopgesplit word, waarna Athena in haar glorie grys oë spring.

By die beskermheer van een van die grootste stadstate van Hellas, verskyn die Griekse godin Athena in baie klassieke mites. Sommige van die bekendste sluit in:

Athena en Arachne: Hier neem die Godin of the Loom 'n bekwame maar roemryke mens deur 'n pen, en deur Arachne in 'n klein, agtpootige wewer te omskep, vind sy die spinnekop uit.

Die Gorgon Medusa: Nog 'n verhaal oor die wraakgierige kant van Athena, die lot van Medusa is verseël toe hierdie pragtige priesteres van Athena deur Poseidon in die godin se eie heiligdom gewaai is. Slange vir hare en 'n verrykende blik het gevolg.

Die wedstryd vir Athene: Weereens het die grysoog-godin teen haar oom Poseidon gestamp, is die stryd om die beskerming van Athene beslis vir die god wat die beste geskenk aan die stad geskenk het. Poseidon het 'n wonderlike (soutwater) bron gebring, maar wyse Athena het 'n olyfboom gegee - 'n bron van vrugte, olie en hout. Sy het gewen.

Die oordeel van Parys: In die onbenydenswaardige posisie om 'n skoonheidskompetisie tussen Hera, Athena en Aphrodite te beoordeel, het die Trojaanse Parys sy geld geplaas op die een wat Romeine Venus sou noem. Sy prys: Helen van Troy, née Helen van Sparta, en die vyandskap van Athena, wat die Grieke onvermoeid sou ondersteun in die Trojaanse Oorlog.


Geboorte van Athena

Zeus het Metis begeer en haar op sy direkte manier gejaag.Metis het probeer om te ontsnap, en so ver gegaan dat sy van gedaante verander het, verander sy in verskillende wesens, soos valke, visse en slange. Zeus was egter vasberade en ewe vaardig om vorm te verander. Hy het sy strewe voortgesit totdat sy berou gegee het.

'N Orakel van Gaea het toe geprofeteer dat die eerste kind van Metis ' 'n meisie sou wees en dat haar tweede kind 'n seuntjie sou wees wat Zeus sou omverwerp, net soos wat met sy pa en oupa gebeur het. Zeus het hierdie waarskuwing ter harte geneem. Toe hy Metis weer sien, het hy haar aanvanklik gevlei en op haar gemak gestel. Toe Metis ' wagte af was, het Zeus sy mond oopgemaak en haar en haar ongebore kind ingesluk. Dit was die einde van Metis, maar ook die begin van Zeus se wysheid.

Na 'n rukkie het Zeus 'n ondraaglike hoofpyn ontwikkel, wat hom so hard laat skree van pyn dat dit oor die hele aarde gehoor kon word. Die ander gode het kom kyk wat die probleem is. Hermes besef wat hy moet doen en beveel Hephaestus om 'n wig te neem en Zeus se skedel oop te maak. Uit die skedel het Athena uitgegroei, volgroeid en in 'n volledige stel pantser. As gevolg van die manier waarop sy gebore is, het sy die godin van intelligensie en wysheid geword.


Athena Tritogeneia

Die mense van Griekeland het geglo dat baie van hul gode en godinne op spesifieke plekke op aarde gebore is. Een hiervan was die godin Athena.

Die geboorteverhaal van Athena is beroemd ongewoon. Toe Zeus verneem dat sy vrou, die Titaness Metis, 'n seun sou hê wat sterk genoeg sou wees om hom omver te werp, het hy haar in 'n vlieg verander en haar ingesluk.

Zeus het egter nie geweet dat Metis reeds hul eerste kind verwek het nie. Metis, nog steeds in die vorm van 'n vlieg, het in haar man se liggaam geleef terwyl die baba groot geword het.

Metis het ook voorberei op die koms van haar kind in die wêreld. Sy het wapens en wapens gesmee terwyl sy nog in Zeus was.

Met die klap van metaal het die koning van die gode ontsaglike hoofpyn veroorsaak, waarvan hy nie die oorsaak geken het nie. Hy het Hephaestus, die smid, gevra om sy skedel oop te slaan om alles wat sy konstante pyn veroorsaak, los te laat.

Toe Zeus se skedel oopgebreek word, kom sy dogter Athena na vore. Sy was volwasse en geklee in die pantser wat haar ma vir haar in die kop van Zeus gesmee het.

Volgens Hesiodos, wat in die 7de of 8ste eeu vC geskryf het, het die geboorte van Athena plaasgevind naby die oewers van die rivier Trito. Sommige latere skrywers het die rivier se naam eerder as Triton geskryf.

So, waar was die rivier Trito? In ou mites is dit oop vir debat.

Dit lyk asof Trito nie die naam van 'n regte plek was nie. Die rivier was legendaries en daarom moeilik om te plaas.

Verskeie antieke skrywers beweer dat Athena op die eiland Rhodes gebore is, maar dat die rivier self nie melding gemaak het nie. Trito was moontlik daar geleë, of die twee weergawes van die legende was moontlik heeltemal apart.

Namate die mitologie van Athena ontwikkel het, is 'n ander plek gegee. Daar word gesê dat die Tritonis -meer was in wat die Grieke Libië genoem het, vandag waarskynlik in die suide van Tunesië.

Hierdie weergawe van die verhaal sê dat Athena elders gebore is, maar na Tritonis geneem is om groot te word onder die nimfe daar. Een hiervan was Pallas, wat die liefste vriendin van die godin geword het en die bron van haar titel Pallas Athena was.

Herodotis het probeer om hierdie latere verhaal met Hesiodos se antieke werk te versoen deur te beweer dat die Tritonismeer deur 'n groot rivier, die Triton, gevoed sou word.

Volgens sommige berigte het 'n aardbewing die natuurlike strukture ineengestort wat die meer op 'n stadium in die oudheid verhinder het om op te droog. Die plek van die Tritonis-meer het moontlik verband gehou met 'n seisoenale meer wat nou Chott el-Dejerid genoem word, of met die moerasagtige moddervlaktes langs die noordelike kus van die moderne Libië.

Athena se verbintenis met die rivier Trito het haar die bynaam Tritogeneia gegee, of gebore uit Trito.

My moderne interpretasie

Die geboorteverhale van die gode was dikwels van plek tot plek anders. Dikwels sou 'n spesifieke stad of streek beweer dat 'n god daar gebore is om hul eie belangrikheid te verhoog en besoekers na hul heilige plekke te lok.

Dit lyk asof die mense van Griekeland hierdie feit erken het en skrywers het soms kommentaar gelewer op die teenstrydige geboorteverhale van hul gode.

In die 2de eeu nC het Pausanias byvoorbeeld geskryf oor die Libiese meer Tritonis en 'n bewering in Boeotia dat 'n klein rivier daar die geboorte van Athena was.

Pausanias het 'n reisverslag van Griekeland geskryf, wat die plaaslike oortuigings van baie van die land se streke ingesamel het. Hy was meer as die meeste bewus van die maniere waarop legendes dikwels spesifiek vir 'n spesifieke gebied was.

Hy beskryf byvoorbeeld 'n mite wat na bewering van Libië afkomstig was, wat beweer dat Athena Tritogeneia 'n heel ander oorsprong het as wat die meeste Grieke beweer het. Haar blou oë en omgang met die Libiese meer het die inwoners daar volgens Pausanias laat glo dat Athena die dogter van Poseidon was eerder as Zeus.

In hierdie weergawe van Athena se verhaal was haar ma die nimf na wie die meer vernoem is. Tritonis en Poseidon was die ouers van Athena in 'n legende wat vir die meeste Grieke baie vreemd sou lyk.

Hierdie veronderstelde Libiese legende lyk heeltemal in stryd met die klassieke Griekse en Romeinse oortuigings. Dit kan eintlik wees omdat dit nie eintlik oor die Griekse godin gegaan het nie.

Die Grieke en Romeine het dikwels vreemde gode en godinne met hul eie geïdentifiseer. Hulle het parallelle getrek tussen die gode van kulture soos die Egiptenare en Germaanse stamme, en noem die kulture se gode en godinne met Griekse name.

Op hierdie manier kon die Grieke die idee handhaaf dat hul godsdiens akkuraat was, terwyl hulle nie die geldigheid van ander, dikwels ouer, gelowe ontken nie. Die gode van Egipte was teen die tyd van klassieke Griekeland reeds oud, maar deur hulle as aspekte van die Olimpiërs aan te toon, kon die Grieke die verskillende mitologieë versoen.

In die geval van Egipte het Griekse skrywers selfs 'n legende uitgevind om die vroeë bestaan ​​van hul gode in Egipte en hul ongewone voorkoms te verduidelik. Tydens die Gigantomachy, het sommige gesê, het die gode van Olympus hulself in diere verander en vir veiligheid na Egipte gevlug.

Die Egiptiese godin Neith is meestal geïdentifiseer met Athena. Sy was bekend vir wysheid, weef en oorlogvoering net soos haar Griekse eweknie, hoewel haar spesifieke mitologie baie anders was.

Neith was een van die oudste gode in Egipte en word deur die Griekse tyd beskou as 'n skeppingsgodin. Hoewel haar eienskappe en pligte moontlik dieselfde was as dié van Athena, was haar oorspronklike werk nader aan die van Gaia of selfs Chaos.

Die Grieke, wat reeds vertroud was met die plaaslike variasies van hul legendes, beskryf sulke teenstrydighede dikwels as plaaslike oortuiging eerder as 'n heeltemal aparte mitologie. Vir hulle was 'n godin soos Neith hul eie Athena in 'n ander vorm en enige mites wat nie by hul eie pas nie, was bloot plaaslike legendes.

Dit is dus heel moontlik dat die blouoog Athena Pausanias beweer het dat die Libiërs sou geglo het, glad nie die Griekse godin was nie. Sy was in plaas daarvan 'n plaaslike godin, die dogter van twee watergode, wat met Athena verbind was weens ooreenkomste in hul funksies of legendes.

Pausanias was miskien nie die eerste persoon wat 'n Libiese godin met Athena assosieer nie.

Dikwels het hierdie verenigings beide kante gegaan. Namate die Griekse invloed uitgebrei het, het buitelanders hul eie gode begin assosieer met dié van die Mond Olympus.

Pausanias het eers in die 2de eeu nC oor die Libiese Athena geskryf, maar Herodotus het die Afrika -meer sewehonderd jaar vroeër genoem. Dit is moontlik dat Athena en die plaaslike godin eeue lank met mekaar verbind was.

Ten minste een historikus ondersteun hierdie hipotese en beweer dat die verband tussen die Libiese meer en die Griekse godin een van die oudstes ter wêreld is. Athena is moontlik oorspronklik geïnspireer deur die Egiptiese Neith, wat op sy beurt ontwikkel het uit die godin van 'n antieke nomadiese stam in Noord -Afrika.

In opsomming

Volgens die mites is Athena uit haar pa se kop gebore. Zeus het sy nuwe vrou, die Titaness Metis, ingesluk en 'n paar maande later sy skedel oopgesplit om sy chroniese hoofpyn te genees.

Athena is volwasse gebore. Die hoofpyn wat Zeus geteister het, was as gevolg van Metis wat die wapenrusting wat haar dogter gedra het by die geboorte gesmee het.

Baie ou skrywers het die geboorteplek van Athena iewers op die oewer van die rivier Trito, oftewel Triton, geplaas. Terwyl 'n paar plaaslike legendes beweer het dat Trito deur Boeotia of Rhodes gevloei het, het meer skrywers geglo dat dit verband hou met die Tritonis -meer in Libië.

Die meer bestaan ​​nie meer as dit ooit was nie, maar baie legendes bind dit aan Athena. Behalwe dat sy naby 'n gepaardgaande rivier gebore is, het sy en haar vriendin Pallas op die meer grootgeword.

Volgens Pausanias beweer die mense wat naby die Tritonis -meer gewoon het vir Athena 'n ander geboorteverhaal as wat enige Grieke gedoen het. Hulle het gesê dat sy die dogter van Poseidon en 'n plaaslike nimf was wat haar naam met die meer gedeel het.

As die legende deur Pausanias in Afrika vertel word, het dit waarskynlik eerder oor 'n plaaslike godin as oor Athena gegaan. Die Grieke het dikwels hul eie gode met dié van vreemde kulture vereenselwig en Egiptiese en Germaanse gode met Griekse name genoem.

Soms het hierdie vereniging in beide rigtings gegaan en die plaaslike bevolking gebruik self Griekse name en legendes in hul eie godsdienste. As die mense van Libië hul eie godin Athena na kontak met die Grieke noem, het hulle moontlik nog steeds die inheemse mitologie behou wat haar die dogter van 'n seegod gemaak het.

In beide gevalle het hierdie godinne moontlik 'n oorsprong in antieke nomadiese oortuigings. Soos baie van die godinne wat met haar verbonde is, is Athena moontlik beïnvloed deur die stamme van Noord -Afrika in 'n geslagslyn wat slegs met haar vermeende geboorteplek onthou word.


Die geboorte van die Athena -muurfontein

Die legende vertel dat Athena, die godin van wysheid en oorlogvoering, volledig gevorm het uit die kop van Zeus. Hierdie gewaagde en dramatiese stuk vang die oomblik vas in 'n lewendige mengsel van gemengde media -elemente. As 'n ou verhaal in 'n moderne vorm vasgevang word, sal dit beslis 'n gesprek wees wat in u huis of kantoor begin is.

48 "lank, 28" breed, 5 "diep, met 'n LED -kappie vir 'n ekstra dramatiese effek. Dit word voorsien van 'n pomp en al die hardeware wat nodig is om dit te installeer. Aangepaste groottes is ook moontlik.

Die geboorte van die Athena -muurfontein:

  • Op bestelling gemaak en daarom uniek
  • Kan in verskillende afmetings gemaak word as dié wat gelys word om aan u individuele behoeftes te voldoen
  • Elkeen is geverf en geteken op die agterkant van hoë kwaliteit Lexan -akrielpanele
  • Veilig geplaas in 'n hittebehandelde 100% koperraamwerk en waterbak
  • Geïntegreerde loodgieterswerk van die dompelpomp in die wasbak spuit water oor die voorkant van die Lexan
  • Die geverfde oppervlak word 100% droog gehou
  • Vervaardig in die VSA

Die geboorte van die Athena -muurfontein sluit in:

  • Hersirkuleer elektriese pomp
  • Alle nodige hangende hardeware
  • Waarborg: 2 jaar op pomp deur vervaardiger

Die geboorte van Athena Wall Fountain Spesifikasies:

Hierdie waterfunksie is 'n unieke kunswerk wat deur ervare en bekwame kunstenaars geskep is. Geen twee met die hand geverfde waterkenmerke sal presies dieselfde wees nie. Alhoewel u waterfunksie moontlik nie presies dieselfde is as die op ons webwerf nie, kan u verseker wees dat u 'n pragtige fontein sal ontvang. As dit eers loop en die ontspannende geluid van water bygevoeg word, sal dit nog mooier wees.


Die geboorte van Athena

Iets wat gedurende hierdie week se werkswinkel bespreek is, was die magdom maniere waarop die gode en godinne gebore is. Alhoewel die voortplanting onveranderd bly van wat dit vandag is, is die verskeidenheid van die maniere waarop die gode en godinne gebore/geskep is, opvallend. Vanaf Chaos en Gaea wissel die oorsprong van die gode en godinne van geboorte uit kastrasie en seeskuim tot geboorte uit die kop. Dit is hierdie laaste voorbeeld, die geboorte van Athena, waarop ek wil fokus vir hierdie week se blogpos.

Toe hy hoor dat die geboorte van Athena tot die dood van Zeus sou lei, verslind hy Athena se ma met Athena wat nog nie gebore was nie, om sy ondergang te voorkom. Terwyl ek op soek was na ander weergawes van hierdie verhaal, het ek getref hoe hierdie interaksie tussen Zeus en sy eerste vrou, Metis, die verhouding tussen vroue en mans perfek omhul het. Een weergawe bevat die sin: "Hy [Zeus] het sy strewe voortgesit totdat sy [Metis] berou gekry het." Hierdie beskrywing van roofdiere en prooi pas by hoe mans vroue behandel wat met hulle speel en hulle agtervolg totdat hulle gedwing is om toe te gee.

Dit was nadat Zeus haar swanger ma ingesluk het dat Athena uit sy voorkop gebore is, 'n verhaal wat ek nog nooit gehoor het nie. Alhoewel die proses om iemand uit die voorkop te baar op sigself nogal opvallend is, was ek ook geskok om te lees oor Zeus wat pyn ervaar voor die geboorte. Zeus word altyd uitgebeeld as die sterk, manlike, onvernietigbare god, en dit was veral interessant om te lees oor sy pyn wat gelei het tot die skepping van Athena, aangesien Zeus nie net pyn gehad het nie, maar ook deur 'n godin toegedien was. Is dit 'n seldsame voorbeeld van 'n godin wat mag oor 'n god hou?

Behalwe dat ek meer gelees het oor die oorsprong van Athena, het ek op verskeie artistieke voorstellings afgekom, wat soortgelyk was aan dié wat in die lesing van hierdie week ingesluit is (die beelde van 'n spesifieke uitbeelding word hieronder getoon). Soos dit op die foto's hieronder uitgebeeld word, is Athena nie net uit Zeus se kop gebore nie, maar sy het ook aangetrek vir oorlog. Is hierdie uitbeelding van Athena as 'n sterk, kragtige godin wat uit Zeus se kop loskom, 'n goeie feministiese beeld?


Paleothea

Om Athena werklik te verstaan, moet u haar geboorte verstaan ​​en omgekeerd. Hier sal ek haar geboorte verduidelik, as u meer wil leer oor die godin, moet u haar bladsy besoek. Die verhaal van haar geboorte begin by haar ma.

Metis, die Godin van versigtigheid of Slimheid en 'n Titaness, was baie die appel van Zeus se oog. Die twee was getroud, en hulle het beslis 'n rukkie gespeel. Zeus wou op daardie stadium 'n kind hê, maar toe hoor hy uit die orakel dat hy 'n seun gaan hê wat hom onttroon (soos sy pa en sy pa sy oupa). Hy het nie so baie daarvan gehou nie, en alhoewel hy nog baie seuns gehad het, was hy bang dat die seun van 'n unie met Metis sy vernietiging sou veroorsaak. Dus, terwyl die twee eendag speel, stel Zeus 'n speletjie voor om van vorm te verander. Metis het haar Prudence vergeet en besluit dat dit lekker sal wees. Hulle het allerhande vorms verander, groot en klein, maar toe Metis in 'n vlieg verander het, het Zeus haar ingesluk. Sy het die res van hul lewens deur Zeus advies gegee uit sy binneste. Ek weet nie of hy gedink het dat die sluk van Metis haar kind sou vernietig nie, maar dit het beslis nie gebeur nie.

Zeus het waarskynlik gedink dat dit die einde was, en dit was 'n rukkie. Maar op 'n dag was Zeus net besig om te ontspan by die Triton -meer en hy het die ergste hoofpyn van sy lewe begin kry. Ek bedoel, ons praat hier van dodelike migraine. Dit was so erg dat hy na Hephaestus geroep het en hom laat oopkloof het. Uit die skeuring spring Athena, springend in die lug, volledig gepantser met 'n oorlogskreet.

En dit is hoe haar priesters (en Hesiodos) sê dat sy gebore is.

Ander weergawes hou haar pa as Pallas (wat later probeer het om haar te verwoes en sy vermoor hom sonder om te aarsel en sy naam en vel te neem), maar hierdie verhaal is onwaarskynlik, aangesien Pallas 'n reus was met 'n naam wat beteken "Maiden ". Sommige sê dat haar pa Itonus was, 'n koning van Iton. Sommige sê dat haar biologiese pa Poseidon was, maar dat sy gesmeek het om deur Zeus aangeneem te word. Maak nie saak wat die storie is nie, sy het nooit 'n regte ma nie.

Athena se geboorte is 'n desperate teologiese hulpmiddel om haar van matriargale toestande ontslae te raak, sê J. E. Harrison. Sy was die Godin van Wysheid, en die dogter van die Titaness wat dit basies verpersoonlik het. Deur haar alleen uit Zeus gebore te word, het dit mans gesag en mag gegee oor iets wat voorheen net 'n vroulike koninkryk was. Zeus het Metis ingesluk, en daarom het hy nie die wysheid verloor nie, maar dit deel van homself gemaak. Net so onderdruk die Achaeërs die Titan -kultus en sê wysheid is slegs by Zeus. Athena kan vry wees van die bande wat haar met 'n ma verbind het. Sy het geen lojaliteit aan 'n moederfiguur gehad nie. Dit het 'n groot rol gespeel. Sy beskryf haarself as 'n vrouehat, maar sou nie die rol kon vervul as sy 'n ma gehad het nie.


8. DIE GEBOORTE VAN ATHENA

IN 1484 het DIE ROMEINE CHRONICLER Stefano Infessura aangeteken dat 'n plaaslike skilder in hegtenis geneem is vir 'n eienaardige oortreding. Terwyl hy op 'n houer in die vesting van Orsini in Montegiordano gewoon het, het die kunstenaar 'n groot muurskildery uitgevoer waarin die militêre bedrywighede van graaf Girolamo en die pouslike leërs uitgebeeld word. Helderkleurige kampe en lewendige uitbeeldings van gevegte het die werk 'n visuele verrassing gemaak. Die pous het egter die skildery so aangegryp dat hy beveel het dat die jong man aangekeer en tereggestel moet word. Sommige waarnemers beweer dat die pous beledig is deur die feit dat die pouslike leërs in die botsings ondoeltreffend voorgekom het. Ander het meer kwaadwillig voorgestel dat die pouslike woede geprikkel is deur wat in die tent van die bevelvoerder aan die gang was: 'n vrou word amorus omhels deur 'n man wat die mangel en bruin mantel van 'n Franciskaanse broeder gedra het. 1 Uiteindelik is die gewraakte kunstenaar bevry na tien houe van die corda want, soos almal weet, "hy was 'n bietjie mal."

Infessura het hierdie klein staaltjie in sy dagboeke gegooi om die skindergeskinder te veroorsaak oor die gesin wat hy die meeste in Rome, die Riarios, gehaat het. Pous Sixtus was van die Franciskaanse orde, en Caterina was die vrou van die bevelvoerder van die pouslike leërs, sommige sou die suggestiewe klein vignet interpreteer as 'n verwysing na 'n verhouding tussen die pous en sy neef se vrou. Baie tydgenote het opgemerk dat die bejaarde pous die geselskap van die jong vrou geniet het, en dat dit geen wonder was nie, want sy was die mees bekwame en interessante van al sy skoonniggies. Verhale oor die spesiale guns wat Caterina by die pouslike hof gewen het, het selfs die ore bereik van mense wat nooit na Rome gekom het nie, waarvan een opgemerk het dat die magtigste vorste van Europa gou geleer het om hul versoeke uit te spreek deur die jong meisie wat by die pous sit voete, want "hy kon haar niks ontken nie." 2 Alhoewel daar geen bewyse is dat 'n verhouding ooit bestaan ​​het tussen die negentienjarige Caterina en haar agt-en-sestig skoonseun nie, was die idee van die sober Franciskaner wat deur sy neef se jeugdige bruid verlei is, omring in die soort tikkende fluisteringe wat vandag nog skinderrubrieke voed.

Die storieverteller Infessura het egter veel meer as vermaak in gedagte gehad. Hy was 'n vaste voorstander van 'n republiek in Rome en het die pousdom verag. Deur aan te dui en later openlik beskuldigings van seksuele wangedrag te maak, gebruik hy 'n antieke tema wat vir alle Romeine bekend is: die ontvoering van die heerser Menelaus se vrou, Helen, het die Trojaanse Oorlog begin, en die verkragting van die Romeinse matrone Lucretia het 'n onheil gespel vir die Etruskiese konings en die leër van Christelike maagde wat die dood bo oneer gekies het, het 'n rol gespeel in die ondergang van die Romeinse Ryk. Seksuele skandale kan koninkryke omverwerp en het byna altyd 'n onuitwisbare merk gelaat. Dat Sixtus inkom vir meer as sy redelike deel van onheilspellende gerugte, was deel van wat dit beteken om op 'n troon te sit. Dit het nie gehelp dat hy uit 'n onbekende familie kom nie, en is daarvoor versmaad. Sixtus IV, gebore as Francesco della Rovere in 1414, was 'n rariteit in die pousdom van die Renaissance: 'n selfgemaakte man. Kwaadwillige hofdienaars en politieke vyande sou beweer dat hy die seun van 'n Liguriese visserman was. Hy is trouens gebore uit 'n redelik welgestelde handelaarsgesin in Savona, 'n stad op die grens van die Republiek Genua en die hertogdom Milaan. Die tweede van sewe kinders, Francesco was van geboorte af bestem vir die kerk, en vanaf die oomblik dat hy by die Franciskaanse orde in 1428 aansluit, floreer hy in sy roeping. Op die ouderdom van vyf en twintig het hy reeds 'n reputasie gekry as 'n passievolle en oortuigende spreker. Vyf jaar later behaal hy sy doktorsgraad aan die gesogte Universiteit van Padua. Sy debatvaardighede en uitnemendheid in onderrig het hom spoedig onder die aandag gebring van die erudiete kardinaal Giovanni Bessarion, 'n dinamiese Griekse prelaat wat gedien het as die regterhand van pous Paulus II. Bessarion het die briljante jong Franciskaan oorgeplaas na die aartsbiskop van Perugia, waar hy as die persoonlike belydenis van die kardinaal gedien het.

Op vyftigjarige ouderdom is Francesco as generaal -generaal van die Franciskaanse orde aangestel. In 1467, weer deur die kantore van kardinaal Bessarion, het pous Paulus II hom as kardinaal aangestel. In teenstelling met baie adellike gesinne of welgestelde handelaars, het Francesco nie sy rooi hoed gewen in ruil vir kontant of grond wat hy verdien het deur sy vermoëns as teoloog en administrateur nie. Vier jaar nadat hy na Rome verhuis het, is Francesco della Rovere in 1471 tot pous verkies en het die naam Sixtus IV gekry. Die Vatikaan -kenners was verbaas dat 'n onbekende Franciskaan uit Ligurië kon uitstyg bo die talle kardinale wat by geboorte geheg is en die rang van die Italiaanse adel of diegene wat jare lange kriminele diens onder hul skarlakenraam gehad het. Jaloerse vermoede skryf sy sukses toe aan omkopery of bisarre seksuele gunste en alles behalwe verdienste. Maar Sixtus, 'n spaarsaam man met streng persoonlike gewoontes, was nie skuldig nie. Baie kardinale kiesers was beïndruk deur sy vermoëns. Onder die sterkste en invloedrykste ondersteuners van Sixtus was Caterina se pa, Galeazzo Maria Sforza, die hertog van Milaan. In 'n sekere sin is Caterina se lot bepaal op 9 Augustus 1471, die dag van die pouslike kroning.

Die nuwe pous het sy naam gekies ter ere van 'n roemryke voorganger, Saint Sixtus III, die vyfde-eeuse pous en teoloog wat oor die Nestoriaanse kettery by die Raad van Efese geseëvier het. Sixtus III was ook 'n bouer wat die mees elegante basiliek van Rome, Saint Mary Major, gebou het en 'n bekwame administrateur wat probeer het om 'n kerk wat deur ketterye verskeur is, te herenig.

Nadat hy slegs vier jaar voor sy verkiesing in Rome gewoon het, het Sixtus IV 'n ernstige nadeel gevind. Hy was onbekend met die meeste kerklikes in Rome en het min kennis gehad van die politieke alliansies wat plaaslike geslagte verbind het. Om dit reg te stel, het Sixtus lede van sy eie familie van Savona afgebring en hulle na hoë politieke en kritiese ampte gebring. Van die vier en dertig geestelikes wat hy tydens sy bewind as kardinale verhef het, was ses sy eie neefs. Die belangrike posisies van goewerneur van Rome en kaptein van die pouslike leërs is boonop aan ander familielede gegee. Die meeste van sy kardinaal -neefs het aan die lig gebring dat hulle skelm was, maar skandeer Rome met uitspattige bankette en vervolg. Pietro Riario het in twee jaar 300 000 dukate bestee as kardinaal en meer as die bedrag wat Sixtus vir die oorlog teen die Turke begroot het! Ander, soos Girolamo, spandeer nie net buitensporig nie, maar gebruik ook pouslike beskerming om die Romeine te boelie en af ​​te pers. Slegs kardinaal Giuliano della Rovere was waardig vir sy nuutgevonde aansien, en dien sy oom as erfenis van Avignon en probeer Girolamo van sy komplotte afraai om Lorenzo de 'Medici te vermoor.

Anders as die meeste van die pouse se familielede, het Girolamo se jong en pragtige vrou aan die verwagtinge voldoen. Caterina, goed opgelei, kon die moeite waardeer wat die pous gedoen het om die Vatikaanbiblioteek te skep. Na nege jaar van Sixtus se pontifikaat, spog die versameling met vyf-en-dertig honderd bundels, drie keer so groot as selfs die gevierde Medici-biblioteek. 3 Caterina lees ywerig en was veral geïnteresseerd in historiese en toegewyde literatuur. Verhale oor helde het haar wil versterk, terwyl verhale van heiliges haar gees ondersteun het. Sy het daarin geslaag om tyd te vind om te lees tussen haar pligte aan haar familie en die hof, waar haar hoofdaak was om by die een of ander familielid in te tree, soos versoek deur verskillende partye. Haar ingryping het verskeie Milanese mans van doodstraf in Rome gered en belangrike posisies vir Romeine in Milaan gekry. By een geleentheid kon sy selfs graaf Girolamo's besluit om 'n lid van die Manfredi -stam op te hang, omverwerp. 4 Talle briewe uit hierdie tydperk getuig van die invloed van die besige gravin.

Gedurende die meeste van haar jare in Rome was Caterina óf swanger óf herstel van die bevalling. Hierdie opsluitings het haar dikwels weerhou van haar geliefde buitelugaktiwiteite. Veral van 1479 tot 1481, toe sy drie kinders in twee jaar gehad het, het sy ure in die pouslike paleis deurgebring. Gedurende hierdie tydperk was Sixtus besig met sy mees ambisieuse dekoratiewe projekte. Die Sixtynse Kapel was pas voltooi, en binne die verbiedende vestingagtige baksteenmure het Sixtus 'n siklus van die mooiste muurskilderye ter wêreld voorgestel.

Die vervulling van die droom kom uit 'n verrassende kwartaal. In 1481 bied Lorenzo de 'Medici, ondanks Girolamo se moordpoging en Sixtus se grootmoed, 'n merkwaardige olyftak aan sy ou nemesis: die beste skilders uit sy eie kring om die kapel van die pous te versier. Rome was vol opgewondenheid in afwagting van die aankoms van die droomspan Florentynse kuns. Die elite -groep het Sandro Botticelli, skilder van die gevierde, ingesluit Geboorte van Venus Domenico Ghirlandaio, wat binnekort die jong Michelangelo as vakleerling sou ontvang en Pietro Perugino, die skepper van plegtige en waardige altaarstukke in Sentraal -Italië, en bestem was om die nog ongebore Raphael groot te maak. Die groot meesters het hul tekeninge voorberei en begin met die maak van fresco's in die kapel.

Die Florentynse skilders begin met drie panele rondom die altaar in 1481. Teen die tyd dat die siklus aan die einde van 1482 voltooi was, het dit veertien tonele uit die Ou Testament ingesluit, gesamentlik bekend as Die verhale van Moses, wat gepaard gaan met die Nuwe -Testamentiese reeks, Die Lewe van Christus hulle sal die pouslike hof sowel as toekomstige geslagte verbly. Bo hierdie panele het dieselfde kunstenaars die eerste twee-en-dertig Romeinse pouse uitgebeeld, die heilige voorgangers van Sixtus IV. Die gewelf het agt en twintig jaar later met goue sterre teen 'n lapishemel gespog, en Michelangelo sou dit verander Die verhale van Genesis. Die laagste verdieping van die kapel is geverf om te lyk soos tapisserieë wat verweef is met die wapen van die della Rovere -familie: 'n eikeboom en eikels. Die weelderige vergulding rondom die ryk bloedrooi en koringblommetjies weerspieël die pragtige liturgiese klere van die hof. Ander panele vier die prestasies van Sixtus IV.

Terwyl die kunstenaars werk, is hierdie plegtige liturgiese ruimte omskep in die warmste sosiale toneel in Rome. Courtiers vied to be immortalized in one of the frescoes. From crowned heads to the endless series of Riario relatives, notables flowed through the papal chapel, eager to be included, and many were. Numerous sovereigns grace the walls of the chapel. King Ferdinand of Naples (an ally at the moment) and the papal condottiere Federico di Montefeltro have pride of place in Christ Delivers the Keys to Saint Peter,while Charlotte, queen of Cyprus, whose island state had been taken by the Turkish fleet and who was living in exile in Rome, listens to Christ in The Sermon on the Mount. Members of the Italian intelligentsia are also showcased, from the papal secretary Andrea de Trebizond to Francesco Filefo, the former tutor of Caterina and her brothers. Even the canines of the court found a place in these splendid masterworks. One courtier managed to get his lapdog depicted in The Last Supper. The little terrier frolicking on its hind legs in Cosimo Rosselli's panel was the beloved pet of one of Sixtus's nobles.

Few visitors to the chapel would have overlooked the Turkish costume worn by the pharaoh in The Crossing of the Red Sea, placed to the left of the papal throne. Terror of the Ottoman Turks and their invincible fleet had salved political rifts throughout Europe. Since the rise of Mehmed II and his expansionist policies in the mid-fifteenth century, the Turks had snatched the Holy Land, Cyprus, and, most fatefully, Constantinople from the Christians. In this dramatic image, the waters of the Red Sea engulf soldiers in Turkish attire, while men in armor stand around Moses, representing the knights who fought to defend Otranto in the terrible battle that cost twelve thousand lives. Sixtus also paid homage to the man who had helped put him on the throne of Saint Peter he had a posthumous portrait of Cardinal Bessarion added to the picture. The snowy-bearded prelate carries a reliquary in memory of his own triumphal arrival in 1462 bearing the relic of Saint Andrew's head to Rome.

The most significant panels of the series were entrusted to the two most gifted painters, Botticelli and Perugino. The Delivery of the Keys, the image symbolizing Jesus' institution of the papacy, was assigned to Perugino, famous for the stateliness and dignity of his work. Botticelli was awarded the commission to paint the panel dearest to the pope, the one facing his throne. Although only two years earlier Botticelli had portrayed the members of the Pazzi conspiracy, including Archbishop Salviati, hanging indecently above the piazza after their execution, Sixtus now wanted the brilliant Florentine to execute the scene that would be peopled with members of his own family.

The Purification of the Leper en The Temptation of Christ was among the first four panels executed in the summer of 1481. In the background, Botticelli rendered several miniature scenes from the temptation of Christ the foreground features the high priest accepting the sacrifice offered by the leper whom Christ had healed. This is the only panel of the series where Jesus is absent from the principal scene. The priest's deep lapis robe laced with gold and his high tiara-like hat, with a single acorn on the summit, associate this noble figure with the pope and his authority to judge whether one is cleansed of sin. Santo Spirito, the hospital complex recently completed by Sixtus, dominates the image. This great gift to the city cared for both pilgrims to Rome and Romans themselves, all spiritual children of the pope. The striking fresco alludes to the pope's desire to heal the ills of both body and soul. By including this distinctively Roman building, Botticelli transported the scene out of first-century Galilee and placed it squarely in the Eternal City. Facing the papal throne stands Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, holding a white handkerchief to symbolize his elevated authority in the papal court. Directly behind the high priest Botticelli then placed Girolamo Riario, wearing the heavy gold chain that marked his important civic status. In this portrait, the count's fleshy face droops into the scowl fast becoming his most characteristic expression. The two papal nephews, already great rivals, face each other on either side of the high priest. 5 On the right, however, Botticelli inserted a single graceful female figure. Painted in the style of his Flora of The Primavera, she approaches like a gentle breeze. This figure can be recognized as Caterina, entering the sixth month of her pregnancy with her third child, Bianca. The lovely woman of the fresco wears her swollen belly easily, walking with a light step as her golden hair trails behind her. At the time the panel was painted, Caterina was busily preparing for her trip to Forlì. Botticelli seems taken not only with the beauty of the countess but also with her vibrant energy. The figure in the painting effortlessly carries firewood over her shoulder, perhaps an allusion to Caterina's industriousness despite the summer heat and her advanced pregnancy. At her feet, an infant bearing grapes recoils as a viper winds itself around his leg. Since the viper is the symbol of the Sforzas, this child could be Cesare, the one-year-old son of the Riarios.

Botticelli and Caterina may indeed have spent more time together during his stay in Rome. Several art historians have recognized Caterina in his portrait of Saint Catherine kept in the Altenburg Staatliches Museum. 6 The golden-haired woman in sharp profile represents Caterina's high position as well as her modesty as the wife of one of the most powerful men in Europe. This early portrayal of Caterina, noble, beautiful, yet turned away from the viewer, captures a young woman still dominated by her household and circumstances. Soon that phase of her life would come to an end.

Although their images in the Sistine Chapel suggest a glittering world free of cares and strife, the days of Riario glory were numbered. Sixtus was growing weaker. As the Romans realized that his papacy was drawing to a close, plans were laid to avenge Girolamo's extortions and outrages. The armed guards surrounding Caterina and her husband grew to a cumbersome and unruly number as Girolamo's fear of going out in public grew.

Girolamo exploited every minute of the waning papacy to extract as much money as possible from the College of Cardinals. Many of the churchmen capitulated to the count's demands. Joining forces with his nephew, Cardinal Raffaello Riario, who only a few years earlier had been the terrified Florentine prisoner in the wake of the Pazzi conspiracy, Girolamo ruled Rome from behind the now weak and aged pontiff. The Sienese ambassador Lorenzo Lanti warned his home republic that "the pope had put all the government in the hands of the count [Girolamo] and San Giorgio [Raffaello Riario]: temporal, spiritual, money, and everything." Lanti also noted that almost every judge in Rome was "ready to uphold their sentences." 7 Girolamo sold church offices, demanded immediate payments of up to a thousand ducats from papal employees to allow them to keep their jobs, and imposed random taxes. He had torn down and burned numerous houses in the course of his extortions, and stole reliquaries and missals. Girolamo's own relative Antonio Basso della Rovere had denounced the count from his deathbed before witnesses, accusing him of having "committed crimes that had scandalized the universe" and warning that "God's justice, which no human being can escape, would soon be on him." 8

Although most of Girolamo's accomplices were street thugs and ruffians, a few were brave, intelligent, and surprisingly loyal. Il Tolentino, the trusted governor of Forlì, had been recalled to Girolamo's side shortly after the Riarios returned to Rome. The count needed his acute ability to sniff out danger in the Curia, the governing body of prelates at the Vatican. A substitute for Il Tolentino in Forlì had been hastily chosen in the archbishop of Imola, a cruel and inept man who wrongfully punished the entire city for a supposed conspiracy by detaining all the citizens inside the city walls and forbidding the harvesting of grapes for wine, a major source of income to the town. The keeper of the citadel, Tommaso Feo, fearful of a full-scale revolt, sent word to Rome of the excesses of the archbishop. Il Tolentino leapt into the saddle and in three days and three nights of ceaseless riding returned to Forlì, where he was greeted with tears of joy from the grateful populace.

Girolamo's other trusted henchman was Innocenzo Codronchi, keeper of the Castel Sant'Angelo, the papal fortress of Rome. A citizen of Imola, Codronchi had proven his worth during the Battle of Campo Morto. In return, Girolamo gave him control of the most imposing building in Rome. The Castel Sant'Angelo had been built by the emperor Hadrian in the second century A.D. as a burial site for himself and future emperors. It didn't take long for the medieval Romans to realize that the building, a solid round drum of bricks and stone blocks, would make an impregnable fortress. Its strategic position across the Tiber from downtown Rome and its close proximity to the Vatican made its location decisive: the person who controlled the castle controlled Rome. The Castel Sant'Angelo (so named after the miraculous apparition of the archangel Michael in A.D. 590) protected the citizens of Rome until the eleventh century, when it was first used to detain political prisoners. In 1400, when the popes returned from Avignon, they assumed direct control of the fortress. With its high, thick walls, and its cannons trained on every part of the city, the Castel Sant'Angelo underwrote the papal insurance policy against internal revolt.

While Il Tolentino governed in Forlì and Codronchi resided in the castle, a new crony of Girolamo's appeared on Caterina's doorstep&mdashVirgilio, lord of Bracciano, head of the power-hungry Orsini clan. The new partnership between Girolamo and Virgilio would drag Rome into civil war.

Although an international peace of sorts had been gained by 1480, in Rome the perennial tensions between the Orsini and the Colonna families&mdashage-old rivals of the Roman aristocracy who had been feuding for centuries&mdashwere reaching the boiling point. Entire networks of Romans were tied to one or the other tribe, while the papacy teetered on a tightrope between the two. The hostilities between the Orsini and Colonna clans was one of the spurs that had goaded the popes to Avignon. Girolamo foolishly thought himself crafty enough to maneuver the situation to his advantage. In reality, Virgilio Orsini saw in the rapacious papal nephew a chance to bring about the downfall of his ancient enemy.

During the Salt War of 1482, when the duke of Calabria appeared outside Rome with his army, Sixtus called all of his Roman knights to his service. Virgilio Orsini hastened to obey but the Colonna, Savelli, and della Valle families refused, joining the duke and exploiting his military force to expropriate Orsini lands and expand Colonna holdings.

Although most of the noncombatant members of the Colonna clan took cover safely in their country estates, their allies were left to fend for themselves within the city walls. On April 3, 1482, the Santa Croce family, supporters of the Orsinis, spurred by Virgilio and assisted by Girolamo Riario's own soldiers, attacked the palace of the della Valles, staunch Colonna allies, with two hundred men. In the resulting fracas, a Colonna was killed.

Sixtus, desperately trying to restore calm, exiled the Santa Croce clan despite Girolamo's protection. He then razed their houses, hoping to eradicate the cancerous hatred of these clans by uprooting the family enclave. But Girolamo was implacable. On June 2, the count turned on members of the pope's cabinet, accusing Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, half brother to the murdered Colonna, as well as Cardinal Giovanni Battista Savelli of attempting to have him assassinated. Despite their high office as princes of the church, Girolamo insisted on their arrest. The first night of their imprisonment, they were housed in comfortable accommodations, which was Girolamo's sop to Sixtus, who protested the arrest but as soon as the elderly pope was distracted, the count transferred his prisoners to the dank cells of the Castel Sant'Angelo.

Now when Caterina walked through the papal apartments, she no longer heard the lilting Tuscan accents of the Florentine painters, the giggles of women posing for frescoes, and the spirited discourse of theologians and philosophers. Instead, the clang of armor resounded in the halls, as did the voices of the mercenary soldiers, speaking in mixed languages. At the door of the papal palace, as the diarist Sigismondo dei Conti described it, "soldiers stood with their swords unsheathed ready for battle. All the court was filled with pain and anguish and the exasperation of the people was kept in check by force of arms." 9 All of Caterina's intercessory powers were rendered useless, as the pope, failing in health, was no longer able to control his rampaging nephew. Sixtus's golden age of renewal was over. Girolamo was ushering in an age of iron.

Anticipating the pope's death and frantic to ensure the continued prosperity of his family, Girolamo purchased another house in 1483. Called "The Garden," it was deeded in the name of his four-year-old son, Ottaviano. This maneuver, Girolamo hoped, would protect the property from the many eager to retaliate once the count had lost his powerful benefactor.

In February 1483, Caterina and Girolamo hosted exceptionally flamboyant festivities for the Roman carnival. Together, she and Girolamo frequented the dances, races, and other amusements. Wine ran from fountains and tables groaned with food as the Riarios employed the ancient technique of bread and circuses to win favor in Rome. When the week of carousing was over, Caterina and Girolamo received ceremonial ashes and prepared to suffer the forty penitential days of Lent alongside their fellow Romans.

During the first sobering weeks of the season, Sixtus fell seriously ill. Convinced of the pope's imminent death, the College of Cardinals prepared to expropriate all of the Riario properties and titles while vengeful Romans made ready to sack and destroy Girolamo's home, erasing his decadelong stranglehold on the city.

The pope recovered, but Caterina and Girolamo had seen what awaited them in the absence of papal protection. Facing a formidable list of enemies, Caterina and her husband put aside their differences and stood united to protect their children's inheritance. In March, Sixtus appointed Caterina's uncle Ascanio Sforza as cardinal, giving the Sforzas another friend in the Curia. In June they left for Forlì once again, most likely bringing the rest of the most valuable Riario possessions with them. Cart after cart transported children, furniture, and cash far from the hands of the vindictive Romans and into the well-protected fortresses of their own dominions. They returned in November and Girolamo set about making his last play in Roman politics. A month later Caterina was again with child.

Despite the pope's precarious health and the Riarios' concerns for their future, Girolamo, instead of shoring up alliances, continued to provoke difficulties and divisions. In 1484 he began open war with the Colonna family, ostensibly for their treason during the Battle of Campo Morto. With the assistance of Virgilio Orsini, he occupied Colonna lands surrounding Rome, but his sights were set on Paliano and Marino, the largest of the Colonna fortresses. To that end, Girolamo demanded that the pope summon Lorenzo Colonna, lord of Marino and protonotary of the church, to answer the accusations against him. On May 30, Girolamo brought two hundred men to the Colonna house near the Piazza Venezia, where a brutal skirmish ensued, lasting two hours and leaving several dead. Wounded in the hand, Lorenzo Colonna wisely surrendered to Virgilio. According to Infessura, Girolamo, half mad with rage, tried repeatedly to stab the protonotary as he was taken to the Castel Sant'Angelo and threatened him: "Oh you traitor, you traitor, I'll hang you as soon as we get there." 10 The only obstacle separating Lorenzo from Girolamo and his dagger was Virgilio Orsini, who kept the crazed count at bay.

The Colonna houses were sacked and pulled down, together with the palaces of the Savellis. Books, artworks, and other treasures of the family that had produced Pope Martin V and returned the papacy to Rome were stolen or destroyed. Dust and smoke arose at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, where the buildings lay in ruin.

An ambassador for the Colonna family sought an audience with the count to beg for the release of Lorenzo, offering in return the strongholds of Marino and Ardea. Girolamo's greed, however, would no longer be sated with only two of their properties. "I will take all of their fortresses by storm!" he declared before putting the hapless messenger to death. 11

Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, a neighbor of the Colonna family, pleaded during a family council for the pope to end this persecution. Girolamo, he warned, would "burn down God's church, and completely ruin it" by causing this strife and turmoil. Girolamo turned on his cousin, shouting that "rebels and enemies of the church are in his house!" and accusing him of treason. Cardinal Giuliano protested to their uncle, but there was nothing the ailing pope could do to keep Girolamo in check. "I'll burn you in your own house!" 12 Girolamo said, threatening Giuliano before the entire court and vowing that Giuliano's property would meet the same end as that of his friends. Count Riario thus succeeded in alienating the most powerful member of his own family.

Girolamo Riario completed his revenge against the Colonnas on Rome's most important feast day, June 29, the solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul. Lorenzo Colonna, unrecognizable after a month's imprisonment, was dragged out into the courtyard of the Castel Sant'Angelo. Wrapped in a tattered cape, he nonetheless maintained his noble mien as he repudiated the confession extracted from him under torture, expressing more concern for his friends than for his own reputation. Lorenzo sent his blessings to Pope Sixtus before approaching the executioner's tripod and laying his head upon it. Then the blow was struck. Lorenzo Colonna was no more.

When his body was returned to the family, they opened the coffin and discovered the extent of Girolamo's cruelty. Lorenzo's severed head was crowned with a red beret, a cruel joke. During imprisonment he had been suspended with weights attached to his feet until his arms became dislocated, and his feet had been ripped and cut. His thighs had been sliced and his knees sprained. Girolamo had ensured that every moment of the last month of this man's life had been excruciatingly painful.

The next day Girolamo sent his henchmen to destroy the Colonna vineyard behind the wrecked palace. While the trellises were being pulled up, several beams were taken out of Cardinal Giuliano's veranda, no doubt an act of petty vengeance on the part of the count.

Although numerous chroniclers recount the horrific actions of Girolamo, they remain silent regarding the countess. Sidelined by her husband's madness and her papal protector's weakness, she remained by the side of the aged pontiff, comforting him as he helplessly watched Girolamo cast a shadow over his pontificate.

Rome suffered through the summer of 1484. Girolamo and the Orsinis were devastating the countryside, besieging all the Colonna lands. Within the city, Girolamo's reign of terror had everyone from cardinals to cobblers trembling behind closed doors. On August 7, word reached Rome of a new treaty involving Naples, Florence, Milan, Ferrara, and Venice but excluding Pope Sixtus. In response to this political humiliation, Sixtus failed fast. On August 11, the articles of the agreement were brought to Rome and the pope read with pain that not one of the stipulations he presented to the negotiators was included. The next day he died. Upon Sixtus's death, thirteen years of pent-up rage exploded. Roman mobs raced to the Riarios' house and tore it down. The elegant columns with the intricate capitals, the delicate frescoes, the wooden furniture, and even the door and shutters were removed and shattered. The rioters even took out the lead water pipes and troughs in the stables, crying, "Colonna, Colonna!" The protonotary Lorenzo was avenged. The Romans then sacked the Riarios' farmhouse at the Castel Jubileo, about ten miles outside the city, and their supplies and livestock&mdasha hundred cows, a hundred goats, several pigs and chickens, the stock of Parmesan cheese, and a supply of Greek wine&mdashswelled the local pantries.

Caterina was with Girolamo at the Orsini camp near Paliano. She had been moved out of the city in July to ensure her safety, should the pope die. Despite her popularity among the Romans, their wrath against Girolamo made her a potential target for revenge. But instead of cowering behind her husband's soldiers, Caterina responded to the news of Sixtus's death and the resulting reprisals with daring action. Girolamo, ostensibly obeying the order of the College of Cardinals to cease hostilities with the Colonnas at once, left Paliano and with Virgilio Orsini made his way toward the Ponte Molle, just outside Rome. The Colonnas and Savellis were pouring back into the city, and soon it would be a deathtrap for the hated Riario count. With the Colonnas influencing the College of Cardinals and Girolamo unable to enter Rome to demand his rights, the Riario family stood to lose everything gained during Sixtus's pontificate. Caterina leapt into the saddle and rode toward Rome, accompanied only by Paolo Orsini. A seven-month-pregnant noblewoman, she had a better chance of being let through the city defenses than any other member of the Riario faction. Caterina didn't go to the papal palace to find the cardinals, however. She headed straight to the papal fort of Castel Sant'Angelo. As dusk fell on August 14, Caterina marched up the ramp to the castle and assumed control of it, and thereby the city. Pointing the cannons toward all access roads to the Vatican, she cut the cardinals off from the ecclesiastical nerve center. Caterina's decisive action threw the College of Cardinals into an uproar. While they debated moving their meetings to another palace out of the reach of the castle's artillery and argued over who should talk to the countess, Caterina was girding herself for war by dismissing all the senior keepers of the castle, including Innocenzo Codronchi, who had been personally appointed by her husband as the lieutenant of the fortress. Although he was devoted to Girolamo, Caterina refused to have him within the castle walls. This gesture has perplexed historians some speculate that she distrusted everyone and wanted to be the only person in the fort with the authority to give orders, and others surmise that perhaps she had overheard seditious words from this ostensibly faithful retainer. Another possibility is that she wanted to act free of her husband's influence. Innocenzo would have done as the count wished, and Girolamo, without the backing of the pope, might be feeble in pressing his own claims and look for a quick compromise. As things stood, Girolamo was issuing empty threats from the safety of the Orsini camp, claiming that he would intervene with his army if any of the cardinals he hated was elected pope. The cardinals could easily dismiss Girolamo, but Caterina knew they would have to take her cannons seriously. The only hope to save her family's fortunes was to force the cardinals into recognizing the Riarios' titles and properties before they elected a new pope.

On the ramparts of the castle, the vivacious darling of the court showed herself to be a fierce warrior. In response to demands that she turn over the fortress, Caterina declared that Pope Sixtus had made her husband responsible for the castle and that she would turn it over only to the next pope. Electing his successor was easier said than done, however, since Caterina's cannons kept the cardinals from crossing the bridge to reach the Sistine Chapel, the designated site of the conclave.

On August 17, a lonely funeral took place for Sixtus IV. Only eleven cardinals attended, since many of the others, including Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, were terrified of approaching the Vatican precinct while the castle remained in Caterina's hands. As was the case when her father died, Caterina never had the chance to bid farewell to the remains of this man who had welcomed her so warmly and cherished her during her years in Rome.

The day after the funeral, a messenger came to the fort bearing a letter from Girolamo's nephew Cardinal Raffaello Riario. The frightened rabbit of the Pazzi conspiracy now held the position of camerlengo, which meant he was in charge of organizing the conclave to elect Sixtus's successor. As a close relative, he took it upon himself to soothe the feisty countess. Distrustful, Caterina allowed only one person to accompany Cardinal Riario's envoy inside to present the missive. When the go-between balked at Caterina's conditions for the meeting, she fixed her interlocutors with a fiery eye and declared, "So he wants a battle of wits with me, does he? What he doesn't understand is that I have the brains of Duke Galeazzo and I am as brilliant as he!" 13 Caterina's first recorded spoken words, unlike those found in her dutiful epistles, reveal the proud Sforza warrior spirit that had long lay dormant in the Riario household. Stunned by her audacity, the cardinals retreated once again.

Anarchy was always a danger during the interregnum, the period between the death of a pope and the election of his successor. Without a reigning head of state, rioting, looting, and the settling of old scores were the norm. Adding to the general chaos of the sede vacante was the Colonna family back in Rome with two hundred soldiers and more grievances. The Orsinis were stationed near the Vatican. With the Castel Sant'Angelo in the hands of the Riarios, Rome became a battleground.

Desperate, on August 23 the College of Cardinals came to an agreement with Girolamo, offering him eight thousand ducats to pay his soldiers, provided he retreat immediately from Rome. They promised an indemnity for his lost property, an ongoing role as captain of the papal armies, and the continued lordship of Forlì and Imola. Girolamo, content with the cardinals' promises, made ready to leave. Caterina did not.

The next night, Caterina smuggled 150 more soldiers into the castle. After all her years at court she had little faith in the promises of men like Roderigo Borgia or Raffaello Riario. She planned to wait out the conclave and then deal directly with the next pope. The cardinals were infuriated by this new development and put pressure on Girolamo to end the trouble, threatening to revoke their agreement. Girolamo, having received cash and a few promises, was getting ready to leave Rome, and Caterina found herself publicly abandoned and humiliated by the husband whose property she had just saved. 14 In the heat of August in the swampy area of the castle, Caterina was feeling the weight of her pregnancy and was frequently unwell. Bribes and threats could not move her, but a husband's betrayal and an impending delivery did.

On the evening of August 25, Caterina's uncle Cardinal Ascanio Sforza came to the castle accompanied by eight cardinals. They treated her with the utmost respect, promising to care for her and her family and allowing her to keep her escort of 150 men as she left Rome. They also confirmed in writing and before witnesses that the lands of Imola and Forlì belonged to the Riario family.

The next morning, the drawbridge of the Castel Sant'Angelo was lowered and Romans and visitors alike crowded around to see this extraordinary woman, who had held the College of Cardinals at bay for eleven days. The pretty little favorite of Pope Sixtus had commandeered a castle to defend her family's rights, something worthy of legend and song. Although she was pale from illness and exhaustion, and heavily pregnant, her beauty still impressed the onlookers. She wore a brown silk dress with a long train and a feathered black velvet cap. But she had added a new touch to her elegant attire. A man's belt, heavy with a coin purse and sword, hung from her hips. Surrounded by foot soldiers and cavalry and framed by a forest of lances, "she was feared, because that woman with the weapons in her hands was proud and cruel." 15 Riding off to her new life in Forlì, she resembled less the delicate subject of Botticelli's portraits and more the powerful women who would appear in Michelangelo's painting in the Sistine Chapel.


Other Names

Athena is considered Zeus's most powerful child. She is the patron goddess of arts and crafts, like metalworking and weaving. As goddess of wisdom, she offered wise counsel and helped promote civilization, law, order and justice. Athena inspired artists to produce the finest arts. The Athenians believed her to be resourceful and having forethought and memory. She is an extension of Zeus's role as god of humans.

As goddess of war, Athena did not advocate mindless violence. Instead she was involved in battle stratagems, superior troops, courage, strength, skills and weapons. She granted victory to those who deserved it.

She is also a patron of heroes like Heracles, Perseus and notably Odysseus. Athena had a dark side though. She was full of hubris and arrogance and couldn't stand it if someone dared to prove her inferior. She is also vengeful and held grudges against Poseidon and Ares. While Athena feared Poseidon, she loathed Ares and once defeated him soundly.


Athenahealth

Athenahealth (stylized as athenahealth) is a private American company that provides network-enabled services for healthcare and point-of-care mobile apps in the United States.

The company was founded in 1997 in San Diego and is now headquartered in Watertown, Massachusetts. They have also grown to include operational sites in Belfast, Maine, Atlanta, Georgia, Austin, Texas, Burlington, Vermont, Seattle, Washington, Princeton, New Jersey, with international operations in Chennai, Bangalore, and Pune, India. [2]


Kyk die video: Athena the Goddess of Wisdom: Best Myths - Greek Mythology - See U in History (Desember 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos